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  • 151.
    Bülow, Emilia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    ”Om förebygga är att förhindra, så misslyckas vi hela tiden”: En studie om brottsförebyggande arbete i Karlstad2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här är en kvalitativ studie i vilken både intervjuer och dokumentanalys genomförts för att på ett övergripande sätt studera de brottsförebyggande verksamheter och instanser som finns och verkar i Karlstad. Syftet har varit att presentera en bild av de samlade verksamheterna utifrån kriminologiska begrepp. En analys av arbetssätten samt organisationernas ideologi har utförts för att problematisera och diskutera organisationernas utgångspunkter och ideologi så som syn på samhället, människan och framför allt förklaringar till brottslighet. Analysen har primärt grundats i kriminologiska begrepp om brottsförebyggande samt Rolf Lidskogs analys av det brottsförebyggande programmet. Detta har resulterat i en slutsats som visar att det i det brottsförebyggande arbetet i Karlstad finns olika föreställningar och ideologier om samhället och människan, men de delar en uppfattning om att brottets orsak är socialt betingad, det vill säga ett resultat av socialisationsprocesser och normer. 

  • 152.
    Camén, Linnéa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Näslund, Lena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Får jag lov?: En kvalitativ studie om införandet av en dansaktivitet på en arbetsplats.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats har varit att fördjupa oss i respondenternas individuella upplevelse av dans, genom att införa dans som en morgonrutin på deras arbetsplats. Skulle individerna uppleva en personlig skillnad och skulle de kunna ta med sig denna upplevelse in i  arbetsdagen? Den vetenskapliga forskningsmetod som använts i denna uppsats har varit den kvalitativa metoden och som urvalsmetod har vi använt ett bekvämlighetsurval. Som insamlingsmetod har vi använt oss utav kvalitativa intervjuer utifrån en tematiserad intervjuguide. De genomförda intervjuerna har spelats in och transkriberats i sin helhet. Vid analysen av empirin har vi kunnat dra paralleller till den symboliska interaktionismen och interaktionsritualer.

        Resultatet som vi kom fram till var att dansen har en positiv inverkan på de sociala relationerna, den fysiska energin och deltagarnas humör. Det har även en inverkan på deras arbetsdag på så sätt att deltagarna kände sig inneha mer energi till att ta tag i arbetsdagen.

  • 153.
    Cannerstad, Christian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Barns fysiska aktivitet på fritiden- ett uppdrag för idrottsläraren?: En kvalitativ studie om hur idrottslärare i grundskolan tänker kring sitt arbete och hur de motiverar elever till fysisk aktivitet på fritiden2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study applied a qualitative approach in form of nine semi-structured interviews as appropriate selection. This mean that the participants would be working as sports teacher at low and middle schools, had a proper sports teacher education, and that they have worked at least one year. The purpose of this study was to investigate how sports teachers working within younger elementary school perceives their own work of motivating students to continue physical activity on their leisure time. Data were processed and analyzed using a thematic analysis. The two themes analyzed were "adapted education" and "Integration of leisure in teaching". The results revealed that participants actively worked with motivating students to continue physical activity on their leisure time. They adapt teaching at group and individual level in terms of feedback, adaptation of lessons, and influence teaching. Furthermore, the results also suggests that participants get in leisure time in teaching, through activities such as sports clubs, technology, and trends that are popular for students.

  • 154. Carlander, Otto
    et al.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Uni- and bimodal threat cueing with vibrotactile and 3D audio technologies in a combat vehicle2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 155. Carlander, Otto
    et al.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Kindström, Mattias
    Horizontal localisation accuracy with COTS and professional 3D audio display technologies2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 156. Carlander, Otto
    et al.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Oskarsson, Per-Anders
    Handling uni- and multimodal threat cueing with simultaneous radio calls in a combat vehicle setting2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 157.
    Carlsson, Axel C.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Ctr Family Med, Huddinge, Sweden.;Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Sci Mol Epidemiol & Sci Life, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Starrin, Bengt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Gigante, Bruna
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Div Cardiovasc Epidemiol, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Leander, Karin
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Div Cardiovasc Epidemiol, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hellenius, Mai-Lis
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp Solna, Stockholm, Sweden..
    de Faire, Ulf
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Div Cardiovasc Epidemiol, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Cardiol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Financial stress in late adulthood and diverse risks of incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in women and men2014In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, article id 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Financial stress may have adverse health effects. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether having a cash margin and living alone or cohabiting is associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. Methods: Representative population-based prospective cohort study of 60-year-old women (n = 2065) and men (n = 1939) in Stockholm County, Sweden. National registers were used to identify cases of incident CVD (n = 375) and all-cause mortality (n = 385). The presence of a cash margin was determined in the questionnaire with the following question: Would you, if an unexpected situation occurred, be able to raise 10 000 SEK within a week? (This was equivalent to US$ 1250 in 1998). Results: Compared with cohabiting women with a cash margin, the risk of all-cause mortality was higher among cohabiting women without a cash margin, with hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.97 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-3.66). Using cohabiting men with cash margin as referent, single men without a cash margin were at an increased risk of both incident CVD and all-cause mortality: HR 2.84 (95% CI 1.61-4.99) and 2.78 (95% CI 1.69-4.56), respectively. Single men with cash margins still had an increased risk of all-cause mortality when compared with cohabiting men with a cash margin: HR 1.67 (95% CI 1.22-2.28). Conclusions: Financial stress may increase the risks of incident CVD and all-cause mortality, especially among men. Furthermore these risks are likely to be greater in men living in single households and in women without cash margins. Living with a partner seems to protect men, but not women, from ill-health associated with financial stress due to the lack of a cash margin.

  • 158.
    Carvajal Herrera, Dennis
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Hur påverkas studenters prestation i läsförståelse av klassisk musik i dur och moll?: Ett laboratorieexperiment2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there was a difference on the students’ performance in a reading comprehension test ( TISUS ), depending on the tone (major or minor) of the classical music they were listening to.The survey was conducted as a laboratory experiment in a study-room at the University of Karlstad, based on an independent between-group design. The selection was an opportunity sample of students (N = 26), between the ages 19-33, within the University of Karlstad. The independent variable was the classical music composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, which was divided into the two different tones, major and minor. The dependent variable was the student's performance in reading comprehension. The participants performed a reading comprehension test, consisting of three texts with all its questions to answer on, and background questions and an evaluation of the experiment. The results showed that students who listened to classical music, with the tone of major, performed better in the reading comprehension test. The conclusion is that the impact of the tones major and minor differs on the students’ performance in reading comprehension.

