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  • 151.
    Karlsson, Hannah
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Man bara läser: En kvalitativ studie om läsförståelse och lässtrategier i grundskolans tidigare år2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to generate an understanding about reading processes in the early years of primary school with a focus on reading comprehension and reading comprehension strategies. Based on previous research in the field I aim to examine how the teachers make use of reading comprehension by conducting individual interviews which are focused on how the teachers' attitudes to reading comprehension look like and how their teaching is realized.

    This study consists of qualitative interviews with five respondents, with the purpose to show how they work with reading comprehension instruction and clarified reading comprehension strategies. The respondents are from different generations and have varied educational backgrounds.

    The results of the study show that the teachers put great emphasis on reading comprehension instruction. The study also shows some differences between the vision and thoughts about the explicit teaching of reading comprehension strategies, clarified strategies and traditional reading instruction. Therefore it can not give a general view on teaching reading comprehension or reading comprehension in general. 

  • 152.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Avdelningen för språk.
    Alice’s Vacillation between Childhood and Adolescence in Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland.2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the novel Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll, Alice, the protagonist, is supposed to be seven years of age. However, the reader can perceive her as older than that and get the impression that she has entered adolescence. Alice vacillates between being a child and striving to act like an adult in her various encounters in Wonderland. In this essay, I will examine Alice’s emotional and intellectual phases in her search for identity, and show the different levels according to developmental theory. Erik Erikson’s, Jean Piaget’s and John Dewey’s research together with other studies form the theoretical framework of this paper. I will demonstrate that while the book does not trace her development as such (i.e. it is not a typical Bildungsroman), it nevertheless highlights a child’s development by juxtaposing different developmental stages. The scientific and realistic functions of developmental theory may at first seem haphazard in the analysis of a literary character in a fantasy world. But, this essay illustrates Carroll’s professional familiarity with his child protagonist through the logic and consistency of his depiction of Alice.

     Alice’s adventures in Wonderland reflect the child-adult conflict of Alice on her inner quest for identity. To her the first steps into adulthood, ie. adolescence, include not only psychological growth as in maturity but also physical growth; to grow is to grow up. Her dramatic alterations in size in Wonderland cause great turmoil and confusion as she senses an obligation to adapt her behavior.

     Lewis Carroll knew his child protagonist well.

  • 153.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Avdelningen för språk.
    Una Nueva Plantilla de Preguntas para la Comprensión de Textos Auténticos en un Aula Sueca de ELE.: Un aporte didáctico para el desarrollo de las estrategias de lectura de textos auténticos para alumnos de 14 a 16 años de edad.2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    Esta investigación se centra en las estrategias de lectura de textos auténticos. Nuestra idea es que los estudiantes de ELE en un aula sueca puedan aprenderse a reflexionar sobre sus estrategias de lectura simplemente con una herramienta concreta, e.g. una plantilla de preguntas. El primer paso es construir un material didáctico para desarrollar las estrategias de comprensión de lectura. Hemos construido una plantilla de preguntas con base en el experimento de Ulla Håkansson en el proyecto de STRIMS, pero hemos aumentado el número de instrucciones y las hemos modificado con especificaciones y ejemplos para adecuarlas a los alumnos de ELE en la educación secundaria en Suecia, de 14 a 16 años de edad, quienes son los informantes de nuestra investigación. El segundo paso es analizar su funcionamiento. Los informantes reciben un artículo y con la ayuda de la plantilla de preguntas van a interpretar el texto. El objetivo de la plantilla es que el alumno con esta herramienta pueda entender un texto sin valerse de diccionarios, no necesariamente de forma profunda, sino que pueda captar las ideas generales. Después preguntamos a los alumnos y a su profesora por sus opiniones sobre la plantilla de preguntas. La evaluación es conducida en forma de entrevista.

         Los análisis del texto de los alumnos nos han mostrado que han captado bien las ideas generales del artículo y la mayoría ha elegido las mismas palabras claves para resumir el texto y también para descodificar. Estos resultados nos indican que nuestra plantilla funciona bien. A los alumnos les gustó trabajar con las estrategias cognitivas y metacognitivas y dieron la bienvenida a la oportunidad de estudiar textos fuera del libro escolar. Una conclusión importante es que hay una necesidad de discutir más la morfología con todos los afijos en los aulas de ELE. Además podemos concluir que muchos alumnos van a seguir teniendo dificultades con el fenómeno abstracto de la gramática.

  • 154.
    Kinhult, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Invandrarsvenskans vara eller inte vara i Svenska Akademiens ordlista2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 155.
    Kjellén Simes, Marika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Languages.
    Room for Improvement?: A comparative study of Swedish learners’ free written production in English in the foreign language classroom and in immersion education2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines the effects of immersion education on the English of two groups of advanced Swedish learners at upper secondary school. In immersion education, or CLIL, subject content is taught through a second language as a means of enhancing target language competence. In this study, language proficiency was measured in terms of the ratio of low frequency vocabulary (LFV) and the ratio of motivated tense shift (MTSh) in the learners’ free written production in English. An additional aim was to see whether the results were related to the students’ motivation as reported in a questionnaire.

    This longitudinal study was based on three sets of narratives, written by 86 students, half of them enrolled at the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IB) where English is the medium of instruction, and the other half at national programmes (NP), where English is studied as a foreign language. At the outset, the IB and NP groups had similar results on a general diagnostic test, which was the basis for the formation of three subgroups: I, II and III, with above average, average and below average scores respectively. Mean LFV and MTSh ratios as well as different kinds of motivation were compared, both overall and in the subgroups.

    The IB students overall, and those in subgroup III in particular, showed the best results. As to the overall results, the IB students used significantly higher mean ratios of LFV and MTSh than the NP students in the final set of compositions. There were also a number of motivational factors that were stronger in the IB students.

    As to the subgroups, the most interesting results were found in subgroups I and III. While the IB students in subgroup I had high mean ratios already in the first composition, and retained them over time, their use of MTSh tended to grow subtler. The NP students had lower mean results initially, and while their mean MTSh ratio increased and ended up on a level similar to that of the IB students, their mean LFV ratio remained low.

