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  • 151.
    Enmark, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Åsberg, Dennis
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    The Effect of Temperature, Pressure and Co-Solvent on a Chiral Supercritical Fluid Chromatography Separation2014In: Chromatography Today, ISSN 1752-8070, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 14-17Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 152.
    Enmark, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Åsberg, Dennis
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Shalliker, Andrew
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    A closer study of peak distortions in supercritical fluid chromatography as generated by the injection2015In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1400, p. 131-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract In SFC the sample cannot be dissolved in the mobile phase, so it is often dissolved in pure modifier, or another liquid, sometimes resulting in serious distortions of the eluted peak profiles already at moderately high injection volumes. It is suspected the reasons for these effects are solvent strength mismatch and/or viscosity mismatch. This study presents a systematic and fundamental investigation of the origin of these peak deformations due to the injection solvent effects in SFC, using both systematic experiments and numerical modeling. The first set of experiments proved that the injection volume and the elution strength of the sample solution had a major impact of the shapes of the eluted peaks. Secondly, the sample band elution profile was numerically modeled on a theoretical basis assuming both un-retained and retained co-solvent injection plugs, respectively. These calculations quantitatively confirmed our first set of experiments but also pointed out that there is also an additional significant effect. Third, viscous fingering experiments were performed using viscosity contrast conditions imitating those encountered in SFC. These experiments clearly proved that viscous fingering effects play a significant role. A new method for determination of adsorption isotherms of solvents was also developed, called the “Retention Time Peak Method” (RTPM). The RTPM was used for fast estimation of the adsorption isotherms of the modifier and required using only two experiments.

  • 153.
    Eriksson, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Att ta ställning: Gymnasieelevers argumentation och beslutsfattande om sociovetenskapliga dilemman2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to explore students’ argumentation and decision-making relating to authentic socioscientific issues (SSI). The ability to make informed decisions about socio scientific issues has been recognized to be an important element in science education to achieve the goal of scientific literacy. However, deliberation on SSIs deals with the fact-value intertwinement and has proven to be a tricky affair, both for students and teachers. In paper I, the focus is on upper secondary students’ use of different reasons in arguing about the existence of wolfs in Sweden. To investigate the students’ ability to find supporting reasons from different subject areas in their informal argumentation, the SEE-SEP model was used as an analytical framework. The results showed that the value aspect dominates students’ informal argumentation on the SSI of wolves in Sweden. In paper II a six-step SSI instructional model is presented, designed to develop students’ ability to argue about complex multi-disciplinary issues. This six-step SSI instructional model aims to create a forum that encourages students to interact with one-another and discuss their arguments dynamically. In paper III students’ argumentation and decision-making upon an authentic SSI relating to environmental toxins in fish from the Baltic Sea, was studied. The students’ argumentation and decision making processes were followed closely and data were collected during multiple stages of the SSI-instructional model. The analysis focused on students’ skills of evaluation and the relationships between the values, knowledge and experiences that they used in their argumentation. The results showed that even though all of the students had access to the same information and agreed on the factual aspects of the issue, they came to different decisions, depending on their background values, knowledge and experiences (i.e. their intellectual baggage). Implications for teaching and research are discussed.

  • 154.
    Eriksson, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Energy & Technol, Box 7070, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ghosh, Ranjan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Econ, Box 7013, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Mattsson, Lisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Ismatov, Alisher
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Econ, Box 7013, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Take-back agreements in the perspective of food waste generation at the supplier-retailer interface2017In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 122, p. 83-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food waste must be minimised to make food supply chains sustainable. This is especially relevant since food waste valorisation measures, such as energy recovery, have limited possibilities to fully recover the resources invested in food production. However, waste minimisation is costly when it includes new infrastructure or technology. Policy measures, on the other hand, can provide a low-cost option. Food rejection practices in supermarkets, such as take-back agreements (TBA), have long been identified as risk factors for food waste generation at the supplier-retailer interface, but given the relational, and often discreet, nature of these agreements, there is little evidence of their impact. In this study we provide, concrete evidence of different rejection practices. This is done by studying three types of food chains those for bread, fresh fruit and vegetables, and milk with different rejection practices in Sweden. Based on a combination of primary company information and stakeholder interviews, we found that a full TBA is in operation for bread. The retailer only pays for bread that is sold and any bread left unsold three days before the best-before date is returned to the supplier. For fresh fruit and vegetables, only goods of 'inadequate' quality are returned, but supermarkets have sole rights of determination on quality, posing a risk of categorising unsold fruit and vegetables as inadequate quality and returning them to suppliers. In the case of milk, suppliers take back unsold items, but only for waste management. The trend found in this study was that bread had the highest waste, and the most extensive take-back policy. Fresh fruit and vegetables had medium levels of waste, partly due to unverified rejections, while milk had a very low level of waste combined with an even lower level of rejections. It can be concluded that a food supply chain system where the direct costs of waste management or incentives for waste reduction are separated from the organisation responsible for generating the waste poses a significant risk factor in food waste generation and is therefore a potential hotspot for waste-reducing measures. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 155. Eriksson, U.
    et al.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Engström, G.
    Rigdahl, M.
    Strukturelle und rheologische Unterschiede zwischen CMC- und stärkehaltigen Streichfarben auf Kaolinbasis1991In: PTS-Streicherei Symp., PTS-Vortragsband Nr. 02/91, 97 (1991), 1991Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 156. Eriksson, U.
    et al.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre.
    Rigdahl, M.
    Strukturelle und rheologische Unterschiede zwischen CMC- und stärkehaltigen Streichfarben auf Kaolinbasis1991Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 157.
    Eskandari, Samieh
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Mohammadi, Ali
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Sandberg, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Eckstein, Rolf Lutz
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Hedberg, Kjell
    Ulf Ahlden Ingenjörsfirma, Upplands Väsby.
    Granström, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Hydrochar-Amended Substrates for Production of Containerized Pine Tree Seedlings under Different Fertilization Regimes2019In: Agronomy, E-ISSN 2073-4395, Vol. 9, no 7, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing body of research that recognizes the potentials of biochar application in agricultural production systems. However, little is known about the effects of biochar, especially hydrochar, on production of containerized seedlings under nursery conditions. This study aimed to test the effects of hydrochar application on growth, quality, nutrient and heavy metal contents, and mycorrhizal association of containerized pine seedlings. The hydrochar used in this study was produced through hydrothermal carbonization of paper mill biosludge at 200 °C. Two forms of hydrochar (powder and pellet) were mixed with peat at ratios of 10% and 20% (v/v) under three levels of applied commercial fertilizer (nil, half and full rates). Application of hydrochar had positive or neutral effects on shoot biomass and stem diameter compared with control seedlings (without hydrochar) under tested fertilizer levels. Analysis of the natural logarithmic response ratios (LnRR) of quality index and nutrient and heavy metal uptake revealed that application of 20% (v/v) hydrochar powder or pellet with 50% fertilizer resulted in same quality pine seedlings with similar heavy metal (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Cr) and nutrient (P, K, Ca and Mg) contents as untreated seedlings supplied with 100% fertilizer. Colonization percentage by ectomycorrhizae significantly increased when either forms of hydrochar were applied at a rate of 20% under unfertilized condition. The results of this study implied that application of proper rates of hydrochar from biosludge with adjusted levels of liquid fertilizer may reduce fertilizer requirements in pine nurseries.