  • 159.
    Christensson, Jenny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Sökande efter mening och identitet - upplevelser i samband med pensionering: En explorativ studie med pensionärers egna berättelser som grund.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a qualitative study aiming to examine peoples’ experiences when retiring. In that purpose a criteria based sample has been used, participants have been asked in that they fulfilled the criteria’s to be a retiree within the age of 65 to 71 years of age. The reason of the age criteria was that the experiences should not be so far away in time. Data has been collected through 11 semi-structured interviews which has been recorded and transcribed ongoing during the collecting of data. Thematic analysis was used as a method of analysis under the premise that it is a flexible method which leaves room for interpretation if adequate depth exists in the material. Four overall themes emerged through the analysis, these are life changes, to leave work, demands changes and last chapter – hope or despair. The themes are founded in retirees’ own stories about their experiences and describes de different aspects of retiring which the respondents has gone through. A deeper analysis of the result gave that the central factors of the experiences is about searching for meaningful activities as a replacement for work and thereby finding a sense of meaning in life. It is also about searching for identity in the new role as a retiree. All together is a lack of meaning in life and uncertainty regarding the own identity reasons for experiencing existential anxiety, coping strategies are used to restore the imbalance sprung from retiring. With this in mind the process is also run through by a positive feeling of freedom in the new situation of being a retiree. The study finishes by proposing future research and applications, there underlying causes for the differences in the experiences and the production of a model over the process in retiring are the main proposals.

  • 160.
    Christensson, Julia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Ekman Jörkander, Natali
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    "De två nyaste blev sjukskrivna": En kvalitativ studie om socialarbetares arbetsmiljö och utmaningar under de första yrkesverksamma åren.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has been conducted with the aim of examining the work situation of newly graduated social workers. This to create an understanding of the challenges they face at work and how they handle them. The requirements-control-support model and coping were used to analyze the empirical data, reflecting the high workload and different strategies of the social workers. Furthermore, has previous research in the field as a social worker ́s demanded work environment, tools for managing the work environment and consequences of it been analyzed and used in the study. The result showed that there is a link between a good introduction and the experience of a good working environment. The respondents, whose experiences of a poor introduction, expressed a feeling of high workload and stress. At the same time stress experiences vary as respondents show different methods for managing their work situation. Descriptions have been given of the workplaces preventive work to create a good working environment and respondent ́s experiences of the collegial support. Furthermore, their sense of inadequacy was apparent to clients.

  • 161.
    Cutcliffe, John R.
    et al.
    Univ Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada.;Univ Coimbra, P-3000 Coimbra, Portugal.;Univ Malta, Msida, Malta..
    Hummelvoll, Jan Kare
    Buskerud & Vesybld Univ Coll, Buskerud, Norway..
    Granerud, Arild
    Hedmark Univ Coll, Elverum, Norway..
    Eriksson, Bengt G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Mental Health Nurses Responding to Suffering in the 21st Century Occidental World: Accompanying People in Their Search for Meaning2015In: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, ISSN 0883-9417, E-ISSN 1532-8228, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 19-25Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of contemporary health and mental health practice pays little attention to suffering, and when it does, invariably suffering is conflated with pain. Within such views, the health care practitioner ought to be concerned with removing or stopping the suffering as, for many parts of the occidental world at least, suffering is regarded as antagonistic to the pursuit of happiness. However, it has been recognized since ancient times that the experience of suffering can give rise to growth. This view sees suffering as an inevitable aspect of the human condition and experience; as something that might need to be endured, minimized, relieved, explored for meaning and maybe even learned from. The former conceptualization of suffering leaves little, if any, room for the sufferer to be to be proud of his suffering and to consider it ennobling rather than degrading, and such views are highly congruent with the increased pathologizing of 'everyday life' and with that, the inexorable proliferation of pharmacological treatment'. Accordingly, we assert that there is a clear need for Psychiatric/Mental Health nurses to re-think their views of suffering and consider how they might help the person discover meaning in the experience; how they might accompany the individual on his/her suffering journey. We therefore identify a range of approaches and interventions that Psychiatric/Mental Health nurses can use when attempting to help those experiencing mental health-related suffering. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 162.
    Dahlberg, Elin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Affekter och flow i dans: En experimentell undersökning om affekter och flow i dans2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftade till att testa effekterna av dans på kortsiktigt affektivt välmående samt flow hos unga kvinnor. Vidare var syftet att se om det finns någon skillnad mellan dansstilarna balett och improvisation med avseende på dessa variabler. Ett fältexperiment genomfördes med en mixed design där Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale – PANAS delades ut för att mäta positiva och negativa affekter före och efter improvisationslektioner samt balettlektioner i dans. För att mäta grad av upplevd flow delades även Flow Short Scale ut efter danslektionerna. Resultatet visade en signifikant huvudeffekt för både positiva och negativa affekter med en ökning av de positiva och en minskning av de negativa under lektionen. Ingen signifikant interaktionseffekt eller effekt av grupp uppkom. Vad gäller grad av upplevd flow under lektionen fanns inga signifikanta skillnader mellan grupperna. Slutsatsen blev att dans kan förbättra kortsiktigt affektivt välmående hos unga kvinnor. Eftersom ett tydligt samband mellan positiva affekter och flow uppkom finns möjligheten att upplevelsen av flow kan förklara det ökade affektiva välmåendet. Skillnader mellan balett och improvisationsdans är svåra att uttala sig om på grund av avsaknad av lärare under balettlektionerna samt ett litet deltagarantal. Eftersom välmående bland befolkningen är en förutsättning för att samhället ska fungera är resultatet av vikt på en samhällsnivå, vilket skulle kunna innebära att samhället bör öppna upp för dans inom olika områden, till exempel i skolan. Vidare forskning behöver dock genomföras kring dans i relation till välmående för att få en klarare bild av detta samband.