    In subgroup III the results of the IB and NP students diverged over time. While the IB students progressed as reflected in their mean LFV and MTSh ratios, the NP students tended to regress. The difference in mean LFV ratios was statistically significant. The IB students were also better motivated than their NP peers. In all, this study suggests that immersion education has positive target language effects, especially on less proficient but motivated students.

  • 156.
    Knutsen, Karen Patrick
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Languages.
    Reciprocal Haunting: Pat Barker's Regeneration Trilogy2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Pat Barker’s fictional account of the Great War, The Regeneration Trilogy, completed in 1995, is considered to be her most important work to date and has captured the imagination of the reading public as well as attracting considerable scholarly attention. Although the trilogy appears to be written in the realistic style of the traditional historical novel, Barker approaches the past with certain preoccupations from 1990s Britain and rewrites the past as seen through these contemporary lenses. Consequently, the trilogy illustrates not only how the past returns to haunt the present, but also how the present reciprocally haunts perceptions of the past. The haunting quality of the trilogy is developed through an extensive, intricate pattern of intertextuality. This reciprocal haunting at times breaks the realistic framework of the narrative, giving rise to anachronisms.

    This study offers a reading of trauma, class, gender and psychology as thematic areas where intertexts are activated, allowing Barker to revise and re-accentuate stories of the past. Drawing on Michel Foucault’s concept of discourse and Mikhail Bakhtin’s notion of dialogue, it focuses on the trilogy as an interactive link in an intertextual chain of communication about the Great War. Received versions of history are confirmed, expanded on and sometimes questioned. What is innovative about the trilogy is how Barker incorporates discursive formations not only from the Great War period, but from the whole twentieth century. The Great War is regenerated and transformed as it passes from one dialogic context to another. My reading shows that the trilogy presents social structures from different historical epochs through dialogism and diachronicity, making the present-day matrices of power and knowledge that continue to surround, determine and limit people’s lives highly visible. The Regeneration Trilogy regenerates the past, simultaneously confirming Barker’s claim that the historical novel can also be “a backdoor into the present”.

  • 157.
    Kristiansson, Camilla
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Under parasollen: En komparativ studie utifrån whole language-teorin och LTG-metoden2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the reading- and writing-approaches: the LTG-method and the whole language-theory. The attention is to perform a comparative literate-study to distinguish their similarities and differences, and examine which one of the approaches that is most clearly anchored in the syllabus of the subject Swedish. The starting-point of the study is the questions: Which similarities respectively differences have the LTG-method and the whole language-theory? Which one of these theories is most clearly anchored in the syllabus of the subject Swedish? The study has shown that both the whole language-theory and the LTG-method can anchor in the syllabus for Swedish. However the whole language-theory has stronger hold in the syllabus, as the whole language emphasises the meaning of literature for reading- and writing-learning, and considers the pupils reflection during their learning-process and conquered knowledge-goal. The whole language-theory and the LTG-method have a number of similarities and emanate from similar influences. Finally I insinuate that the LTG-method could be a part or a direction under the parasol of the whole language-theory.

  • 158.
    Kröger, Iina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Implementar actividades de autoevaluación en la enseñanza de español como lengua extranjera: Conocimientos y actitudes de los profesores suecos2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates Swedish secondary and upper secondary school teachers' knowledge and attitudes with respect to implementing self-assessment activities in teaching of Spanish as a foreign language. The purpose of the study has been to get an overview of the state of the implementation of self-assessment in Swedish schools. In order to achieve this objective, a survey method has been used. The results of this study, like the findings of previous studies, indicate that there is a deficiency in the implementation of self-assessment in teaching. Additionally, the results suggest some possible explanations for this deficiency. However, in order to be able to draw a definite conclusion regarding the matter, more detailed information and further studies would be needed.

  • 159.
    Kula-Nilsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Jacques Cazotte - Un Philosophe des Lumières ?: Étude du Diable Amoureux2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [fr]

    Le Diable Amoureux montre dans quelques parties que Cazotte était un antiphilosophe. Les deux thèmes majeurs qui le confirment sont que Cazotte parle d’Espagne, de l’église et de la mère d’Alvare. Le deuxième thème est que Cazotte s’intéresse au mysticisme, à l’illuminisme et au martinisme.

  • 160.
    Kure-Bonne, Tatiana
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    El maravilloso viaje de Nils Holgersson a través de Suecia de Selma Lagerlöf: similitudes y diferencias en dos versiones de su traducción al español: Causas y consecuencias en la traducción de algunos culturemas y topónimos.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines the patterns used in the translation into Spanish of some Swedish place names and cultural and natural characteristics in Selma Lagerlöf’s novel The wonderful adventures of Nils. Two translations that emerged in different socio-historical contexts in Spain are compared in order to determine how they diverge. The results show that the first translation largely adapts the Sweden-specific concepts to the notions that are recognizable by the Spanish reader. The second translation, on the contrary, offers to a greater extent culture-specific phenomena to its readers. Place names are mainly adopted without modifications. Despite this, both translators rather use a strategy mix in order to adjust the text to its juvenile audience and to preserve both the didactic and the entertaining values of the Swedish text.

  • 161.
    Källkvist, Marie
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Gyllstad, Henrik
    Lund University.
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Centrum för genusforskning. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Centre for Research on the Teaching and Learning of Languages and Literature. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centrum för genusforskning (from 2013).
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Centre for Research on the Teaching and Learning of Languages and Literature.
    English only in multilingual classrooms?2017In: LMS : Lingua, ISSN 0023-6330, no 4, p. 27-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 162.
    Källén, Ida
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Film i undervisningen – i egen rätt eller bara komplement?: En kvalitativ studie av tre lärares syn på spelfilm iundervisningen2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to examine which attitudes and experiences teachers have around the wide text concept, which is found in the course plan for the Swedish subject, and to find out which function films have in their teaching. The starting point of the paper’s theoretical part is the Swedish subject’s course plans and current research concerning the wide text concept and film in teaching. In order to achieve the formulated aim, qualitative interviews have been performed with three Swedish teachers active in the later years of compulsory-school.