  • 158.
    Fermhede, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Effektivisering av klimatskärm: åtgärdsförslag för bostadsföreningen Stocken2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 159. Fogden, Andrew
    et al.
    Ström, Göran
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Fokus på ytan2004In: SPCI Sv. Papperstidning nr 12/2004Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 160.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Introduction to "Fundamental challenges and opportunities for preparative supercritical fluid chromatography by G. Guiochon, A. Tarafder [J. Chromatogr. A 1218 (2011) 1037-1114]"2016In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1446, p. 19-20Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 161.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Modern supercritical fluid chromatography: Possibilities and pitfalls2015In: LC GC Europe, ISSN 1471-6577, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 166-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a revival of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) in recent years, especially in the chiral preparative field, but also more recently in the analytical area. However, SFC is considerably more complex than liquid chromatography (LC), mainly because of the compressibility of the mobile phase. One can say that SFC is a "€rubber variant of LC where everything considered constant in LC varies in SFC. In this review, we go through advances in theory, instrumentation, and novel applications.

  • 162.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Peak Distortions in Preparative Supercritical Fluid Chromatography: A More Complete Overview2016In: Chromatography Today, ISSN 0143-5140, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 10-14Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) has re-emerged as a first-rate technique for purification of candidate drugs in the pharmaceuticalindustry; fuelled by new and improved instrumentation and a rapidly growing interest in the scientific community. SFC is considered much morecomplex and difficult than HPLC by new users but that is largely compensated for by strong advantages such as lower environmental impact andthe much shorter separation times and thus larger production rates. However, there are remaining challenges and difficulties with packed columnSFC, the most studied are those resulting from the compressibility of the mobile phase, leading to the concept that SFC is a ‘rubber variant’of HPLC, where everything considered constant in HPLC, is not in SFC. In this article we will discuss and review, with new and review materialsanother challenge not often addressed in SFC - the fact that sample components cannot be dissolved in the mobile phase, but have to bedissolved in a solvent, and what type of peak distortions that may generate.

  • 163.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Forssén, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Chapter 24 - Modeling of preparative liquid chromatography2017In: Liquid Chromatography (Second Edition) / [ed] Fanali, Salvatore; Haddad, Paul R.; Poole, Colin F.; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa, Elsevier, 2017, p. 573-592Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Preparative chromatography is the best generic method today for the purification of small drugs and valuable chemical components at <10-kg level. Recent progress in computer technology and the development of new nonchiral/chiral stationary phases, as well as numerous improvements in reliability and economic performance, have considerably increased the interest in modeling in academic and industrial communities. This chapter serves as an introduction to modeling of preparative liquid chromatography where the aim is to improve process purification of valuable chemical components, such as drugs and chiral components. We go through the most important column and adsorption models and methods for determination of the essential thermodynamic adsorption data for both column characterization and process improvement. We also cover important operational modes, such as separation in gradient mode and cases where additives are present, and operational conditions sometimes neglected in the modeling process, such as the impact of injection profiles.

  • 164.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Forssén, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Modeling of Preparative Liquid Chromatography2013In: Liquid Chromatography: Fundamentals and Instrumentation / [ed] Salvatore Fanali, Paul R. Haddad; Poole, Colin; Schoenmakers, Peter; Lloyd, David K., Elsevier, 2013, p. 407-425Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Preparative chromatography is today the best generic method for the purification of small drugs and valuable chemical components at the &lt;10 kg-level. Recent progress in computer technology and the development of new nonchiral and chiral stationary phases, as well as numerous improvements in reliability and economic performance, have considerably increased the interest in modeling in academic and industrial communities. This chapter serves as an introduction to the field of modeling preparative liquid chromatography in the classical batch mode, aiming at improved process purification of valuable chemical components, drugs, and chiral components. We go through the most important column and adsorption models and methods for determination of the essential thermodynamic adsorption data for both column characterization and process improvement. But, we also cover important operational conditions sometimes neglected in the modeling procedure, such as the impact of injection profiles and accounting for the additive in the modeling procedure.

  • 165.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Forssén, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Westerlund, Douglas
    Uppsala University.
    Basic HPLC Theory and Definitions: Retention, Thermodynamics, Selectivity, Zone Spreading, Kinetics, and Resolution2015In: Analytical Separation Science / [ed] AvJared Anderson, Alain Berthod, Veronica Pino, Apryll M. Stalcup, John Wiley & Sons, 2015, 1, p. 1-24Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 166.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Forssén, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Westerlund, Douglas
    Dept Med Chem, Analyt Pharmaceut Chem, POB 574, SE-75123 Uppsala, Sweden..
    System peaks and their impact in liquid chromatography2016In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 81, p. 42-50Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sample injected into a chromatographic system can generate extra peaks, called "system peaks", which in general are undetectable. However, for small analytical injections, solute zones eluting with a system zone will often give strongly deformed solute peaks. But, if a solute zone is eluted in a particular region of the system zone it will instead be strongly compressed and well-shaped. For overloaded solute injections, another type of complex band deformation may take place due to large system peaks. This review will present results related to system peak distortions of both small analytical peaks and large preparative ones. Guidelines will be given on how to avoid unwanted distortions and how to utilize the distortions for increased detectability in analytical chromatography, or enhanced production rate in preparative chromatography. The works reviewed here were mainly made by Georges Guiochon, and some of his close colleagues, and is dedicated to his memory. 