  • 163.
    Dahlman, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Jensen, Emma
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Att sakna sysselsättning: - Socialarbetarens erfarenheter av att möta klienter som saknar sysselsättning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract The aim of this paper was to study social workers experience of working with clients that do not have an occupation or who have earlier lacked an occupation and the subsequent work towards change. This study was conducted with a qualitative method. The empirical data is based on five interviews with professional social workers and the result has been analyzed based on systematic theory. The analysis resulted in four different themes; working methods, the process of change, obstacles in the change process and distinctive groups. The result show that the social workers use a variety of working methods in their daily work with clients, such as motivational-, goal-oriented-, empathetic working methods, different kinds of treatment work and by creating a good work alliance with the client. Obstacles that the social workers experience in their work with clients towards change include inadequate cooperation, shame, resources, and the client's negative attitude. The result also show that the respondents of the study agree that participation and a perceived meaningfulness of the client are crucial for the outcome of the work. Another thing that appears in the result is the presence of groups of individuals who are distinguished regarding certain topics. These groups of individuals may be more difficult to motivate than other individuals within the target group or there may be circumstances surrounding the individual, such as alcohol or drug abuse, which makes it difficult to achieve a change. Our conclusion is that the key to successful change is communication and participation. A positive consequence of the client's involvement in (part of) the decision making during the change process means that he or she experiences a sense of meaning with what is happening, which proved to be very important for a successful outcome of the work. Keywords: occupation, mental health, systematic theory

  • 164.
    Dalsborn, Sabina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Att uppleva konst som buller.: Atonal musik som verktyg för träning av selektiv uppmärsksamhet i kanpen mot bullerrelaterad stress.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Noise related stress and its consequences affect people regardless of age and is a problem that increases constantly. Among different treatments, music appers to be a common feature with a clear dominance of tonal genre among the receptive methods. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether negative emotions and negative cognitive assessments elicited by stimulus atonal music can be positively affected through organized selective attention directed towards individual sound elements. To confirm that atonal music can be understood as a synonym for the noise of an average listener, and because of a lack of relevant research, a pilot study was carried out with 30 participants. The main study included data collection from another 37 participants. Repeated measurements were collected over the Internet as self-reported studies and analyzed using analysis of variance (mixed-ANOVA) and t-tests. Results have shown that it is possible, with the aid of selective attention, to affect and reduce negative emotions and cognitions induced by atonal music. It is suggested that both conventional opinions about atonal music and its sound characteristics create the opportunity to use this form of art to promote successful stress management during exposure to auditory stimuli.

  • 165.
    Danielsen, Micela
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstads Universitet.
    Attityd till högre utbildning på universitet/högskola och studieengagemang bland gymnasieelever på bruksort2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined high school students’ attitudes to higher education at university/college and their study engagement in an industrial town in klarälvdalen in the county of Värmland. The main research question was whether there are any differences between students in vocational and theoretically oriented programs regarding their attitude to higher education and study engagement. The results was also compared with a study with the same research question conducted in Countryside town in fryksdalen, Värmland county to see whether attitude and student engagement differ between high school students in different parts of Värmland. The method used was quantitative with data collected by using questionnaires. The sample consisted of 107 upper secondary students where 55 students studied in the theory-based programs and 52 students were students in vocational programs. The results show that it is different in attitude factor 1(Views on likelihood of attending university), 2 (Likelihood of friends attending university) and 3 (Family attending university) between the vocational program and theoretically driven program. In study engagement differs factor 4 (aspirations and goal) between the two approaches. In the comparison between the regions there is a difference in attitude factor 2 (Likelihood of friends attending university) and factor 3 (Family attending university).

    Conclusions that can to be drawn using the results of the study which were that vocational high school students in each city in the klarälvdalen and fryksdalen estimated lower factors for attitude and engagement that these students' engagement could possibly be strengthened in order to achieve a desirable attitude to higher education at university / college.

     

  • 166.
    Denise, Gustafsschöld
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Stereotyper kring hundägare: En studie om stereotyper avseende svenska hundägare2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stereotypes are common ways for human beings to simplify and facilitate situations they face in their surroundings. Despite the advantages of simplyfied living, stereotypes could lead to negative consequences, such as discrimination or exclusion. 

    This study investigated Swedes ideas regarding typical owners of five different dog breeds (labrador, poodle, pitbull, dachshund and chihuahua). The aim of the study was to examine whether stereotypes exist regarding swedish dog owners, and if these stereotypes differ between dog owners and non dog owners. 

    The study was performed using a questionnaire which was posted om Facebook. 120 persons participated, 27 men and 93 women. The participants were between 18 and 60 years old (mean=29,6 Sd=9,6). Each participant was asked to answer several questions regarding their idea of typical dog owners of the five breeds, and then grade how well they agreed to twelve statements regarding acceptance of stereotypes in general. At the end of the questionnaire, the participant answered background questions such as age, gender, level of education, if they themselves were dog owners and their attitude towards dogs in general.  

    The results show that stereotypes exist in great extent regarding the appearance of owners to different breeds. There was not much difference between the two groups when it came to stereotypical thinking. 

    Regarding acceptance for stereotypes in general this study showed that the participants show a low degree of acceptance, which is interesting because they at the same time showed stereotypical thinking when they answered the questions about the different breeds. 

    This study has shown that stereotypical thinking most likely occurs regarding owners of certain breeds. To sensitize stereotypes occurrence may be an important aspect to reduce the risk of further stereotypes.

  • 167.
    Devitt, Maria
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Nilsson, Niclas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Barns Möjligheter att Medverka och Påverka: En kvalitativ studie om socialsekreterares erfarenheter av barns delaktighet i barnavårdsutredningar2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate children's participation in child welfare investigations. Six interviews were conducted with social workers who are active in child welfare investigations, to understand social workers experiences of children's involvement in investigations. The results show that children are not always involved or as involved as they should, for different reasons. The child's age, the child's ability to communicate, the child's attitude to cooperation, the guardian's attitude to cooperation, social workers prerequisites in terms of skills, tools and workload. Furthermore, the results show that children's best and social issues need to weigh heavier in child welfare investigations, as today there is a lot of focus on parents and guardians. This study aims to contribute knowledge of children's participation in child welfare research.