    The result shows that there are divided opinions of the actual meaning of the concept. However the three teachers agree that film has something to enrich the teaching of the Swedish language and they are for most part positive to using film in their teaching. There are certain differences as to how film is practically used in teaching by the three interviewed teachers, but film is used largely in three ways as also the researcher Christina Olin-Scheller has concluded: as illustration, as complement and as comparison. The three interviewed teachers also mean that the students, for most parts, are positive to using film as a teaching method and that lessons using film function satisfactory.

  • 163.
    Kämpenberg, Kristin
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Edna’s Failure to Find Her Female Role in Kate Chopin’s The Awakening2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In The Awakening we meet Edna, a woman in search of her female identity. She is uncomfortable in her role as the “patriarchal woman” and has trouble becoming either a “modern woman” or an “emancipated woman” To fully understand Edna’s search one must understand the patriarchal society in Chopin’s works and what it means to internalize this system. Edna searches for a different female role than that of the “patriarchal woman” but she has problems internalizing any one of the roles due to her previous choices, current social position and lack of support in her quest. This essay explores what these previous choices are and why they have placed her in her current position. She has a lack of support, which is crucial if she is to break out of her current female position. Edna’s realization that she cannot obtain a full acceptance in either one of these three female roles finally led to her choosing suicide. This essay also explores why she chooses this final way to resolve her problem. Critics have said that the suicide is not in tune with the rest of the novel, but I will in contrast show how the ending is indeed very much in tune with Chopin’s portrayal of Edna. The confusion that Chopin shows in Edna’s character throughout the novel explains why Edna in the end takes her own life. Our protagonist is a woman who searches for an identity that she cannot find due to choices she has already made and a society which she cannot change, and in that light suicide is a viable alternative.

  • 164.
    Lagerlöf, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    A Study of the Terms Feminine and Masculine2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 165.
    Larsmalm, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Språkutvecklande aktiviteter med hjälp av TAKK: En studie på en förskola2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine how the pedagogues of a preschool in Värmland experience that the introduction of TAKK has affected the children’s language development. I also wanted to examine how the language development activities in a small children’s department have been changed since 2005 and what part TAKK has in this. Furthermore I wanted to see if the personnel used signs in every department on the preschool.

     

    My conclusion was that the biggest difference when it comes to the activities for the language development is that they have introduced TAKK in the small children’s department as a support to all children. With the aid of observations and interviews made in the current preschool, I could establish that the pedagogues of the preschool experience that signs is a good help for every small child’s language development since they discovered that the children have a more developed language after the method was introduced.

     

    The literature studies confirmed that TAKK can be used on all children, even small children, since it becomes a tool for the child in its communication. The pedagogues of the preschool experience less frustration in the group of children as children and pedagogues understand each other much better today. The pedagogues consider that the children have become exceptionally good in defining colours.

     

    One of the other departments of the preschool uses TAKK but not to all children. They use signs mainly to a particular child who needs signs as a support for her communication. The third department doesn’t use TAKK.

  • 166.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Språket i förändring: En undersökning av Eskilstunaspråket2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Språket verkar i allmänhet gå mot ett gemensamt normspråk. Bengt Nordberg och Eva Sundgren har 1967 respektive 1996 undersökt den morfologiska variationen och förändringen i Eskilstunaspråket. Uppsatsens syfte är att med utgångspunkt i dessa två undersökningar kunna ge svar om språkets förändringsprocess 2006. I intervjuform undersöks sju språkliga variabler hos åtta informanter. Slutsatsen är att språket är i förändring och att vi i sinom tid går mot ett gemensamt normspråk. Detta sker dock i mycket lägre takt än väntat. Förändringstakten i språket är specifikt för varje individuellt språkdrag, vilket ger varje språkdrag en egen utvecklingskurva.

  • 167.
    Larsson, Frida
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Om sär- och sammanskrivning av 16 svenska adverb: Ortografiska mönster i Svenska Akademiens ordlista och några av sprikbankens konkordanser2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 168.
    Larsson, Helena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    LUS i teori och praktik: LUS in theory and practice2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    LUS is short for reading development schedule, which is a concept that schools in a municipality or parts of a municipality uses, to get an overview at the pupils’ reading capacity.

    The purpose with this C-paper is to analyse if LUS is a relevant and useful instrument in the upper level of compulsory school of today, concerning the work with pupils’ reading development.

    My research contains a theoretical section and a practical section witch is based on qualitative interviews with three teachers. The result of my research shows that LUS is built on sociocultural thoughts, where – despite a competence theoretical structure – the individual reading experience is in focus and the optimal reading is considered the reading which lies within the readers’ closest zone of development. The relevance of LUS in the upper level of compulsory school is mostly justified as a clarifying model of reader competences that can be used as a help when putting together small goals to those pupils that doesn’t reach the goal of the syllabus. For those pupils that, considering age, follow that development which the reading development schedule explains, LUS feels some what unnecessary in the upper level of compulsory school.

  • 169.
    Larsson, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    A survey of contemporary language teaching strategies in English at upper secondary school2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to give a picture of how English teaching with a focus on vocabulary at upper secondary school is carried out. Do the teachers prefer any specific method and if so; do they follow it? Which strategic features of traditional methods are still used today? To accomplish this I used an Internet based survey program and sent out a fairly extensive questionnaire to teachers at upper secondary school.

    This survey is based on features of traditional teaching methods such as the grammar translation method and the situational language learning method. The essay also deals with implicit and explicit learning and teaching strategies which the features are connected to.

    The results show that none of the teachers participating in the survey work according to any specific method. Vocabulary and grammar seem to be unequal in importance; grammar seems to be slightly more important. But both of them are topped by communication, motivation and comprehension which are most important part in the English teaching. Regarding vocabulary it is difficult to estimate how much lesson time is spent on the issue. Features from the situational language learning method and the communicative methods are the most used and popular ones. But also features from such old methods as the grammar translation methods are used and can be appreciated by both teachers and students.