  • 167.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    The Tracer-pulse Experience €œ"reveiling the invisible iceberg"2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This Poster gives complementary material to the Lecture “Visualization of Chromatographic Surprises – The Helfferich Paradox Revisited. Here we will give more information on the remarkable deformations of invisible zones in the most simple and chromatographic system, unknown for most chromatographer. It is like reviling the part of the iceberg that is invisible, under the water.We recently described that “the injected sample molecules are not always found in the peak”. This happens if a small excess of molecules is injected into a column equilibrated with the same kind of molecules. Only one single peak will appear on the chromatogram (the system peak) while the injected molecules elute later in an invisible zone. The latter zones can be visualized by smart, but tedious, experimental procedures using either tracers or enantiomers. The phenomenon which was predicted by Helfferich in Science around 40 years ago was recently experimentally proven by us for the first time.As we continued to investigate the phenomena we could see that invisible zones containing the injected molecules take on the most strange and deformed shapes at higher sample loads. We will further show that a similar type of phenomenon appears in frontal analysis which results in invisible break-through and desorption curves. Depending on the conditions, the invisible breakthrough curves become more or less deformed. We explain the effects with the help of computer simulations which show an excellent agreement with experimental profiles of peaks and fronts.

    Single component, small perturbation

    Experimental Proof of a Chromatographic Paradox: Are the Injected Molecules in the Peak? Jörgen Samuelsson, Patrik Forsén, Morgan Stefansson and Torgny Fornstedt. Analytical Chemistry 2004, 76(4). 953-958.

    Single component, large perturbation

    Invisible Analyte Peak Deformations in Single-Component Liquid Chromatography” by Jörgen Samuelsson, Robert Arnell and Torgny Fornstedt. Analytical Chemistry (2006) 78 2765-2771.

    Single component, frontal analysis

    Discovery of invisible extra fronts in single-component frontal analysis in liquid chromatography by Jörgen Samuelsson and Torgny Fornstedt. Journal of Chromatography A (2006) 1114, 53-61.

    Multi-component, small perturbation

    Validation of the Tracer Pulse Method for Multi Component Liquid Chromatography- a Classical Paradox Revisited. Robert Arnell and Torgny Fornstedt. Analytical Chemistry (2006) 78, 4615-4623.

  • 168.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Visualization of Chromatographic Surprises - The Helfferich Paradox Revisited2011Other (Other academic)
  • 169.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Åsberg, Dennis
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Lesko, Marek
    Rzeszow University of Technology.
    Enmark, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Forssén, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Kaczmarski, Krzysztof
    Rzeszow University of Technology.
    New Procedure for Predictions of Overloaded Profiles in Gradient Elution2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To simulate the separation process in liquid chromatography, the competitive adsorption isotherms need to be known. In gradient elution, the adsorption isotherms are determined with isocratic experiments on different mobile-phase plateaus, levels covering the range used in the gradient program. This can lead to extreme retention times for some mobile-phase compositions and therefore it might even be impossible to determine all necessary adsorption data using the traditional isocratic approach. In this talk, we will present a method where single and competitive nonlinear adsorption isotherms are determined directly from overloaded elution profiles in gradient elution. The numerical coefficients in the adsorption isotherms are determined by the inverse method that minimizes the difference between calculated and experimental elution profiles. This is a new method where the need for tedious/impossible isocratic experiments is eliminated. The method is systematically verified using both synthetic and experimental data. Finally the new method is used to successfully predict elution profiles for a two-component mixture in gradient elution. The new method open up the opportunity to study the adsorption of substances whose retention factor vary strongly with the mobile-phase composition, like peptides and proteins, where the classic methods will fail. We also intend to transfer the metholology for SFC in near future; but there are some problems to be solved first (see our SFC posters). This is a contribution from the Fundamental Separation Science Group www.FSSG.se

  • 170.
    Forsberg, Anton
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Modellering och simulering av uppvärmning och nedkylning av kontorsbyggnad, via HVAC system där fjärrvärme och fjärrkyla jämförs med borrhålslager som energikälla2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An office building (sthlm new hus 4) located in the south of Hammarbyhamnen overlooking Hammarbybacken is planned in 2018. Climate control of the office building are via radiators, high-temperature chilled beam and pre-treated supply air. The building is currently being designed for district heating and remote cooling. The study aims to investigate whether borehole thermal energy system (BTES) are a reasonable alternative to provide the office building with heat and cooling, from an environmental- and life cycle cost (LCC) perspective.

    The aim of the study is to generate an energy requirement for the office building, which is done by construct a model of the building using IDA ICE, a simulation software. The energy requirement is covered by either district heating/-cooling (energy system I) or BTES (energy system II) as the primary energy source. A model of the BTES is constructed in excel based on data from experience input.

    Life cycle cost analysis are used for economical comparison between the energy systems. The environmental assessment is based on Nordic electricity mix, which controls the impact of the energy systems.

    Energy system II entails a need for energy support to avoid over dimension the heat pump, which is done by complementing the surplus need through district heating and remote cooling.

    LCC shows an economic breakpoint at 11-year calculation period, where BTES becomes economically advantageously. Environmentally, energy system II releases 14.3 tonnes of CO2eq compared to energy system II which results in a reduced emission of 47 tonnes of CO2eq based on Nordic electricity mix.

  • 171.
    Forss, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Haupt, Dan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Stalberg, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Enmark, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Chemometric evaluation of the combined effect of temperature, pressure, and co-solvent fractions on the chiral separation of basic pharmaceuticals using actual vs set operational conditions2017In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1499, p. 165-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The need to determine the actual operational conditions, instead of merely using the set operational conditions, was investigated for in packed supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) by design of experiments (DoE) using a most important type of compounds, pharmaceutical basics, as models. The actual values of temperature, pressure, and methanol levels were recorded and calculated from external sensors, while the responses in the DoE were the retention factors and selectivity. A Kromasil CelluCoat columh was used as the stationary phase, carbon dioxide containing varying methanol contents as the mobile phase, and the six racemates of alprenolol, atenolol, metoprolol, propranolol, clenbuterol, and mianserin were selected as model solutes. For the retention modeling, the most important term was the methanol fraction followed by the temperature and pressure. Significant differences (p<0.05) between most of the coefficients in the retention models were observed when comparing models from set and actual conditions. The selectivity was much less affected by operational changes, and therefore was not severely affected by difference between set and actual conditions. The temperature differences were usually small, maximum +/- 1.4 degrees C, whereas the pressure differences were larger, typically approximately +10.5 bar. The set and actual fractions of methanol also differed, usually by +/- 0.4 percentage points. A cautious conclusion is that the primary reason for the discrepancy between the models is a mismatch between the set and actual methanol fractions. This mismatch is more serious in retention models at low methanol fractions. The study demonstrates that the actual conditions should almost always be preferred. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 172.
    Forssen, Patrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    A model free method for estimation of complicated adsorption isotherms in liquid chromatography2015In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1409, p. 108-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we show that even extremely small variations in the adsorption isotherm can have a tremendous effect on the shape of the overloaded elution profiles and that the earlier in the adsorption isotherms the variation take place, the larger its impact on the shape of the elution profile. These variations are so small that they can be "hidden" by the discretization and in the general experimental noise when using traditional experimental methods, such as frontal analysis, to measure adsorption isotherms. But as the effects of these variations are more clearly visible in the elution profiles, the Inverse Method (IM) of adsorption isotherm estimation is an option. However, IM usually requires that one selects an adsorption isotherm model prior to the estimation process. Here we show that even complicated models might not be able to estimate the adsorption isotherms with multiple inflection points that small variations might give rise to. We therefore developed a modified IM that, instead of fixed adsorption isotherm models, uses monotone piecewise interpolation. We first validated the method with synthetic data and showed that it can be used to estimate an adsorption isotherm, which accurately predicts an extremely "strange" elution profile. For this case it was impossible to estimate the adsorption isotherm using IM with a fixed adsorption model. Finally, we will give an example of a real chromatographic system where adsorption isotherm with inflection points is estimated by the modified IM.