  • 168.
    Diana, Rama
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Sömnproblemet insomni för prediktion av subjektiv uppfattning av dysfunktionella föreställningar och tankar: En kvantitativ studie om sömnproblemet insomni och subjektiv uppfattning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine insomnia and to examine whether insomnia have any possible impact on individual´s subjective perception. The study was conducted through a quantitative survey which was constructed in the program Survey and Report, the completed questionnaire was then sent out to forums. The population studied were participants from the health care profession and a total of 147 participants took part. The participants' sleep problems were measured by a self-estimated sleep patterns based on the instrument ISI Insomnia Severity Index and the participant's cognitive ability was measured based on the measuring instrument DBAS 10- Dysfunctional belifs and attitudes about sleep. The study examined through a correlation and regression analysis. The results showed a positive correlation between insomnia and subjective perception. By regression analysis demonstrated a relatively low value of variance. The conclusion of the study is that insomnia is a common problem for individuals in health care occupation, and insomnia has an effect on subjective perception but there are other influencing factors which also play a role in the outcome.

  • 169.
    Dijkstra, Erika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Musikens effekt på kognitiva processer: Musiken som möjligt studiehjälpmedel2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose was to answer the question whether music has an effect or not, on students’ problem solving connected to different cognitive processes such as concentration/attention, creativity and logical thinking.

    An experiment was conducted where 30 university students were evenly distributed into two groups, one music group and one control group. The participants in the music group were tested in creativity, logical thinking and concentration through written tests while they were listening to music. The participants also rated their own impulsivity in order to discover any eventual differences between the groups that could affect the results. The control group did the same tests in silence.

    A significant result was discovered in one of the correlation tests. It was found that in the music group there was a correlation between impulsivity and concentration (r = .55, p= .04). A higher level of impulsivity in a participant resulted in more time completing the concentration. The result of the problem solving tests showed no significant differences between the music group and the control group. There were also no significant differences between the groups in connection to their impulsivity. And since there were no significant results, no conclusion can be drawn and the null hypothesis can’t be rejected. 

  • 170.
    Draxler, Helena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Project Support i svensk socialtjänst: En genomförbarhetsstudie av ett föräldrastödsprogram för våldsutsatta föräldrar och deras barn som utvecklat beteendeproblematik2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Project Support (PS) is a parenting programme that has been developed in the United States for mothers and children exposed to intimate partner and for their children with subsequent emotional and behavioural problems. The aim of this licentiate thesis is to explore how the programme was received by counsellors and parents in the context of Swedish social service, taking account of the differences between the countries.

    Two studies were conducted. In the first study (study I), counsellors (n 11) and mothers (n 13) from three municipalities and Sweden’s largest shelter were interviewed about their experiences of giving and receiving the parenting intervention. The interviews were separately analysed using thematic analysis and were unitised by a following synthesis. The results were grouped into six themes, which indicated initial doubts to the intervention, and doubts about the participants’ own capability. The themes also showed that working with PS led to an experience of positive change in children’s behaviour, as well as highlighted the need of competent counsellors and adaptation for cultural differences. The second study (study II) evaluated the effect of the intervention according to parents’ parenting capacity (n 35) and their children’s psychological symptoms (19 boys and 16 girls, mean age 6year). The results showed that the effectiveness of PS in Sweden can be sustained to almost the same extent as shown in previous studies done in the US. Primarily, the children’s emotional symptoms, conduct problems and hyperactivity decreased, and the parents behaved more positively with their children. The parents also experienced reduced helplessness and fear in their relationships with their children. There was also a covariance between the parents’ emotions (helplessness and fear) and the children’s conduct problems and hyperactivity as they decreased.

    The conclusions drawn in this licentiate thesis are first, that PS is a feasible parenting programme for parents exposed to intimate partner violence and their children who have developed emotional and behavioural problems, and second, that organisational conditions need to be met in order for the programme to be implemented in Swedish social services. 

  • 171.
    Draxler, Helena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Manuscript- The sustainability of effects when transferring a supportive programme for parents exposed to intimate partner violence and their children from the US to SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 172.
    Draxler, Helena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Replicability of effect when transferring a supportive programme for parents exposed to intimate partner violence and their children from the US to Sweden2019In: Child Care in Practice, ISSN 1357-5279, E-ISSN 1476-489X, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 367-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transferring an evidence-based parenting programme for parents exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) and their children with emotional and behavioural problems reveals the extent to which cultural and social aspects can interfere with the programme’s effectiveness. Feasibility studies are of value in such circumstances, and the aim of the present feasibility study was to explore, on a small scale and in its natural context, whether the effects of the parenting programme, Project Support, were replicable when transferred to another country. In this study, the programme, which was originally designed for parents exposed to IPV and their children who had developed psychological symptoms in the United States, was evaluated in an equivalent population receiving Swedish social services. Parents (n = 35) self-assessed their parenting capacity and their children’s (n = 35) psychological symptoms. The results indicate that the parents improved their parenting capacity, and feelings of helplessness and fear regarding parenting their children decreased. Those feelings were also associated with the children’s psychological symptoms. The promising results are similar to the findings of previous research from the US, and further implementation and evaluation of Project Support in Sweden are indicated.

  • 173.
    Draxler, Helena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    McDonald, Renée
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Manuscript- Counselors' and mothers' experiences of a parenting program for mothers exposed to intimate partner violence—A qualitative feasibility studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 174.
    Edberg, Therese
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Sambandet mellan arbetsengagemang och samvetsgrannhet: En enkätundersökning om kvinnliga undersköterskor i äldreomsorgen2018Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande studie undersökte sambandet mellan personlighetsdimensionen samvetsgrannhet och det organisationspsykologiska fenomenet arbetsengagemang hos kvinnliga undersköterskor i äldreomsorgen. Enkätundersökning omfattade 70 respondenter. Resultatetet visade på hög grad av samvetsgrannhet, medelnivå av vitalitet, medelnivå av försjunkenhet i arbetet, medelhög entusiasm samt medelhög arbetsengagemang som helhet hos respondenterna. Resultatet tyder också på ett medelstarkt positivt signifikant samband mellan samvetsgrannhet och vitalitet, samvetsgrannhet och försjunkenhet i arbetet samt samvetsgrannhet och arbetsengagemang som helhet. Inget signifikant samband visades mellan samvetsgrannhet och entusiasm. Följaktligen tyder resultatet på att respondenternas samvetsgrannhet kan ses som en resurs för att centrera deras energi på arbetet, som vidare bidrar till högre arbetsengagemang. Det medelhöga arbetsengagemanget som helhet är också betydelsefullt för att respondenterna ska uppleva arbetsrelaterade emotioner och kognitioner på ett positivt vis. Högt arbetsengagemang kan vidare ses som en motpol till utbrändhet. Slutsatsen är att hög samvetsgrannhet är en betydelsefull resurs för både medarbetare och deras arbetsgivare för att motverka utbrändhet som skulle kunna utvecklas av ett slitsamt arbete som undersköterskor i äldreomsorgen har.