  • 170.
    Larsson, Terese
    Karlstad University.
    Berättandets inverkan på våra barn2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the essay is to get a thorough knowledge about narration. You can read about different authors’ opinions about narration, its significance, and the influence media has on the imagination and the duties educationists have. I’ve also interviewed three different educationists, from both pre-school and the early ages of school. They have provided insights about how to use narration in school, and the importance they think narration has for the children. The results show that narration is used in many forms an appreciated by both teachers and children. I’ve also discovered that narration helps children to develop their language skills, their memory and their imagination. But some media, like the computer and the television, could make the imagination lazy and obstruct the linguistic development.

  • 171.
    Larsson, Therese
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Vocabulary learning: A study of students’ and teachers' attitudes towards English vocabulary learning in lower secondary school2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper was to investigate student and teacher attitudes towards English vocabulary learning and teaching. Secondary aims were to find out how a number of students learn new vocabulary and whether teachers prefer explicit or implicit teaching methods. The investigation was conducted by letting 75 students in two lower secondary schools and 24 teachers of English from different schools answer questionnaires about vocabulary learning and vocabulary teaching. The results show that both the students and the teachers generally had positive attitudes towards vocabulary learning. The teachers of English did not prefer explicit teaching methods to implicit teaching methods when teaching vocabulary, but they thought implicit vocabulary teaching to be most effective. The results also show that the students claim to learn new vocabulary in varied ways and watching English movies or TV-series and by playing computer- or video games were singled out as the most effective ways to acquire new vocabulary by the students. Hence, the results show that both the teachers and the students agreed on implicit vocabulary learning to be the most effective, however, previous research has shown that vocabulary is most effectively learnt explicitly.  

  • 172.
    Laveborn, Joel
    Karlstad University.
    Video Game Vocabulary: The effect of video games on Swedish learners‟ word comprehension2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Video games are very popular among children in the Western world. This study was done in order to investigate if video games had an effect on 49 Swedish students‟ comprehension of English words (grades 7-8). The investigation was based on questionnaire and word test data. The questionnaire aimed to measure with which frequency students were playing video games, and the word test aimed to measure their word comprehension in general. In addition, data from the word test were used to investigate how students explained the words. Depending on their explanations, students were categorized as either using a “video game approach” or a “dictionary approach” in their explanations.

    The results showed a gender difference, both with regard to the frequency of playing and what types of games that were played. Playing video games seemed to increase the students‟ comprehension of English words, though there was no clear connection between the frequency with which students were playing video games and the choice of a dictionary or video game approach as an explanation.

  • 173.
    Lidbäck, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Hur ser verkligheten ut?: En studie av olika människors syn på och tankar om diskriminering och annan kränkande behandling2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On the 1st April 2006 a new legislation came into effect in Sweden; The Prohibiting

    Discrimination and Other Degrading Treatment of Children and Pupils Act (2006:67). The

    Act is applicable to education and other activities referred to in the Education Act

    (1985:1100). This dissertation aims to examine how teachers work to combat

    discrimination, and establishes whether headmasters and teachers have changed their work procedures since the law came into force.

    In order to seek the answers to my questions I have conducted 8 qualitative interviews with headmasters and teachers from two schools in a community outside Karlstad, with both schools comprising of students from pre-school until year 6.

    Discrimination is not a new phenomenon in schools, but neither is the fact that it is the

    schools’ responsibility to work against discrimination. Discrimination is still taking place,

    despite discrimination laws being clearly stated within the Education Act (1985:1100) and

    the school curriculum. The teachers I have interviewed maintain that they are actively

    working in a preventative manner with these issues, but they still believe that much more

    can be done and would like to see an agreed, common work procedure. Despite the new

    legislation, none of the people I have spoken to change the way they work. They are,

    however, feeling positive towards the new legislation and believe as well as hope, that it

    will bring results. Most education workers agree that the school has the primary

    responsibility of preventing discrimination and strongly believe that individual teachers

    have the power to influence their pupils.

  • 174.
    Lidström, Oscar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Attityder till värmländsk dialekt: En dialektologisk studie angående värmlänningars attityder till den egna dialekten2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna undersökning är att ta reda på vilken attityd värmlänningar har till den egna dialekten på allmän och lokal nivå. Den allmänna nivån handlar om hur respondenterna ser pådialekten i stort, medan den lokala nivån behandlar frågor kring de lokala varieteter som finns inom landskapet Värmland. Med detta jämförs även eventuella attitydskillnader beroende påkön och ålder, vilket i slutändan kommer att ställas emot tidigare forskning.

    Genom att använda mig av en webbaserad enkät nådde jag ett stort antal respondenter. Enkäten delades på det sociala nätverket Facebook där tanken var att erhålla en jämn fördelning mellan respondenter utifrån ett antal aspekter, dels sett till vilken del av landskapet respondenterna kom ifrån, dels vilken ålderskategori utifrån fyra på förhand valda kategorier och dels utifrån vilket kön respondenterna förknippade sig med. Vad som visade sig vara problematiskt var fördelningen av vilken del av landskapet respondenterna kom ifrån. Det centrala dialektområdet är överrepresenterat i studien medan dialektområdena nordmarksmål och glafsfjordsmål är underrepresenterade.

    En intressant aspekt som visas genom studien är att det verkar finnas ett stort allmänintresse förden egna dialekten, vilket visar sig genom antalet deltagare. Dessutom visar studien att respondenterna i stort har en positiv inställning till den egna lokala dialekten. Detaljer somtidigare forskning visat bekräftas också av studien, exempelvis att respondenterna ställer sigmindre positiva till dialekter som liknar granndialekterna, exempelvis närkingska. Att respondenterna dessutom svarat att de i lägre grad använder sig av dialektala inslag i mer formella sammanhang bekräftar vad tidigare forskning visat.

    Undersökningen visar att attitydskillnader mellan män och kvinnor inte skiljer sig i någon större utsträckning. Männen har i något högre utsträckning en positivare syn på den egna dialekten, både lokalt och allmänt. Skillnader som märks tydligast går att finna när det gäller respondenternas ålder. Attityden är mest positiv bland respondenterna i de äldre ålderskategorierna medan detta avtar en aning bland respondenterna i de yngre.