  • 173.
    Forssén, Patrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Impact of column and stationary phase properties on the productivity in chiral preparative LC2018In: Journal of Separation Science, ISSN 1615-9306, E-ISSN 1615-9314, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 1346-1354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By generating 1500 random chiral separation systems, assuming two-site Langmuir interactions, we investigated numerically how the maximal productivity (P-R,P-max) was affected by changes in stationary phase adsorption properties. The relative change in P-R,P-max, when one adsorption property changed 10%, was determined for each system and for each studied parameter the corresponding productivity change distribution of the systems was analyzed. We could conclude that there is no reason to have columns with more than 500 theoretical plates and larger selectivity than 3. More specifically, we found that changes in selectivity have a major impact on P-R,P-max if it is below similar to 2 and, interestingly, increasing selectivity when it is above similar to 3 decreases P-R,P-max. Increase in relative saturation capacity will have a major impact on P-R,P-max if it is below similar to 40%, but only modest above this percent. Increasing total monolayer saturation capacity, or decreasing the first eluting enantiomer's retention factor, will have a modest effect on P-R,P-max and increased efficiency will have almost no effect at all on P-R,P-max unless it is below similar to 500 theoretical plates. Finally, we showed that chiral columns with superior analytic performance might have inferior preparative performance, or vice versa. It is, therefore, not possible to assess columns based on their analytical performance alone.

  • 174.
    Forssén, Patrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Multia, Evgen
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Andersson, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Aastrup, Teodor
    Attana AB, Sweden.
    Altun, Samuel
    Attana AB, Sweden.
    Wallinder, Daniel
    Attana AB, Sweden.
    Wallbing, Linus
    Attana AB, Sweden.
    Liangsupree, Thanaporn
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Riekkola, Marja-Liisa
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Reliable Strategy for Analysis of Complex Biosensor Data2018In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 90, no 8, p. 5366-5374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When using biosensors, analyte biomolecules of several different concentrations are percolated over a chip with immobilized ligand molecules that form complexes with analytes. However, in many cases of biological interest, e.g., in antibody interactions, complex formation steady-state is not reached. The data measured are so-called sensorgram, one for each analyte concentration, with total complex concentration vs time. Here we present a new four-step strategy for more reliable processing of this complex kinetic binding data and compare it with the standard global fitting procedure. In our strategy, we first calculate a dissociation graph to reveal if there are any heterogeneous interactions. Thereafter, a new numerical algorithm, AIDA, is used to get the number of different complex formation reactions for each analyte concentration level. This information is then used to estimate the corresponding complex formation rate constants by fitting to the measured sensorgram one by one. Finally, all estimated rate constants are plotted and clustered, where each cluster represents a complex formation. Synthetic and experimental data obtained from three different QCM biosensor experimental systems having fast (close to steady-state), moderate, and slow kinetics (far from steady-state) were evaluated using the four-step strategy and standard global fitting. The new strategy allowed us to more reliably estimate the number of different complex formations, especially for cases of complex and slow dissociation kinetics. Moreover, the new strategy proved to be more robust as it enables one to handle system drift, i.e., data from biosensor chips that deteriorate over time.

  • 175.
    Forssén, Patrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Relative importance of column and adsorption parameters on the productivity in preparative liquid chromatography II: Investigation of separation systems with competitive Langmuir adsorption isotherms2014In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1347, p. 72-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigated how the maximum productivity for commonly used, realistic separation system with a competitive Langmuir adsorption isotherm is affected by changes in column length, packing particle size, mobile phase viscosity, maximum allowed column pressure, column efficiency, sample concentration/solubility, selectivity, monolayer saturation capacity and retention factor of the first eluting compound. The study was performed by generating 1000 random separation systems whose optimal injection volume was determined, i.e., the injection volume that gives the largest achievable productivity. The relative changes in largest achievable productivity when one of the parameters above changes was then studied for each system and the productivity changes for all systems were presented as distributions. We found that it is almost always beneficial to use shorter columns with high pressure drops over the column and that the selectivity should be greater than 2. However, the sample concentration and column efficiency have very limited effect on the maximum productivity. The effect of packing particle size depends on the flow rate limiting factor. If the pumps maximum flow rate is the limiting factor use smaller packing, but if the pressure of the system is the limiting factor use larger packing up to about 40μm.