  • 175.
    Edberg, Therese
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Sambandet mellan subjektivt välbefinnande och anknytningsmönster: En enkätundersökning om socionomstudenter i Sverige2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between subjective well-being and attachment style within social welfare students in a quantitative questionnaire survey. To measure subjective well-being the instrument Satisfaction With Life Scale was used. To measure attachment style the instrument Attachment Style Questionnaire was used. The data collection took place via the learning platform It's Learning and the website facebook as a cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 165 respondents. A standard method performed a multiple regression analysis. Based on a theoretical perspective, the interpretation of the result is that the variation in the attachment aspects trust and need of confirmation explain 30 per cent in total of the variation of subjective well-being among social welfare students. Possible interpretations based on the regression analysis are that subjective well-being increases if trust increases and need of confirmation is kept constant, and that subjective well-being decreases if need of confirmation increases and trust is maintained constant. Furthermore, the result showed that respondents are a bit satisfied with their lives. Being a bit satisfied is a positive direction of life satisfaction, which is above the level of being neutral (neither satisfied nor dissatisfied). The conclusion is that the respondents subjective well-being correlate with the attachment aspects trust and need of confirmation. As the respondents most common attachment styles were found to be anxious- ambivalent attachment or anxious-avoidant attachment, they may be in need of support and assistance to handle it. The support and assistance could be a security-creating relationship from a mentor or curator that could increase their trust. 

  • 176.
    Ede, Lena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Rantakeisu, Ulla
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Gränslöst arbete? Flexibel arbetstid i äldreomsorgen2015In: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 54-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rätten till heltid stöds av politiker och arbetsmarknadens parter för att undanröja det omfattande och ofrivilliga deltidsarbetet för äldreomsorgens personal. Arbetstidsmodeller med inslag av flexibel arbetstid möjliggör detta utan ökade kostnader för arbetsgivaren. För personalen innebär det att delar av såväl arbetstid som arbetsplats blir oförutsägbara. I studien analyseras följderna av denna omvandling ur arbetstagarperspektiv. Resultatet visar att priset för heltid är en organiserad osäkerhet med försämrade och oönskade arbetsvillkor.

  • 177.
    Ede, Lena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Rantakeisu, Ulla
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Managing Organized Insecurity: The Consequences for Care Workers of Deregulated Working Conditions in Elderly Care2015In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 55-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Part-time work is more than twice as common among women than men in Sweden. New ways of organizing working hours to allow for more full-time jobs have been introduced for care workers in elderly care, which means unscheduled working hours based on the needs of the workplace. The aim of the study is to analyze how the organization of the unscheduled working hours affect employees' daily lives and their possibility to provide care. The Classic Grounded Theory method was used in a secondary analysis of interviews with employees and managers in Swedish municipal elderly care. The implementation of unscheduled working hours plunged employees into a situation of managing organized insecurity. This main concern for the care workers involved a cyclic process of first having to be available for work because of economic and social obligations to the employer and the co-workers, despite sacrifices in the private sphere. Then, they had to be adaptable in relation to unknown clients and co-workers and to the employer, which means reduced possibilities to provide good care. Full-time jobs were thus created through requiring permanent staff to be flexible, which in effect meant eroded working conditions with high demands on employee adaptability. Solving the part-time problem in elderly care by introducing unscheduled working hours may in effect be counter-productive.

  • 178.
    Ede, Lena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Unresolved conflicts and shaming processes: risk factors for long-term sick leave for mental-health reasons2014In: Nordic Journal of Social Research, ISSN 1892-2783, E-ISSN 1892-2783, Vol. 5, p. 39-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental illness is the most common diagnosis resulting in long-term sick leave in Sweden today, especially stress-related syndromes and mood disorders. The aim of this article is to analyse the relational and emotional processes in the workplace that may contribute to the understanding of long-term sick leave for mental-health reasons. We conducted interviews with twenty-six people who were on sick-leave because of diagnoses of mental ill-health. The empirical material was analysed using Classic Grounded Theory. We suggest that the risk of being afflicted with mental illness, and forced into long-term sick leave, increases when there are conflicts at work that remain unresolved and which lead to malignant shaming processes that jeopardize personal dignity. In their struggle to maintain self-esteem, the afflicted escalate their work efforts by increasing work intensity, putting in overtime, and working when ill. Eventually, this behaviour affects their health and results in sick-listing. The strengths and weaknesses of the study are discussed along with the need for further research.

  • 179.
    Edebol, Hanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Bood, Sven-Åke
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Enhanced independence and quality of life through treatment with flotation-Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique of a patient with both Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Aspergers Syndrome: a case report2009In: Cases Journal, ISSN 1757-1626, Vol. 2, no 6979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The objective of this qualitative case report was to describe experiences of flotation-Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique from the perspective of a woman with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Aspergers syndrome and experiences of depression and distress.

    Case presentationThe respondent is a 36-year-old woman from Sweden, assessed and diagnosed by a neuropsychological multi-professional team in 2006. The 19-session flotation series prolonged during almost one year.

    Conclusion

    The positive development of arousal control, activity regulation, sensory integration and interpretation, cognitive functioning and emotional maturity created experiences of personal independence and quality of life. Flotation-restrictive environmental stimulation technique was experienced as a meaningful treatment. Additional studies of treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and comorbid disorders in adults using the flotation-restrictive environmental stimulation technique are strongly encouraged.

  • 180.
    Edlander, Timmie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Akademiskt fusk: En kvalitativ studie om hur studenter motiverar handlingar som har föranlett disciplinära åtgärder2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a qualitative study that has reviewed decision reports on academic cheating with content analysis as a method, aimed to investigate the actions that has led to disciplinary action and illustrate how students motivate their actions. The result shows that plagiarism is the main act that has led to disciplinary action. In the cheating plagiarism, the approach varies from the fact that the plagiarized texts may originate from students from other universities, classmates or it may be the result of collaboration between students. In the other cheating form unauthorised aids, the procedure is similar to the approach in terms of students bringing unauthorised aids on the examination. What varies is what kind of assistant students bring such as mobile phones, notes or writing sheets. The study can determine that student motivations for their actions may vary but include causes such as mistakes, pressed study situations and lack of resources, lack of time and stress, lack of knowledge and misinterpretations of the university rules.