  • 175.
    Liljeson, Gudrun
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Chatt- och ungdomsspråk i skolans värld2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 176.
    Liljeson, Gudrun
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Freedom is Slavery: A Comparison between the Utopian/Dystopian Societies in George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four and Lois Lowry’s The Giver2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    “Freedom is Slavery”

    A Comparison between the Utopian/ Dystopian Societies in George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four and Lois Lowry’s The Giver

    This essay investigates the tension between a strictly controlled society and individual freedom in George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949) and Lois Lowry’s The Giver (1993). The novels deal with two different controlled societies, Sameness in The Giver which seems to be utopian– but is soon revealed as dystopian and Oceania in Nineteen Eighty -Four which is a dystopian. This is described in The Giver by a society without conflict or illness and in Nineteen Eighty-Four with total control of the citizens by the leaders of the society. The control is also shown by the leaders’ way to control the language used by the citizens in both societies. In The Giver the citizens are manipulated while using words that indirectly mean something different as “pass away” instead of “die” with the intention of maintaining peaceful thoughts. In Nineteen Eighty- Four their language is rewritten in order to create a language without distinctions with the purpose of controlling the citizens’ minds and feelings and thereby have no rebellious opinions. The aim of this essay is to compare and contrast the mechanisms used to control the individuals in the societies in the two novels, and the impact these mechanisms have on individuals. I claim that although the writers are using the utopian idea of the societies I argue that they are in fact dystopian and that the two protagonists respond differently towards the social control other than the rest of the citizens in order to achieve freedom and happiness.

    This investigation shows that even if the governments in both novels try to maintain full control over the citizens, by Telescreens, and Thought Police in Nineteen Eighty-Four and microphones in The Giver, there are some people who resist living under social control. The protagonists understand that a life without love, intimacy and free thoughts is not acceptable for them and they both revolt against the Government.

    My conclusion is that the novels suggest that it is impossible to maintain total control of the citizens in order to create a perfect society.  Not everyone accepts living under social control and there will always be someone who questions the leaders and their way of ruling their society. The title refers to the fact that governments in the novels believe in control of their society and when the citizens live under full control they live, as the government think, a free life.

  • 177.
    Lindahl, Katarina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    The x-word and its usage: Taboo words and swearwords in general, and x-words in newspapers2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    All languages have words that are considered taboo – words that are not supposed to be said or used. Taboo words, or swearwords, can be used in many different ways and they can have different meanings depending on what context they appear in. Another aspect of taboo words is the euphemisms that are used in order to avoid obscene speech. This paper will focus on x-words, words like the f-word or the c-word, which replace the words fuck or cunt, but as the study will show they also have other meanings and usages.

    The purpose of this paper is also to investigate the significance of taboo words and their usage in English, as well as research on how they are used, or not used, in media. The aim is to examine how x-words are used in the British newspapers the Guardian and the Observer by using corpus searches.

    The results show that there are several ways of using x-words, and that using them in order to show that a word either is taboo, or has become taboo in a certain context, is the most common way. It is also clear that x-words can represent many different words, and not only words that are generally considered taboo.

  • 178.
    Lindberg, Diana
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Tvåspråkiga elever: Läs- och skrivinlärning i det svenska språket2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 179.
    Lindgren, Johnnie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Chattspråk i undervisningen: hot eller tillgång2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 180.
    Lindh, Simon
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Centrum för språk- och litteraturdidaktik.
    Online computer game English: A study on the language found in World of Warcraft2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine the language from a small sample of texts from the chat channels of World of Warcraft and analyze the differences found between World of Warcraft English and Standard English. In addition, the studywill compare the language found in World of Warcraft with language found on other parts of the Internet, especially chatgroups. Based on 1045 recorded chat messages, this study examines the use of abbreviations, emoticons, vocabulary, capitalization, spelling, multiple letter use and the use of rare characters. The results of the investigation show that the language of World of Warcraft differs from Standard English on several aspects, primarily in the use of abbreviations. This is supported by secondary sources. The results also show that the use of language is probably not based on the desire to deliver a message quickly, but rather to reach out to people. In addition, the results show that the language found in World of Warcraft is more advanced than a simple effort to try to imitate speech, thereby performing more than written speech.

  • 181.
    Lindqvist, Angela
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    “A Help to Help Yourself”: A study on feedback and error corrections in Swedish upper-secondary students’ English essays2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to investigate different types of feedback and how they are used in schools, and to see which of them are preferred when it comes to error correction. Feedback is used in schools every day even though it is difficult to know if students really learn from it. Students tend to only glance briefly at the paper or test when it is returned and then throw it away. They are interested in how they scored but not really in how to improve their errors until next time. In this study, students wrote essays which were corrected with four different types of feedback and handed back to the students. The students got a chance to revise them and then the result was analyzed. The students were also given a questionnaire in order for me to find out what kind of feedback they liked the most and compare it to the result of the essay corrections. The different feedback types worked well with different students in general, although, underlining with description did not only work best, it was also chosen as the best type by most students. They seemed to think that this type was good for learning something from the feedback. Most students wanted to look for errors themselves instead of getting the correct answer from the teacher.

  • 182.
    Lindqvist, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Fluidity and Solidity in Marilynne Robinson’s Housekeeping2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    C-paper Abstract

    Title: Fluidity and Solidity in Marilynne Robinson’s Housekeeping

    Author: Linda Lindqvist

    The purpose of this essay is to show that fluidity and solidity constitute a central tension on all levels in Housekeeping, and how this tension leads to a choice of either a fluid or a solid lifestyle and view of the world. I focus on fluidity and solidity in gender roles, in memories, in dreams, in nature, and in different perceptions of reality. By taking a closer look at Ruth’s first-person narration (seeing fluidity as not resisting deformation, while solidity resists deformation), we find that the characters in Housekeeping have fluid and solid traits, but that there is no reality that allows mixed manifestations of these. This results in repression of either fluidity or solidity, which creates tension and feelings of loss. Ruth chooses a fluid lifestyle, thus her memories and dreams become mixed with her present, and this also leads her to become a transient, outside gender roles and traditional small town society. Transience in this novel questions all distinctions conventionally made between dream and reality; male and female. In conclusion, this essay highlights how tension between fluidity and solidity is generated on all levels in Housekeeping, and how this leads to either fluid or solid lifestyles since the characters follow a cultural code that dictates a choice between them.