  • 176.
    Fredriksson, Robert
    et al.
    AkzoNobel , Separations Products, Bohus, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    The Importance of Overloading Studies in Method Development: A Case Study2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 177.
    Friden, Mikael E.
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Chem BMC, Analyt Chem, POB 599, S-75124 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Jumaah, Firas
    Lund Univ, Ctr Anal & Synth, Dept Chem, POB 124, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Gustavsson, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Enmark, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Turner, Charlotta
    Lund Univ, Ctr Anal & Synth, Dept Chem, POB 124, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Sjoberg, Per J. R.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Chem BMC, Analyt Chem, POB 599, S-75124 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Samuelsson, Jorgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Evaluation and analysis of environmentally sustainable methodologies for extraction of betulin from birch bark with a focus on industrial feasibility2016In: Green Chemistry, ISSN 1463-9262, E-ISSN 1463-9270, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 516-523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Betulin from birch bark was extracted using two principally different extraction methodologies - classical Reflux Boiling (RB) and Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE). The extraction methods were analyzed based on both recovery and purity as well as for RB industrial feasibility. The purity and recovery for the different extraction methods were analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) coupled with three different detection principles: Diode Array Detection (DAD), Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Charged Aerosol Detection (CAD). The chromatographic purity was determined by all detections whereas the DAD was used also for complementary gravimetric calculations of the purity of the extracts. The MS detection (in MS and MS/MS modes) was mainly used to characterize the impurities. Two steps to increase the purity of RB extracts were evaluated - pre-boiling the bark in water and precipitation by adding water to the extract. Finally, the methods were compared in terms of amounts of betulin produced and solvent consumed. The RB method including a precipitation step produced the highest purity of betulin. However, results indicate that PLE using three cycles with the precipitation step gives similar purities as for RB. The PLE method produced up to 1.6 times higher amount of extract compared to the RB method. However, the solvent consumption (liter solvent per gram product) for PLE was around 4.5 times higher as compared to the classical RB. PLE performed with only one extraction cycle gave results more similar to RB with 1.2 times higher yield and 1.4 times higher solvent consumption. The RB process was investigated on an industrial scale using a model approach and several important key-factors could be identified. The most energy demanding step was the recycling of extraction solvent which motivates that solvent consumption should be kept low and calculations show a great putative energy reduction by decreasing the ethanol concentration used in the RB process to lower than 90%.

  • 178.
    Frodeson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013). Environmental and Energy Systems.
    Towards Understanding the Pelletizing Process of Biomass: Perspectives on Energy Efficiency and Pelletability of Pure Substances2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of fossil resources has to decrease and the use of renewable resources has to increase significantly to mitigate the climate change. In this change towards more renewable resources, biomasses will play an important role, both for energy use and for products. Thus, the utilization of biomasses must be optimized, both linked to which biomass species that are used, as well as the actual production processes. This thesis relates to the production of lignocellulosic biomass pellets, with the purpose to increase the understanding of how a pellet process can be improved. 

    There are many benefits to pelletize the biomass, such as increased density, more economical transports solutions and increased doseability. However, there is a lack of knowledge on how different biomass species affect the actual pelletizing. This causes pellet producers to strive for a feedstock with a chemical composition that is as uniform as possible, which reduces the possibility of increasing intake of, for example, seasonal or residual products of other kinds.

    If pellet producers can handle, predict and combine different biomaterials over time without stopping the production, new ways of acquiring raw materials for production would be possible. This will be important for future pellet producers, as the general use of biomasses will increase, so will the competition of the raw material. It will also be of importance in developing countries, which have a greater variation in wood species than today's large pellets producing countries. 

    This work has been focused on understanding biomasses pelletability, and the method has been to start with components such as, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin etc. Results shows that there is a significant difference between the hemicelluloses, xylan and glucomannan, in terms of pelletability. During pelletizing, xylan changes its form, generates hard pellets and, correlated to pelletability, xylan are affected by actual moisture content or added water to the process. Glucomannan, however, shows the opposite, a low impact on pelletability and a minimal impact from water during the pelletizing process. A difference that can explain the difference in pelletability, between hardwood and softwood. 

    Solutions to improve the pelletizing process have also been studied. One result is that adding oxidized starch additive, reduces the energy consumption in the pelletizer and increasing the durability of the pellets, more than native starches. Another result is that a two-stage drying technique, reduces the heat power consumption per tonne of dried materialand at the same time increases the drying capacity. Also, the possibilities for a pellet producer to handle, predict and combine different biomaterials has been studied. Presented results show howbiomasses from Zambia can be used as an single resource or in different resources combinations in a pellet production. 

    Finally, a recommendation to pellet researchers to include the cellulose material, Avicel, in single pellet studies. By using the same reference material, the methods can be normalized and the pelletability of biomaterials can be validated in a new way. This step would develop the research in the field, and the possibility of increased use of biomass towards the use of more renewable resources in pellet production.

  • 179.
    Frodeson, Stefan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Berghel, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Renström, Roger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Pneumatic dryer as a second step in a two step drying technique2013In: Sixth Nordic Drying Conference NDC 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 180.
    Frodeson, Stefan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Berghel, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Renström, Roger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    The Potential of Using Two-Step Drying Techniques for Improving Energy Efficiency and Increasing Drying Capacity in Fuel Pellet Industries2013In: Drying Technology, ISSN 0737-3937, E-ISSN 1532-2300, Vol. 31, no 15, p. 1863-1870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of wood fuel pellets has increased worldwide in recent years, and pellet producers conclude that the lack of drying capacity is a barrier to increased production. In this study, we develop a concept of two different dryers called the two-step drying technique. The aim is to show the potential for increasing the drying capacity and improving energy efficiency when introducing a second dryer into the pellet plant. The study is theoretical and based on an industrial packed moving bed dryer. It shows that the drying capacity increased by 22% when a pneumatic second dryer was used.

  • 181.
    Frodeson, Stefan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Berghel, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Ståhl, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Granström, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Romlin, Carl
    Drinor AB, Karlstad.
    Thelander, Alexander
    Drinor AB, Karlstad,.
    The Potential for a Pellet Plant to Become a Biorefinery2019In: Processes, ISSN 2227-9717, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 1-11, article id 233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of bioenergy has increased globally in recent years, as has the utilization of biomaterials for various new product solutions through various biorefinery concepts. In this study, we introduce the concept of using a mechanical dewatering press in combination with thermal drying in a pellet plant. The purpose of the study is to increase the understanding of the effects a mechanical dewatering press has in a pellet production chain and investigate whether a pellet plant could thus become a biorefinery. The evaluations in this study are based on industrial data and initial tests at the university. The results show that the concept of using the mechanical dewatering press together with a packed moving bed dryer reduces energy use by 50%, compared to using only a packed moving bed dryer. The press water could be used as a raw material for biogas, bioplastics, and biohydrogen. Hence, this study points out the possibilities of a pellet plant increasing the efficiency of the drying step, while moving towards becoming a biorefinery.

  • 182.
    Frodeson, Stefan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Berghel, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Effects of moisture content during densification of biomass pellets, focusing on polysaccharide substances2019In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 122, p. 322-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we pelletized four different pure polysaccharides represented cellulose - Avicel, hemicelluloses - locus bean gum mannan and beech xylan and other polysaccharides - apple pectin, and three woods - pine, spruce and beech. All were pelletized at 100° in a single pellet press unit with different level of moisture content from 0 to 15%. The maximal friction force and work required for compression and friction was analyzed together with the pellet density and hardness. The results showed that xylan pellets completely changed in color at 10% moisture content, and this also occurred to some extent with pectin pellets. The color of both Avicel and locus bean gum pellets were not affected at all. During compression, the results showed that water does not affect compression up to 5 kN, while above 5 kN water decreases the energy need for densification of Avicel, locus bean gum and woods. Above 5 kN the energy needs for compressing xylan and pectin increases with increased moisture content. The hardest pellets were produced from Avicel, while locus bean gum produced the weakest pellets. The study concludes that there is a significant difference in how water affects the two hemicelluloses, glucomannan and xylan, during densification.