  • 181.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    New service development from the perspective of value co-creation in a service system2014In: Handbook on Research in Service Marketing / [ed] Roland T Rust, Ming-Hui Hung, Boston: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 182.
    Eisenhart, Cornelia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    För ung för arbetslivet?: En kvalitativ undersökning om ungas upplevelser av hur ålder påverkar dem i arbetslivet.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ålder är en diskrimineringsgrund som inte fått lika mycket uppmärksamhet som exempelvis etnicitet och kön. När åldersdiskriminering uppmärksammas är det ofta fokus på hur äldre drabbas och inte yngre. Denna uppsats har därför som syfte att ta reda på hur unga med högre utbildning upplever att deras ålder påverkar dem i arbetslivet, samt om vissa upplevelser kan ses som ålderistiska. För att undersöka detta har en kvalitativ metod i form av intervjuer använts. Resultatet från intervjuerna har förklarats med hjälp av de teoretiska perspektiven ålderskodning, ålderism och intersektionalitet. Det som framkommit är att ungas ålder påverka dem i arbetslivet på många olika vis. Påverkan har både framförts som positiv och negativ. Ibland upplever också intervjupersonerna sig diskriminerade och orättvist behandlade. Några exempel på detta är att inte väljas vid anställning, att det finns skillnad i yrken/arbetsuppgifter och negativt bemötande. En diskussion om när skillnad utifrån ålder kan bedömas vara ålderism förs i samband med detta. I upplevelserna framkommer det också hur ålder samverkar med andra aspekter. De tre aspekter som lyfts fram är kön, erfarenhet och arbetsroll. De som utövar skillnad utifrån ålder har framförts vara chefer, klienter/kunder och äldre kollegor.

  • 183.
    Ek, Daisy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Studenters fluens av kreativa idéer i relation till self-efficacy, rädsla för bedömning och personlighetsdrag2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie avsåg att undersöka om eventuella skillnader fanns i fluens i kreativa idéer mellan låg eller hög creative self-efficacy och låg eller hög rädsla för bedömning samt om det fanns något samband med fluens mellan creative self-efficacy, rädsla för bedömning och de olika personlighetsdragen, bigfive. Tidigare forskning har visat att kreativitet kan skilja sig beroende på vilken personlighetstyp man har, och att faktorerna self-efficacy och rädsla för bedömning påverkar kreativiteten. Undersökningen visade ingen skillnad mellan fluens och rädsla för bedömning. Däremot visade resultaten en signifikant skillnad i fluens mellan låg och hög self-efficacy. Ingen signifikans påvisades vid en korrelation mellan de olika personlighetsdragen och rädsla för bedömning med fluens. Vidare visade resultaten på en korrelation mellan fluens och creative self-efficacy. Slutsatsen är att creative self-efficacy har betydelse för kreativiteten genom att de personer med hög creative self-efficacy också är mer kreativa än de med låg. Kreativiteten påverkades inte av rädsla för bedömning. De olika personlighetsdragen och dess egenskaper hade ingen inverkan på hur kreativa personerna var. 

  • 184.
    Ek, Hans
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Psychological Factors Behind Truancy, School Phobia, and School Refusal: A Literature Study2013In: Child & family behavior therapy (Print), ISSN 0731-7107, E-ISSN 1545-228X, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 228-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Truancy is a problem that normally leads to treatment interventions within different organizations. Within these organizations different perspectives on the causes and consequences of the above problem can be found. The purpose of this literature study is to map out and describe the current state of research within the fields of school refusal, truancy, and school phobia. The investigation was carried out in the form of a systematic review of the relevant research literature. Research shows that approximately 90% of all young people who refuse to go to school have some form of psychiatric diagnosis.

  • 185.
    Ekeroth, Helena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Yngström, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Behandling mot alla odds: En kvalitativ studie om den offentliga sektorns förutsättningar för arbete med behandling av spelberoende2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to provide information on the way professionals in Sweden encounter individuals with a gambling addiction, to show how they perceive and reflect on their ability to help and treat these individuals whilst fulfilling their responsibilities to their organization and their client. The study is based on interviews with local authorities, health care representatives, private treatment organizations and a national help organization, all of which specialize on gambling addiction. This is in order to show the full spectrum of gambling problems.  The results of the empirical data have been analyzed using two methods. The first of which is a model developed by Meeuwisse and Swärd (2002), which explains the definition and handling of a social problem. The second method utilizes the “consequences of logic” perspective within the organizational theory. The results indicate that the issue involving gambling addiction is problematic on a national level, in regard to the distribution of responsibilities. This has shown that treatment of gambling addictions is either not performed, or performed under certain restrictions. These problems can be attributed to the lack of a widely used and acknowledged definition of the term gambling addiction. This makes it difficult to judge whether the condition should be treated as a psychiatric disorder, or as an addiction not dissimilar to alcohol or narcotic addictions. 

  • 186.
    Eklund, Frida
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    ”Hur mycket man går utanför riktlinjerna beror nog på vad det handlar om”: - En kvalitativ studie om biståndsbedömares handlingsutrymme2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 187.
    Eklöf, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Blir vi mer aggressiva av att spela våldsamma pc/tv-spel?: En kvantitativ enkätstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A quantitative survey was carried out to investigate the connection between playing violent PC / video games and aggression. The sample consisted of respondents available on Facebook and Gamereactor's Facebook page where the survey was divided. 123 people participated in the survey, of which 85 men and 38 women. To explore participants' gaming habits they were asked how often they play the PC / video games and violent game and how funny they thought that violent PC / TV game was. Bus-Perry-Questionnaire where used to measure participants' aggressiveness which measures aggression and four subscales of aggression (physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger and hostility). Spearman's correlation test was used to examine the relationship between the variables to see if the gaming habits of violent games gave higher scores on aggression or any of the four sub-scales. The results showed no significant correlation between playing violent PC / video games often and any type of aggression. Correlation existed between thinking it is fun to play violent PC / video games and verbal aggression and physical aggression. The Mann Whitney U test showed differences between men and women when it came to gaming and aggression. Men played violent PC / video games more often, thought violent PC / video games were more fun, were more physically aggressive, and women were angrier. Spearman's rank correlation showed a negative correlation between age and playing violent PC / video games frequently. Those who were younger did not consider violent games as more fun than other games. The correlation showed no significant relationship between age and aggression. It appeared, therefore, that those who were younger were more aggressive. The conclusion is that those who enjoy playing violent PC / video games tend to be more verbal aggressive and physical aggressive. Regarding the question about playing violent games often is it unclear whether the playing time affects the aggression of a person and more research is needed on the topic.