  • 183.
    Lipkin, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education. Karlstad University.
    Språkval engelska/svenska: En undersökning av dess syfte och funktion2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstrakt

    Detta examensarbete handlar om språkval engelska/svenska, alternativet för de elever som av olika anledningar väljer att inte läsa ett modernt språk. En undersökning har gjorts i form av intervjuer med lärare och en skolledare samt en enkätstudie med elever, för att få fram en bild av hur de ser på språkvalet och dess funktion. Syftet med arbetet är att söka svar på just detta, samt ta reda på vilka elever det är som går i dessa grupper och hur tiden utnyttjas där. De svar jag fått fram tyder på att både elever och lärare ser brister i organisationen; det är en relativt stökig miljö och många elever som finns i grupperna har egentligen inget behov av extra engelska eller svenska. Alla är dock i princip överens om vilket syfte undervisningen har: att stötta de elever som behöver hjälp med dessa två ämnen. Något som gör det svårt att få till en bra inlärningsmiljö är de heterogena grupperna som bildas, samt att ämnet inte har varken status, syfte, mål eller betyg.  För att få till en bra inlärningsmiljö bör kraft läggas på att hålla kvar de flesta elever i de moderna språken, eller som lärarna föreslår: skapa ett annat alternativ för de elever som helt enkelt inte orkar/vill läsa ytterligare ett språk.

  • 184.
    Ljung, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Tilltro och vilja att tala eller vara tyst: En studie om grundskolelärares uppfattning av muntlig interaktion i engelskundervisning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at generating an understanding of teachers’ perception of verbal interaction in their own English teaching. The study seeks to find out, in relation to socio-cultural theory and previous research and literature, what methods English teachers in grade 4-6 use to strengthen their pupils’ linguistic confidence and increase their motivation to participate in activities with verbal interaction in the target language. The study rests on the scientific approaches hermeneutics and phenomenography and is based on qualitative interviews as method. The study includes six English teachers working in grades 4-6 in three municipal schools in central Sweden. The study shows that the responding teachers share the same opinion about the central role of verbal interaction in their English teaching. The teachers use the target language for the most part in their English lessons and use Swedish only when necessary for pupils to understand. The teachers mention that safety in the classroom helps to strengthen their pupils’ linguistic confidence. All teachers also mention interest as a contributing factor to strengthen their pupils’ linguistic confidence and increase their motivation to participate in oral activities in the target language. They recommended different activities, but all agree that exercises that the pupils can relate to and which they think are fun contribute to increased motivation.

  • 185.
    Lundell, Anna
    Karlstad University.
    AFK: chatt- och SMS-språk på väg in i klassrummet?2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The new technology brings new opportunities for the language. The language, which is used when chatting or messaging, is full of linguistic devices, which facilitates writing and saves time and space. The purpose of my investigation is to find out if the chat- and- messaging- language is affecting the students' way of writing in school.

    To find out about this I have examined 79 essays written by students in grade 9 during the national test 2006. I have also to found out if the occurrence of these features differed between boys and girls. In addition, I have let the same students who have written the essays answer questions regarding their chatting- and messaging- habits.

    The conclusions I have attained through my investigation shows that 58 % of the students are using features which are typical in chat and messaging language. 52 % of the boys were using these language features when they were writing. When it comes to the girls, the similar figure is 64 %. The result of my questionnaire show that 49 % of all students chat everyday. Out of these 63 % boys and 35 % girls. 32 % write messages everyday.

  • 186.
    Lundell, Hanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Netspeak: The language of the Internet2009Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet is in many cases our primary source for communication. As more communicative options online are introduced and become a part of our life, the language of the Internet, so called Netspeak, becomes a part of our language. The aim of this paper was to find out whether there is a difference in the use of Netspeak between teenagers and adults. The investigation was based on two message boards, one where the majority is teenagers and one where the majority is adults. Four different features of Netspeak were studied: exaggerated use of punctuation; exaggerated use of capital letters; abbreviations; and emoticons. All features are substitutes for paralanguage.

    The results show that teenagers are more likely to use features such as exaggerated use of punctuation and capitals, and abbreviations. Adults are, however, more likely to use emoticons than teenagers.

  • 187.
    Lundell, Åse
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    "Jess-who-wasn't-Jess": Double Consciousness and Identity Construction in Helen Oyeyemi's The Icarus Girl2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    During the last decade many female writers of British decent have focused on identity construction and coming of age. These writers have been especially interested in exploring how people living in the diaspora are trying to cope with their ambivalent feelings towards their mixed cultural heritage. Helen Oyeyemi's The Icarus Girl is one of these novels. The novel depicts a young girl's struggle with the dualism within her, being both British and Nigerian, that threatens to dissolve her self-identity. This essay will explore how The Icarus Girl deals with the theme “double consciousness” (imposed binaries) and how the narrative's structure and stylistic devices enable the story to be read (interpreted) from two different perspectives, thus the narrative's structure offers an ambiguous double reading that corresponds to Jessamy's unresolved doubleness. The first reading suggests that the traumatic experience of “double consciousness“ is left in a status quo, or even being fatal, which in the essay is called the Western reading. The second reading suggests a recovery, i.e. that the young protagonist comes to terms with her mixed cultural heritage, the so-called West-African reading. In pursuing this aim I discuss how “double consciousness” in this novel is a traumatic state of mind transferred from mother to daughter, but also how stylistic devices, belonging to the genre of the fantastic, are used to emphasize the theme and make possible the two different readings.