  • 183.
    Frodeson, Stefan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Berghel, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Pelletizing pure biomass substances to investigate the mechanical properties and bonding mechanisms2018In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 1202-1222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid fuel for heating is an important product, and for sustainability reasons, it is important to replace nonrenewable fuels with renewable resources. This entails that the raw material base for pellet production has to increase. A broader spectrum of materials for pelleting involves variation in biomass substances. This variation, due to lack of knowledge, limits the possibilities to increase the pellet production using new raw materials. In this study, pellets were produced with a single pellet press from 16 different pure biomass substances representing cellulose, hemicellulose, other polysaccharides, protein, lignin, and extractives, and five different wood species, representing softwoods and hardwoods. All pellets were analyzed for the work required for compression and friction, maximum force needed to overcome the backpressure, pellet hardness, solid density, and moisture uptake. The results showed that the hardest pellets were produced from the group of celluloses, followed by rice xylan and larch arbinogalactan. The weakest pellets were from the group of mannans. Conclusions are that the flexible polysaccharides have a greater impact on the pelletizing process than previously known, and that the differences between xylan and glucomannan may explain the difference in the behavior of pelletizing softwoods and hardwoods.

  • 184.
    Frodeson, Stefan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013). Environmental and Energy Systems.
    Linden, Pär
    Wallenberg Wood Science Centre, Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Berghel, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Compression of Biomass Substances—A Study on Springback Effects and Color Formation in Pellet Manufacture2019In: Applied Science, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, no 20, article id 4302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to increase the use of a variated raw material base for pellet production with a maintained density level, knowledge of the biomaterials’ ability to counteract any springback effects is essential. In this study, the springback effects were investigated for single press produced pellets from cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectin, and two woods at different moisture contents. The change in pellet coloring was also tested through a spectrophotometer for both xylan and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) pellets. The results show that the density of xylan pellets is much higher than glucomannan, for both green and cured pellets, and that the length of the pellets, as well as springback contribution, differ between the hemicelluloses. The study also presents results showing that both xylan and CMC pellets have a mutually identical spectrum and that the changes in the structure of xylan are not only related to moisture content, but are also pressure-related. The study also postulates that the color difference of the xylan pellets is a result of physical changes in the structure, as opposed to being of a chemical nature.

  • 185.
    From-Aldaron, M.
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Sandberg, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Granström, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Low Dosage Chemical Treatment for Improved Oxygenation of Pulp Mill Effluents2018In: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 144, no 3, article id 06017012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most pulp and paper mills use aerobic biological treatment for their effluents. Aeration is the single most energy intensive process of a treatment plant. Surfactants, commonly occurring in pulping wastewaters, have been shown to decrease the oxygen transfer rate. The aim of this study was to decrease the surface activity of surfactants and thereby increase the oxygen transfer rate in pulp mill effluents by the use of chemical pretreatment in very low doses. Trials using 5 g/m(3) ferric iron showed statistically significant improvement on both k(L)a(@20) and surface tension. No sludge was precipitated owing to the very low ferric iron dosage. The novel use of chemical pretreatment, in very low doses, aiming specifically at improving oxygen transfer rate, is a promising concept for reducing the need for aeration in wastewater treatment and thus lower the electricity requirement of the wastewater treatment plant. (c) 2017 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  • 186.
    Garcia Lawson, David
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Produktion av näringspellets med varierad mekanisk kraft och ligninhalt: Utvärdering av pelletsegenskaper och energianvändning2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Continued increase in carbon dioxide emissions lead the ecosystems towards rapid, dangerous and irreversible climate change. The Swedish forest industry is an important operator to satisfy the future demand of renewable bio products to reduce the use of fossil fuels. The increase in production means increased pressure on the Swedish forests. Society, government, companies and individuals have a responsibility to secure that the harvesting of forests remains sustainable.

    The wastewater treatment plants in the pulp and paper industry produce a large proportion of biomass, in form of bio and fiber sludge. Bio and fiber sludge contains nutrients that can be returned to the forest. The upgrade of biomass to pyro-char has proven properties that improve the fertility of the forest, primarily by increasing the soil's pH value. Pyro-char improves the retention of nutrients in the soil by cation adsorption, which affects the trees and plant growth. The composition of the soil changes as pyro-char is added, and the change in composition affects the biodiversity in ecosystems. The biofuel ash extracted from the heating boilers in the paper industry contains basic cations and alkaline pH, which counteracts acidification in forest land.

    The disadvantage of biomass is the high bulk density, which affects the logistics of transport and storage. There are methods for solving the problems in logistics, for example compression. Compression is a well-proven method for upgrading the biomass to pellets and improving the physical properties of the biomass. The conversion of biomass into pellets increases the density, mechanical strength and the moisture absorption capacity decreases. Pelletizing biomass results in a homogeneous product can be created and delivered as pellets.

    The purpose of this study is to increase the knowledge on how lignin as an additive, and how mechanical force affects the physical properties of the nutritional pellets. The production of nutrition pellets consists of two stages, a preliminary investigation and a test matrix. The purpose of the preliminary study is to acquire guideline values ​​and provide a basis for the experimental matrix. The experimental matrix is ​​a continued study of how lignin content and pressure affect the physical properties of the nutrition pellet. The lignin content that was analyzed was 5-20 % with mechanical force that varied between 5, 10 and 15 kN. The nutritional pellets are evaluated based on the properties density, hardness, pH, moisture absorption capacity and energy use.

    The single-pelletizer press, located at Karlstad University, was used to pelletize the different mixtures. The pellet properties were evaluated at the laboratory at Karlstad University.

    The result shows that the test series with a pressure of 15 kN and the lignin content of 20% resulted in the highest density, hardness, moisture absorption capacity and the second highest energy consumption. Depending on the mechanical force and lignin content used, the parameters varied as follows.