  • 188.
    Ekman, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Hiltunen, Arto J
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Modified CBT using visualization for Autism spectrum disorder(ASD), anxiety and avoidance behavior2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 189.
    Ekman, Elizabeth
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Manuscript: Do athletes have more of a cognitive profile with ADHD criteria than non-athletes?: Advantages and disadvantages in sports and schoolManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 190.
    Ekman, Elizabeth
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Strengths and Weaknesses of the Cognitive Profiles of Autism and ADHD from a Cognitive Behavioral Perspective: Treatment, Prevention and the Understanding of the Comorbidity2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present research was to increase the understanding of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from a cognitive behavioral perspective. The investigation was made to examine the effect of modified cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) using visualization. Basing our research on Salkovskis’ cognitive model of OCD,  the  aim was to investigate whether obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in individuals with ASD differs from OCD in patients with OCD alone, and to identify cognitive differences between individuals with a combination of ASD and OCD and a non-clinical control group. Further, to investigate the possibility that the criteria for ADHD, as given on the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), are overrepresented in sports athletes compared to non-athletes, and that these criteria may be an advantage for athletes’ achievement rather than causing problems for these individuals. 

    In Study I, therapy was given with modified CBT including visualization.  Results showed that modified CBT, resulted in significant reduction in anxiety levels, and behavioral changes in the target behaviors.

    In Study II, three groups, individuals with ASD and OCD, individuals with only OCD, and non-clinical controls, were compared. Results showed a significant difference between participants with both ASD and OCD and participants with OCD only.

    In Study III, the interest was to examining whether athletes, compared to non-athletes, have more ADHD-like symptoms in the two settings i.e. in school and leisure time/ sport activity and whether the cognitive profile that includes these criteria could be of advantage to their sport performance. The results showed significant differences between the groups and within the athlete’s group, in school and in leisure time/the sports activity, concerning ASRS scores.

    One general conclusion from these investigations is that the cognitive profiles of ASD and ADHD need to be recognized and taken into consideration early in the daily life both at home and in school, to reduce the risk of comorbidity.

  • 191.
    Ekman, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    The Cognitive Profile of Persons with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder2018In: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health, ISSN 1745-0179, E-ISSN 1745-0179, Vol. 14, p. 304-311, article id CPEMH-14-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is often comorbid with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). But to what extent can obsessional symptoms in individuals with ASD be considered “genuinely” comorbid OCD – or are there other mechanisms that are related to ASD? Which mechanisms in OCD with and without ASD share common features? People with ASD have a cognitive profile characterized by “mindblindness”; the antecedent is often referred to in terms of not knowing how to perform or behave and this is the cause of discomfort. This raises the question whether individuals with ASD and comorbid OCD share the same cognitive elements of responsibility interpretation and the same fear of causing harm as individuals who merely have OCD.

    Objective: The aim of the present study is therefore to evaluate the extent of responsibility interpretation in individuals with OCD alone compared with people experiencing OCD in the context of ASD.

    Methods: Two instruments, the Responsibility Attitude Scale (RAS) and the Responsibility Interpretations Questionnaire (RIQ), were administered to three groups of participants: (i) individuals diagnosed with OCD (n = 32); (ii) individuals with ASD and OCD (n = 19); and (iii) non-clinical control participants (n = 23).

    Results: Results indicate significant differences in all measures of responsibility belief (interpretation of obsession and assumption of responsibility) between the OCD-only group and the two other groups.

    Conclusion: The conclusion is that OCD in people with ASD is not as “genuine” as in people with only OCD, according to cognitive behavioral theory of OCD.

  • 192.
    Ekman, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Hiltunen, Arto J
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Modified CBT using visualization for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), anxiety and avoidance behavior: A quasi-experimental open pilot study2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 641-648Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 193.
    Elfgren Boström, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Chefers förmåga att hantera emotioner i samband med en gisslantagning2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to contribute to a deeper understanding of the key aspects of emotion management during the hostage-taking and how managers handled their own and others' emotions through this event. The empirical data consisted of fourteen interviews with leaders in various positions and with separated organizational affiliations in various crisis management organizations. These kinds of organizations are intended to deal with crises that arise in society. The interviews were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. The results showed that when agents in a crisis management organization meet an antagonistic stressor (caused by man) two types of emotional norms are of importance. These two norms were called “emotional ruled system”. They are normally latent embedded in the everyday interactions but in acute, potentially dangerous situations they will be observed by framing the leaders' emotion handling. The first embedded norm could be explained as "focus on task and do not let emotions interfere". The second norm begins to operate simultaneously, and can be summarized as “provide the task force with maximum physical and psychological security”. The emotional ruled system has a long history in organizational culture and is passed on through social processes. The result can be assumed to be characteristic for professionals who handle demanding tasks. It would therefore be interesting to report the study in educational contexts for these professionals.

  • 194.
    Ellonen, Noora
    et al.
    University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Lucas, Steven
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala Sweden.
    Tindberg, Ylva
    Department of Women's and Children's Health and Centre for Clinical Research Sörmland, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Parents' Self-Reported Use of Corporal Punishment and Other Humiliating Upbringing Practices in Finland and Sweden: A Comparative Study2017In: Child Abuse Review, ISSN 0952-9136, E-ISSN 1099-0852, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 289-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden and Finland were the first countries to ban corporal punishment 30years ago. Since then, the prevalence of attitudes supporting the use of corporal punishment and the practice itself have decreased. This study examines the current frequencies of corporal punishment and other humiliating upbringing practices in Finnish and Swedish families. The analysis is based on survey data among 3170 Finnish and 1358 Swedish parents with children from newborn to 12years of age. Data were analysed using univariate tests (chi-square) and logistic regression. According to the analysis, a larger proportion of Finnish parents, and especially mothers, use humiliating upbringing practices compared to Swedish parents. This difference is not found with regard to corporal punishment. A larger proportion of Finnish parents push their children compared to Swedish parents, while a larger proportion of Swedish parents shake their children. In both countries, corporal punishment is more frequently used by fathers, boys are more often victimised than girls, toddlers are more often exposed to corporal punishment and school-age children are more often subjected to psychologically abusive practices. Corporal punishment and other humiliating upbringing practices are strongly correlated in both countries. The differences found between countries were not explained by socio-demographic factors.