  • 188.
    Lundgren, Helen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Hur förmedlas vetenskapen till allmänheten?: Om läsbarhet och metaforer i populärvetenskapliga artiklar2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We meet different texts daily. These texts have different aims. The question is if and how we understand everything, for example new and complex concepts. Some people mean that texts must be adapted to suite the public. While other people say, it is difficult to find concepts that fit every occasion. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how journalists present difficult information concerning science, to the public. The most popular articles from the newspaper Dagens Nyheter during one week have been analyzed in order to get an answer. The result shows that journalists explain science to the public in a difficult way. The texts are difficult to read and journalists do not use for example metaphors, which is a tool in the mental process of understanding, to explain difficult information. However, there are a lot of linguistic metaphors and several specific underlying conceptual metaphors such as LIFE IS A GAME; LIFE IS A JOURNEY and SCIENCE IS EXPLORATION. Nevertheless, these metaphors do not contribute to the readers’ understanding; the metaphors are just linguistic expressions. In conclusion, I consider the purpose of this research fulfilled. The result shows that the journalists explain science in a difficult way to the public, and to use metaphors to explain difficult information in newspaper articles dealing with science is very unusual.

  • 189.
    Lärkefjord, Bernadette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Teaching English Grammar: Teaching Swedish Students at Upper Secondary Level2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to investigate what different ways there are to teach English grammar at upper secondary level and what guidance experienced teachers have to offer. This is done by studying different theorists’ ideas on language acquisition as well as what researchers’ opinions are on how to teach grammar. I have also interviewed seven experienced teachers who work at upper secondary level.

    The results of this investigation show that explicit grammar teaching has decreased over the years and been replaced by implicit grammar teaching and communication exercises. Grammar teaching has become integrated with activities focusing on meaning and is taught more through examples than by using grammatical terminology. Since students frequently come into contact with English they are not thought to need grammar rules as much, since they learn the language in a native-like way almost. However, they repeatedly make some mistakes. Each teacher had different methods for dealing with these mistakes, but they seemed to be keeping in mind the students’ needs and the curriculum.

    In this study, I will highlight some methods for teaching grammar, factors that can influence learning and provide information on some existing theories about how students learn their second language.

  • 190.
    Löfgren, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Hur lär pedagogen?: Musiken som hjälpmedel vid språkinlärning2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 191.
    Magnusson, Madeleine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    "Not Perfect Grammar, Always Perfect Timing": African American Vernacular English in Black and White Rap Lyrics2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 points / 22,5 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    African American Vernacular English, AAVE, is a variant of English spoken mostly by lower-class black citizens in the US. Since the most popular music genre among African Americans today is rap, this paper will describe what characterizes AAVE and rap music, and explore the use of AAVE in rap lyrics of both black and white rappers.

    AAVE is different from Standard English in several respects; grammatically, phonologically and lexically. Examples of grammatical features in AAVE are invariant be, double negations and the differing use of possessive pronouns.

    The hip hop industry has been, and still is, largely dominated by black performers, and white artists make up only a minority of rappers in the line of business today. Rappers being part of a larger culture, the hip hop nation, they have a language in common, and that language is AAVE. In this paper, a number of lyrics performed both by black and white rap artists have been compared and analyzed, in search of linguistic features of AAVE. This study provides evidence that AAVE is indeed used in rap lyrics, although the use of its features is often inconsistent. It is also shown that AAVE-presence in white rappers’ lyrics exists, but is sparser than in the works of their black equivalents.

  • 192.
    Martinsson, Frida
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Könsneutrala pronomen, användbart eller feministiskt dravel?: En studie om gymnasieelevers inställning till könsneutrala pronomen2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This sociolinguistic study, Gender neutral pronouns, useful or feminist dread?, examines high-school students attitudes and using of gender neutral pronouns. The pronouns that are focused are hen and one because of the hen-debate that was big during and after 2012 where both the public and researcher raised and praised the phenomenon. And in the waves afterwards began one to be discussed as one more way in the genderneutral parlance.

    Which attitudes are the students from three pereparatory and three vocational programs showing and are there any differences? The purpose of this study is formulated in three research questions that examines with survey questions.

    The study finds that the students’ attitudes do not differ very much between the different programs but the attitudes between them do. Both programs shows an equal using of the gender neutral pronouns. They are more comfortable to use he/she and man before hen and one. They did also think that hen was working better when the gender was unknown than for a third gender. The attitude between the programes showed that the prepatory students is more positive than the vocational students.

  • 193.
    Mešinović, Samra
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    "By All the Codes which I Am Acquainted with, I Am a Devilishly Wicked Specimen of the Sex": The Individual/Culture Conflict in Kate Chopin’s The Awakening2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At the turn of the 19th century, ideas promoting women’s rights were sweeping across America. During that time Kate Chopin’s The Awakening was published, portraying a young woman, Edna Pontellier, who after several years of emotional unfullfilment in her marriage questions her place as a woman in her marriage as well in society. Edna’s Presbyterian Kentuckian upbringing is in opposition to Catholic Creole society that her husband belongs to. Creole society, at that time, was governed by its unwritten social codes, which were especially clear on issues concerning women’s traditional roles in society in connection to marriage and social duties. In this essay I present how Edna’s emotional awakening and her struggle to achieve independence are in conflict with the cultural norms that exist in Creole society. Also, I argue that the reason why Edna fails in her search for individual freedom is because her awakening is emotional and not intellectual; she lacks knowledge and cannot perceive herself beyond the conventions that limit and oppress her. Additionally, Edna cannot find guidance in any of the other women because they all act within the frames of the role they are playing.

  • 194.
    Miftar, Fatima
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Languages.
    Cirkorska, Natasza
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Romer och skolan: Romers upplevelser av skolan2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With this study, we want to create an understanding of Roma schooling and try to clarify their situation. There have always been various prejudices and preconceptions about the Roma. People always question Roma schooling and school traditions. People wonder why the Roma over the years have had such poor schooling. Why are many Roma uneducated? These issues come up in all countries where people with Roma origin are living. In this study we will try to acquire more knowledge about Roma and their traditions and culture. Previously, there was not so much written and research about Roma schooling through the years. But nowadays more and more researchers and writers are interested in investigating and writing reports on the Roma school tradition in Sweden. Roma have been in Sweden for over 500 years. In all the years of oppression, discrimination and persecution, the Roma have managed to preserve their language, their traditions and culture. In many countries in Europe where there are people of Roma origin, they do not have the same rights and opportunities as the majority population. One example is the Roma children’s schooling.