    • The density varies between 843.5 – 1,054 kg/m3
    • The hardness ranged between <1 and 3.7 kg
    • The moisture content of the pellets varied between 8.7% and 9.2% after 96 hours
    • The pH-value varied between 8.7-9.58 after 24 hours and decreased between 2- 4.9 % after 48 hours
    • The energy consumption varies between 105.5-129.5 J

  • 187.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Berglund, Teresa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Rundgren, Shu-Nu Chang
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Sustainability Consciousness as a way to evaluate ESD-implementation in Sweden2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 188.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Drechsler, Michal
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Teachers' use of textbooks – A comparative study of discipline bound differences2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 189.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Wahlberg, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Clusters of concepts in molecular genetics: a study of Swedish upper secondary science students understanding2013In: Journal of Biological Education, ISSN 0021-9266, E-ISSN 2157-6009, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 73-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand genetics, students need to be able to explain and draw connections between a large number of concepts. The purpose of the study reported herein was to explore the way upper secondary science students reason about concepts in molecular genetics in order to understand protein synthesis. Data were collected by group interviews. Concept maps were constructed using the interview transcripts, and analysed. The most central concept was DNA, which served as a link between the concepts of genes and proteins. Students spontaneously introduced concepts from classical genetics to explain molecular genetics. The concept maps generated from the different group interviews were similar in that various concepts consistently appeared within specific subgroups of interconnected concepts, ie clusters. Five main clusters were identified. The students were better able to relate between concepts within a cluster than between concepts in different clusters. The clusters can be seen as representations of the students’ knowledge structures, and could be used as starting points in teaching genetics.

    We recommend that courses in genetics should begin by focusing on students’ existing connections between concepts from different clusters and then point out concepts that feature in two or more clusters such as DNA, gene, and protein.

  • 190.
    Germgård, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Aspects on the reactivity of pulps prior to viscose preparation2012In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 243Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 191.
    Germgård, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    The Arrhenius Equation is Still a Useful Tool in Chemical Engineering2017In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 21-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arrhenius equation correlates the rate of a chemical reaction with the corresponding activation energy, reaction time and reaction temperature, where the latter is measured in Kelvin. Although the equation is rather simple it can be used to summarize the kinetics of most chemical reactions in a surprisingly good manner. The activation energy is an interesting parameter that can be seen as an energy barrier which the reacting chemicals have to pass before a chemical reaction is initiated. Thus, the higher the activation energy, the lower is the rate of the chemical reaction. Moreover, the equation can also be used, for example, to forecast the influence of a higher temperature on the composition of a product consisting of components with different activation energies. In such a case, a component with higher activation energy will increase its rate of reaction more than a component with lower activation energy. The composition of the original product will thus obtain a shrinking fraction of the fast reacting component. The report gives some guidelines of how to calculate the activation energy for a given case in a pulp mill.

  • 192.
    Germgård, Ulf
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Magnusson, Hans
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Benefits obtained by integration of a dissolving pulp mill and a textile fiber plant: Final meeting in COST FP12052017In: Cellulosic material properties and industrial potential, RISE , 2017, p. 91-93Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 193.
    Gewert, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Datormodellering av en värmelagrande konstgräsplan: En temperaturstudie över ett år för en uppvärmd konstgräsplan2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Skattkärr has a heated turf field been projected to enable activities during the winter when snow and cold weather put a stop to activities in an unheated turf field. In Skattkärr it’s not possible to connect the system to a district heating network. The technique chosen to heat the field is instead a type of geothermal energy where PVC-pipes are located beneath the artificial turf’s surface. Next to the the field is a total of 31 boreholes located. From those boreholes heat is collected from the mountain and headed out to a coil under the plan. Unlike conventional geothermal, there is no use of a heat-pump. Instead the system in Skattkärr uses the natural heat from the soil, approximately 7 ° C. It is expected to be enough to keep snow and ice away from the artificial turf field. In summer when there is no need of heating, the fluid in the tubes is heated. This heat can later on be stored in the ground for the winter season. The field may, in other words, in principle, be regarded as a solar collector. The system's operating cost is therefore the circulation-pump. The operation itself is projected to be intermittent. This means that the system is expected to stand still until the need for heating or cooling. The system is then turned off when the need for heating or cooling is ceased.

    The aim of this work is to investigate how an artificial turf field can be heated and cooled optimally without becoming unusable due to its surface temperature. The goal of this work is to create a mathematical model of the system that describes the temperature on the artificial turf's surface.

    To study the artificial turf field's surface temperature is a mathematical model created, whose mission is to dynamically analyze energy flows over time. The model is built in Simulink, a part of MATLAB. The model of artificial grass field consists of several partial measurement exercises in turn gives different energy flows. The plan considered in the balance as a slab with a heat store. This allows generalizations to be made to facilitate various calculations with equations applied to slabs on ground.

    The result shows that the heating system has difficulties to heat the field to temperatures demanded during winter. Instead, the surface temperature follows the current air temperature, like an unheated field. Unfortunately, there is lack of knowledge about the flow conditions and fluid temperature in the pipe loop system. Therefore, further work to ensure these factors are needed. Only then can an arbitrary basis for the circulation pump control be presented.

  • 194.
    Ghosh, Ruchira
    et al.
    Ulster University, UK.
    Kansal, Arun
    TERI School of Advanced Studies, India.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Urban water security assessment using an integrated metabolism approach – case study of the National Capital Territory of Delhi in India2019In: Resources, E-ISSN 2079-9276, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 1-15, article id 62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water is a non substitutable resource and a social good, which governments must perforce provide to its citizens in the right quantity and quality. An integrated urban metabolism model is useful in understanding the status quo of an urban water and sanitation system. By defining and measuring the values of relevant hydrological performance indicators-deliverables of the model referred to-a thorough knowledge of the present performance and the gaps, which need to be plugged en route to a sustainable urban water infrastructure, can be obtained, as demonstrated in this paper. This then forms the bedrock for decision-making and policy formulation for change to be introduced top-down as well as advice, which would enable the much needed bottom-up support to policies. The authors have chosen Delhi as the case study city, but would like to point out that this application can be reproduced for any other town/city/region of the world. The water balance within the chosen system boundaries shows that the annual unutilized flows, amounting to 1443 million cubic meters, dominate the metabolic flows of water in Delhi, and the annual groundwater withdrawal, which exceeds 420 million cubic meters, is much greater than the recharge rate, resulting in a rapid depletion of the groundwater level. There is an urgent need thereby to improve the rate of infiltration of stormwater and reduce the rate of runoff by focusing on increasing the share of permeable surfaces in the city, as well as to consider the wastewater streams as potential sources of water, while not forgetting demand side of management measures, as the pressure on the urban water system in the city is likely to intensify with a combination of population growth, economic development, and climate change in the near future. The recommendations provided by the authors towards the end of the article, can, if suitable measures are undertaken and robust policies are implemented, result in Delhi's enjoying a water surplus in the short term, and progressively attain complete sustainability with regard to the utilization of its water resources.

