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  • 151.
    Buhrkall Lötbrink, Lene
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Arbetskrav i psykiatrisk slutenvård: Värdekonflikt och autonomi samt deras påverkan på vila och återhämtning2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 152.
    Byström, Evelina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Attityder till psykofarmakabehandling och den teoretiska utbildningens inflytande: En enkätstudie om sjuksköterskestudenter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the attitudes toward psychotropic medication as treatment on mental illness among nurse students. Through an electronic survey a quantitative data collection was made. The sample contained nurse students from four different universities in Sweden. The General Social Survey and complementary questions was used to measure attitudes toward psychiatric medications. The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) was used to investigate if attitudes correlated with life satisfaction, thus preferences the individual has to life in general. Data was analyzed with Spearman correlation tests and Mann-Whitney U-tests. The result showed no significant correlation between life satisfaction and attitudes toward psychiatric medications. However the result did show a negative significant correlation between advantages and disadvantages with psychiatric medications. Thus were the participants more positive than negative towards psychotropic medication in general. The result showed no significant difference between the students whether they studied a 7,5 hp course in mental illness and attitudes towards psychiatric medications. The conclusion is that theoretical education within mental illness does not generate a more positive attitude toward psychotropic medication as treatment. To know someone who suffers from or have suffered from mental illness appears to be a variable that generates a more positive attitude. Furthermore life satisfaction does not correlate with attitudes toward psychotropic as treatment.

  • 153.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Digitalisering och hälsa.: Kan coola nya digitala prylar och "appar" hjälpla oss att må bättre?2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag finns en mängd olika digitala lösningar för att hjälpa oss att bli mer hälsosamma. Det finns applikationer, eller ”appar”, för att få oss att äta nyttigare, röra oss mer eller sova bättre, för att bara nämna några få hälsorelaterade områden. Frågan är om och hur de hjälper oss?

  • 154.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Mind over matter: Non-cognitive assessments for the selection of the Swedish voluntary soldier of peace2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was firstly, to investigate if the current selection system mirrors the task of international deployment and voluntariness. Secondly, to investigate if and how non-cognitive assessments of personality and resilience, individual aspects that seem underrepresented in the current selection system, may increment validity to the current selection system. Since 2012 the Swedish Armed Forces is an All-volunteer Force where young men and women voluntarily can apply for a military service. In contrast to conscription, military service today includes compulsory international deployments with different demands on the personnel’s range of possible abilities and skills as well as selection process—yet the current selection system may not sufficiently correspond to the changes.

    The thesis comprises four studies (Study I-IV) with relevant military samples, and aside from Study I, a validation of a short version personality questionnaire (PQ) being used in two of the subsequent studies, Study II-IV had a longitudinal design. Study II shows that the former selection system lacked prognostic value of soldiers’ performance during international deployment, and their ability to readjust at homecoming. Additionally, Study II shows that non-cognitive assessments can be used as predictors for readjustment. Study III indicates that international deployment does not need to be harmful for the psychological well-being and that good health seems to be a stable factor across time and situations. Thus, selection of “good health” and resilience may prove fruitful. Study IV suggests that high motivation to serve may have serious consequences for selection decisions and, in the long run, the recruits’ psychological well-being.

    In sum, this thesis suggests that the current selection system needs adaption to the task of repeated international deployments and to the voluntary applicant pool, and that non-cognitive assessment may increment validity.