  • 195. Ellonen, Noora
    et al.
    Peltonen, Kirsi
    Poso, Tarja
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    A multifaceted risk analysis of fathers' self-reported physical violence toward their children2017In: Aggressive Behavior, ISSN 0096-140X, E-ISSN 1098-2337, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 317-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing research has shown that child maltreatment is carried out by both mothers and fathers. There is also an extensive body of literature analyzing reasons for mothers' violent behavior. Among fathers, reasons are less well studied, resulting in the lack of a comprehensive picture of paternal child abuse. In this study, 20 child-, parent-, and family-related factors have been included in a combined analysis to assess which of these may pose a risk for fathers' severe violent behavior toward their children. The study is based on merged data from Finland and Sweden, in which an anonymous survey was answered by parents, based on representative samples of parents with 0-12-year-old children. The merged data set included 679 fathers and analyses were carried out using logistic regression models. Six percent of the fathers had committed severe violent acts, that is, slapped, hit, punched, kicked, bit, hit/tried to hit their child with an object or shook (under 2-year-old) their child at least once during the 12 months preceding the survey. Corporal punishment experienced by the fathers when they were children, or used by the father as a method of discipline, strongly increased the likelihood of severe violent acts. The findings emphasize the importance of preventing all forms of corporal punishment in seeking to minimize the occurrence of severe physical violence by fathers toward their children. Aggr. Behav. 43:317-328, 2017. (c) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 196. Elster, Ellen
    et al.
    Sørensen, Majken JulKarlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Women Conscientious Objectors: An Anthology2010Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 197.
    Emilia, Arnli
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Mindset och arbetstillfredsställelse: En enkätundersökning om samband mellan mindset och arbetstillfredsställelse hos grundskolelärare i Sverige2018Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien undersöker eventuellt samband mellan mindset och arbetstillfredsställelse med en socialkognitiv och arbets- och organisationspsykologisk utgångspunkt. Datainsamlingsmetoden utfördes genom en enkätundersökning och ett klusterurval användes för val av deltagare. Spearmans korrelationskoefficient användes för att prova samband. Resultatet visade på ett starkt positivt samband, men vilken riktning detta samband går är ej fastställt. Utifrån behandlad teori tyder sambandet på att ett mer dynamiskt mindset kan bidra till en högre arbetstillfredsställelse.

  • 198.
    Englund, Johanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Dyslektikers upplevelser i vardagen: En fenomenologisk studie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att beskriva dyslektiker upplevelser vardagen då tidigare studier till största del har varit av en kvantitativ karaktär eller inte täckt av vardagsperspektivet. Detta för att ge en ökad kunskap och förstålese som sedan kan hjälpa dyslektiker, anhöriga och samhället i stort. För att uppfylla syftet valdes en kvalitativ metod utifrån ett fenomenologiskt perspektiv där data samlades in genom intervjuer och analyserades med hjälp av Interpretative Phenomenological Anaysis (IPA).

    Undersökningen bestod av fem stycken kvinnor i åldrarna 20-30 år som själva har blivit diagnostiserade med dyslexi där sysselsättning varierade mellan arbetssökande, studerande och fast anställda.

    Studiens analys resulterade i fyra teman: hantering av tillvaron, personliga behov, orättvisa och tillhörighet. Detta diskuteras utifrån tidigare forskning och teorier så som till exempel utvecklingspsykologins betydelse på individen, självkänsla, kognitiva förmågor och copingstrategier.

  • 199.
    Englund, Pia Maria
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Boquist, Jenny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Kommunikation - Nyckeln till en god relation: En kvalitativ studie ur ett socialpsykologiskt perspektiv med genus som en interaktiv process. Studien undersöker interaktion mellan kommunikation och konflikt i ett långvarigt äktenskap2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Bachelor’s thesis is written at Karlstad University, Sociology III. The aim of the thesis is to investigate how interaction between communication and conflict is interpreted in a long-term marriage. In order to achieve this, we have studied the communication models the informants use to reach one another as well as how they use communication to prevent conflict during conflict management. We also asked questions regarding which methods the informants use to communicate in matters relating to gender equality.The method used in the thesis is a qualitative study with a semi structured interview and a descriptive approach. We have used a strategic selection of convenience where the spouses live in a long-term marriage and have at least one common child who is over the age of 18. These interviews have been recorded, transcribed, coded and analyzed. The theories have been devided into three main parts which are: social psychological aspects and concepts, consequences of conflict and communication.This thesis describes how different communication models and pitfalls can occur in a marriage. The ongoing interpersonal communication between humans that is fundamental for human encounters is illustrated through a gender perspective.The main result found in the thesis contains a discussion regarding the informants´ comprehensions of communication and which factors in a marriage that can create conflicts. Furthermore, the importance of having daily conversations in a marriage is described. The analysis discusses the difference between theoretical understanding of equality and practical action based on a person’s understanding.

  • 200.
    Engström, Lisa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Karlsson, Caroline
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    “Jag har aldrig ångrat mitt yrkesval!”: – En kvalitativ studie om erfarna socialarbetares drivkrafter2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this qualitative study, the positive aspects of social work and how experienced social workers describe their motivation and well-being, are examined. Five experienced social workers, who all had worked for 30 years or more, were interviewed. The theory Sense of coherence (SOC) by Antonovsky, and the constructs comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness, were used to analyze the material from the interviews. During the analysis a few themes appeared to be of more importance for the purpose of the study. These were: a good atmosphere at the workplace and among colleagues, relations with clients, the importance of humor, mobility as a strategy and how stress can be turned into motivation. The results showed that the stress the social worker meets, is a significant source for the ability to be motivated and feel meaningfulness in social work. A good atmosphere at the workplace and among colleagues and good relations with clients were of importance for a sense of well-being among the social workers in the present study. 

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