  • 195.
    Moberg, Martin
    Karlstad University.
    Providence: H.P. Lovecraft and the puritan tradition2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 196.
    Moberg, Monica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Centrum för språk- och litteraturdidaktik. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education. Karlstad University.
    Responsgruppsarbete: - Är det en lämplig metod inom ämnet svenska?2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 197.
    Moldsvor, Anne-Toril
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Barns tidiga skrivande i skolan: - en studie av barns ordval jämfört med ord i traditionella läseböcker2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to investigate which words the pupils in the two first years in school use in their free writings. I wanted to check if these are the same words as used in ordinary reading books for the same level. If not, I wanted to find how they differ. With this in mind I analyzed some texts from free writings and compared them with texts from ordinary textbooks.

    The result from this investigation shows that the children's texts differ from the ordinary textbooks by that the children use much more words that are more difficult to read than they meet in the textbooks. The children use e.g. words with more syllables, more compound words and more words starting with a plosive compared to the ordinary textbooks.

    If you ask the children themselves, approximately 90 % say that they are able to write when they start school whereas only 15 % consider themselves as readers. This is supported by research that shows that for children between 5 and 9 years it is easier to approach the language through writing than through reading. If they are allowed to use the computer when writing, the motoric difficulties are diminished and the children can concentrate on the content in the texts. If you take the research seriously the free writing should get a larger space in the teaching from the beginning.

    When the children start school, it is important to meet each of them at their own stage of development and take care of their individual knowledge and experience. Because most children think they can write but not read when they start school, the most appropriate should be to start with the writing process when teaching the language.

  • 198.
    Monforte, Pernilla
    Karlstad University, Division for Culture and Communication.
    Upper Secondary Students' Opinions of the Value of Peer Response2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Peer response is a method which is widely used on higher levels of second-language learning in Sweden, such as universities. The approach is not used as much in upper secondary school; and, the aim of this paper is to investigate upper secondary students' opinions of the value of peer response. The aim is also to investigate if the teacher's grading differed between the first version of a text and the final vesrion that had been revised after peer response.

    Research has shown that there seems to be more negotiation of meaning when students are working collaboratively and this can lead to better revisions of written texts, especially in terms of content development. On the other hand, collaborative writing can also create anxiety in some students who therefore dislike peer response. This investigation has shown that students taking part in the investigation are generally positive towards the approach. They also believe that giving and receiving feedback can help them improve their writing. There are, however, a few students who dislike it and want the texts to be read only by the teacher. The investigation has also shown that students mainly focus on formal aspects such as spelling and grammar when giving feedback to each other, whereas content was rarely commented on. Moreover, the results have shown that many of the students' grades improved on the final version compared to the first version. In conclusion, this investigation indicates that peer response could be used as an alternative, or complement, to ordinary teacher-student feedback in upper secondary school.

  • 199.
    Måhl, Anna
    Karlstad University.
    Du kan, men du gör inget.: En studie av utvecklingssamtal på ett gymnasium.2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay I analyse three student care conferences to see whether their content agrees with what Cilla Lindblom Larsson is writing about student care conferences in high school; that they talk about how the boys are behaving at school and the advice and rec-ommendations given are moralizing and rebuking, and secondly study how the conversa-tional structure looks in this discussions.

    In the first part I study what is the main topic of this student care conferences and I find that it does not agree with what is advocated by the directions in the school documents; this talks are not dialogues nor democratic. Neither are they about the development in knowledge of the student thus about the lack of manners of the student instead.

    When comparing my research findings with that Lindblom Larsson describes of student care conferences in high school I find that the substance in two of the conferences (1 & 2) totally agree with her statement.

    In the third conference (3), however, the conditions are quite different; there they don’t talk to rebuke the boy for lack of manners, but nevertheless ten out of fifteen of the teacher opinions end up in what I have named the grey zone. The teacher opinions are ambiguous and can be seen as statements concerning behaviour just as well as knowl-edge. I do point out that due to this ambiguousness Cilla Lindblom Larsson might also have found that the content of the third conference also confirms her result since it is not unlikely that the boy in the third conference did see the teacher opinions I put in the grey zone as remarks concerning his lack of manners rather than his lack of knowledge. As far as I am concerned, in spite of this ambiguousness, the third conference (3) is a more suc-cessful conversation all together simply because in that conversation, in comparison with the other two, dialogue do occur and the talk is held in an atmosphere of positive cordial-ity.

    In the second part of this essay I examine how the conversational structure looks in this discussions and I find that all three of these student care conferences resemble of institu-tional conversations. I show how the distorted balance of power that appears in institu-tional conversations appears in these conversions as well and I exemplify the incidence of ruling skills.

    The whole lot I do to show that the outcome, of a student care conference which is lead by a teacher who has not been properly educated in how to conduct the kind of dialogue intended for this type of conversions, might be that the conditions under which the par-ticipants take part in the discussion are not equal at all.

  • 200.
    Nilsson, Kamilla
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Han/Hon/Hen: en intervjustudie om genus, könsroller och könsneutrala ord2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this interview study I have used qualitative interviews to find out how educators in preschool reason about gender, gender roles and gender neutral words in preschool. The interviews are based on issues concerning awareness about language as a shaping factor of gender, how and what educators do to counteract traditional gender roles, and the use of gender neutral words in preschool.

    The result show that the educators look at children as individuals rather than as carriers of gender, and that the focus can be on a specific child's interest. It it also the individual focus not the language that the educators talk about when it comes to breaking the gender roles in preschool. When talking about gender neutral words they diskuss words that work just as well for both for girls and boys, the swedish gender neutral word “hen” is also mentioned. But in order for gender neutral words to work and be used by the educators in preschools they need more knowledge, it is ultimately the educators who must explain its meaning of it to both children and guardians.

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