  • 155.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Socialt stöd: En explorativ faktoranalys av ett frågeformulär för urvalet till Försvarsmakten2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This study presents an exploratory factor analysis of a questionnaire regar­ding military recruits’ social support from friends and family (i.e., Social support) for their voluntary enlistment, and participation in the basic military training. The participants consisted of the 1290 (1133 men and 157 women) who had been accepted to and started the first rounds of basic military training in the new Swedish Armed Forces All-volunteer Force in 2011. The exploratory factor analysis (Principal Component Analysis, with Oblique-rotation) yielded a simple structure where 11 of the original 13 statements loaded on four related factors. Two of the fac­tors consisted of the statements which were common to all participants, that is, all participants were able to answer them. These two factors re­garded an articulated support for family and friend, and an unspoken dis­approval, respectively. The remaining two factors where specific for the participants who had either been deployed on international operations previously, or were in (or had recently ended) a relationship. The study also explores the relationships between the emerging four factors and two questions regarding the participants’ rating of the importance of social support for their well-being (i.e., Importance of social support), and the prevalence of previous relationship problems (i.e., Relationship problems). However, the structure, and in particular the two latter factors need to be evaluated further, and the results should therefore be interpreted with caution. In addition, the introduction to this study presents a theoretical background to the field of social support, and its importance for military populations.

  • 156.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Berggren, Anders W.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Military capacity and Civil adjustment: Assessments of the "re-usable" peacekeeping soldier for development of a selection system2012In: International Journal of Selection and Assessment, ISSN 0965-075X, E-ISSN 1468-2389, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 171-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated whether “re-usable” soldiers, that is, those who performed well during operations (Military capacity), and were able to readjust post-deployment (Civil adjustment), could be identified pre-deployment. Participants were 364 UN peacekeeping soldiers. Three hypotheses were posed: (a) the selection system for conscripts cannot identify soldiers with low Military capacity, (b) the selection system for conscripts cannot identify soldiers with poor Civil adjustment after deployment, and (c) the two aspects of “re-usability” (Military Capacity and Civil Adjustment) would be intertwined. Results showed that the selection system for conscripts was unable to identify soldiers’ Military Capacity and Civil Adjustment. Results also showed that these two aspects were unrelated, and did not interact. Indications on possible consequences, and improvements were discussed.

  • 157.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Bergkvist, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Welfare technology and user experience: A study of seniors´ expectations on and first impressions of a robotic shower2019In: Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii at Manoa , 2019, p. 4297-4306Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study shows that seniors strive to become more independent and that acceptance of welfare technology needs to be understood in the specific situation. User experiences from welfare technology, such as the robotic shower, that serve in a very intimate situation, may not be comparable to the results from previous studies of, for example, surveillance technology.

    The preliminary results in this paper build on both qualitative and quantitative data, and show that seniors are in general positive to replacing the current shower situation with a more autonomous shower situation as provided by the robotic shower. An important aspect for acceptance was the functionality of the robotic shower. Furthermore, this study showed that the understanding of the shower situation in general can be used for improvement of the current shower situation, to prevent learned helplessness.

  • 158.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Department of Leadership and Management, Swedish National Defence College, Karlstad.
    Carlstedt, Berit
    Department of Leadership and Management, Swedish National Defence College, Karlstad.
    A construct validation of a profession-focused personality questionnaire (PQ) versus the SIMP and the FFPI2010In: European Journal of Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1015-5759, E-ISSN 2151-2426, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 136-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a construct validation of a profession-focussed personality questionnaire (PQ), based on the Big Five, and developed for a military population and context. The sample (N = 363) consisted of participants selected for international services in the Swedish Armed Forces. The structure of the PQ was modelled by means of confirmatory factor analysis, and its convergent validity was tested against the FFPI (A. A. J. Hendricks, K. B. W. Hofstee, & B. de Raad, 1999, 2000) and the SIMP (S. A. Woods & S. E. Hampson, 2005) as correlations. The emergent structure of the PQ - 41 items and seven aspects - showed good internal consistency, and acceptable convergent validity with both criterion instruments. The only non-convergence was found between the Agreeableness aspect of the PQ, Concern for Others, and Agreeableness of the SIMP, most likely due to the broader SIMP factor. The structure of PQ was tested on a new sample (N = 274) and was found stable regarding the factor loadings and the relations between the factors. While the PQ needs to be investigated further, it seems as if it may become a useful tool in the research of military teams and contexts.