  • 195. Gidlöf, V.
    et al.
    Lestelius, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Kruse, B.
    Critical print quality factors during digital printing on paperboard ' a subjective evaluation2005In: Accepted for publication in the Journal of Packaging Science and Technology, 2005Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 196.
    Glenne, Emelie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Leek, Hanna
    AstraZeneca R&D, Innovat Med, Resp Inflammat & Autoimmun, S-43183 Molndal, Sweden..
    Klarqvist, Magnus
    AstraZeneca R&D, Innovat Med, Resp Inflammat & Autoimmun, S-43183 Molndal, Sweden..
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Peak deformations in preparative supercritical fluid chromatography due to co-solvent adsorption2016In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1468, p. 200-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) the mobile phase comprises of carbon dioxide (CO2) as main solvent and smaller amounts of an organic polar solvent (often an alcohol) as co-solvent. The co-solvent is considered to function by changing the overall polarity of the eluent, i.e. by acting as a "modifier". However, recent studies indicate that the co-solvent methanol can also adsorb to some common SFC stationary phases. Hence, the co-solvent should also be able to function as an "adsorbing additive", i.e. an eluent component that competes with the injected solutes about the stationary phase surface. In this study it was found by fitting different mechanistic models to systematic experimental data, that the co-solvent methanol can have both functions: at low co-solvent fractions, methanol acts as an additive whereas at larger fractions it acts as a modifier. Moreover, it was found that when the co-solvent adsorbs more strongly to the stationary phase than the solute, "bizarre" deformations of the preparative band shapes can occur. This is illustrated by a solute that converts from a normal "Langmuirian" band shape to an "anti-Langmuirian" shape when changing from neat carbon dioxide (CO2) to an eluent containing co-solvent. This peak shape transition is dependent on both (i) the relative retention of the solute and co-solvent to the stationary phase in eluent containing neat CO2 and on (ii) the relative retention of the additive perturbation peak and the solute peak in eluent containing also co-solvent. 

  • 197.
    Glenne, Emelie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Leek, Hanna
    AstraZeneca R&D, Innovat Med & Early Dev, Resp Inflammat & Autoimmun, S-43183 Molndal, Sweden..
    Klarqvist, Magnus
    AstraZeneca R&D, Innovat Med & Early Dev, Resp Inflammat & Autoimmun, S-43183 Molndal, Sweden..
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Systematic investigations of peak deformations due to co-solvent adsorption in preparative supercritical fluid chromatography2017In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1496, p. 141-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strangely shaped overloaded bands were recently reported using a standard supercritical fluid chromatographic system comprising a diol column as the stationary phase and carbon dioxide with methanol as the mobile phase, Some of these overloaded elution profiles appeared strongly deformed and even had "anti-Langmuirian" shapes although their solute compounds had "Langmuirian" adsorption. To obtain a more complete understanding of the generality of these effects, the investigation was expanded to cover also other common co-solvents, such as ethanol, 2-propanol, and acetonitrile, as well as various stationary phase materials, such as silica, and 2-ethylpyridine. From this expanded study it could be confirmed that the effects of deformed overloaded solute band shapes, due to co-solvent adsorption, is general phenomena in supercritical fluid chromatographic. It could also be concluded that these effects as well as previously observed "solvent effects" or "plug effects" are entirely due to competition between the solute and solvent molecules for the adsorption sites on the stationary phase surface. Finally, guidelines were given for how to evaluate the risk of deformations occurring for a given solvent-column combination, based simply on testing retention times of solutes and co-solvent. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 198.
    Glenne, Emelie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Ohlen, Kristina
    AstraZeneca R&D, Innovat Med, Resp Inflammat & Autoimmun, S-43183 Molndal, Sweden..
    Leek, Hanna
    AstraZeneca R&D, Innovat Med, Resp Inflammat & Autoimmun, S-43183 Molndal, Sweden..
    Klarqvist, Magnus
    AstraZeneca R&D, Innovat Med, Resp Inflammat & Autoimmun, S-43183 Molndal, Sweden..
    Samuelsson, Jorgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    A closer study of methanol adsorption and its impact on solute retentions in supercritical fluid chromatography2016In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1442, p. 129-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface excess adsorption isotherms of methanol on a diol silica adsorbent were measured in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) using a mixture of methanol and carbon dioxide as mobile phase. The tracer pulse method was used with deuterium labeled methanol as solute and the tracer peaks were detected using APCI-MS over the whole composition range from neat carbon dioxide to neat methanol. The results indicate that a monolayer (4 angstrom) of methanol is formed on the stationary phase. Moreover, the importance of using the set or the actual methanol fractions and volumetric flows in SFC was investigated by measuring the mass flow respective pressure and by calculations of the actual volume fraction of methanol. The result revealed a significant difference between the value set and the actually delivered volumetric methanol flow rate, especially at low modifier fractions. If relying only on the set methanol fraction in the calculations, the Methanol layer thickness should in this system be highly overestimated. Finally, retention times for a set of solutes were measured and related to the findings summarized above concerning methanol adsorption. A strongly non-linear relationship between the logarithms of the retention factors and the modifier fraction in the mobile phase was revealed, prior to the established monolayer. At modifier fractions above that required for establishment of the methanol monolayer, this relationship turns linear which explains why the solute retention factors are less sensitive to changes in modifier content in this region.

  • 199.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013). Norwegian University of Science & Technology.
    A critique of the European Green City Index2014In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 317-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2009, Siemens (Germany) sponsored the research by the Economist Intelligence Unit (London), which resulted in the publication of the European Green City Index report, in which the environmental performance of 30 large cities in Europe was analysed. It provided city administrations with an idea of where they stood vis-a-vis their European counterparts. However, while adopting such performance evaluation methodologies, it is important to set targets and goals, and to be aware of pitfalls that may exist in the course of a blind pursuit of a higher Green Score. City administrations are usually segmented into different divisions and departments; often each division strives towards its own set of targets and goals, without being aware (or without being concerned, even if it is aware) of the overlaps, conflicts and synergies that may exist with the targets and goals of the others. The Green City Index needs to be considered together with an Urban Socio-Economic Index, which can be suitably structured with the inter-linkages with the indicators of the Green City Index explicitly described.

  • 200.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Classroom survey to gauge how the three pillars of sustainability are prioritised for the urban water and wastewater system2017In: Vatten, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 73, no 1, p. 33-37Article in journal (Other academic)
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