  • 159.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences.
    Folkesson, Per
    Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences.
    Expectations of romantic relationships: A comparison between homosexual and heterosexual men with regard to Baxter´s criteria.1999In: Social behavior and personality, ISSN 0301-2212, E-ISSN 1179-6391, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 363-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to Baxter (1986) every relationship has rules which must be followed. If at least one of these rules is broken, it gives the individual the right to breadup the relationship. Baxter identified eight such rules or criteria. The aim of the present  study was to investigate whether or not the expectations of romantic relationships held by homosexual men can be linked to Baxter's criteria. Data were obtained through a questionnaire addressed to 31 homosexual men and 50 heterosexual men. Results indicated that Baxter's criteria can be linked to expectations of romantic relationships held by men regardless of sexual orientation, and that age and experience are more reliable predictors than is sexual orientation.

  • 160.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Fredrik, Hjärthag
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Almkvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Improved resilience and well-being in a Swedish Naval Force after a counter piracy operation off the coast of SomaliaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 161.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    ME01: Beskrivning och uppföljning av deltagarnas psykologiska status före, under och efter insatsen2012Report (Other academic)
  • 162.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Standardiserade beskrivningar för nya psykologiska urvalsinstrument: Separata beskrivningar för antagningsprövningen (AP) och den grundläggande militära utbildningen (GMU)2012Report (Other academic)
  • 163.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Improved resiliency and well-being among military personnel in a Swedish Naval Force after a counter-piracy operation off the coast of Somalia2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 350-358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore: (1) how the psychological health of the members of the first European Union Naval Force (ME01) was affected by international deployment off the coast of Somalia; and (2) if and how organizational and personal factors (e.g., type of personnel category, previous experiences, and resilience) affected their psychological health and well-being post-deployment. The study had an exploratory longitudinal design, where the participants were assessed both before and after deployment (i.e., T1 and T2). The participants (n=129, 120 men, 9 women) were equally distributed between officers (n=68; 64 men, 4 women) and sailors (n=61; 56 men, 5 women). The members' average age was 31years, ranging from 20 to 61. For the majority (78%) ME01 was their first international deployment and officers were, in general, more experienced than sailors. The overall results showed that the members' reported a positive experience with improved resilience and well-being (e.g., sense of coherence). However, the result also showed that type of personnel category (i.e., officer or sailor) affected their psychological health. Why and how these differences among military personnel arise is discussed, but deserves further attention.

  • 164.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Sjöberg, Lennart
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    A comparison of applicants' and incumbents' mean scores on health constructs and personality constructs.: A follow-up study of military recruits in a selection setting2015In: International Journal of Selection and Assessment, ISSN 0965-075X, E-ISSN 1468-2389, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 120-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study looked at the effects of self-enhancement in a real recruitment setting, and included both personality constructs, and the more infrequently studied, health constructs. The participants (N = 202) were assessed first as applicants, and later as incumbents. The result revealed that self-enhancement was more ubiquitous on the personality constructs than on the health constructs. However, the effect sizes were stronger for the latter, and it was twice as likely for the participants to confirm having experienced previous traumatic/stressful events as incumbents compared to as applicants. Implications for self-enhancement on personality and health constructs in military recruitment situations are discussed. 

  • 165.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013). Försvarshögskolan.
    Wallenius, Claes
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Examining the impact of personality and situational factors on decision making among military staffs2014In: Journal of Military Studies, ISSN 1700-3350, Vol. 5, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Military staff performance may be inferior due to several reasons. The purpose of the present survey was to study the impact of stress reactions, personality factors, situation awareness, and maladaptive group dynamics on the frequency of faulty decision-making in Swedish high-level military staffs. Participants were mainly captains and majors, but also lieutenant colonels and colonels took part (n = 256, 61 % response rate). A self-made questionnaire was administered in two staff exercises. Maladaptive group dynamics, stress exposure, lack of situation awareness, and negative stress reactions were the strongest predictors of poor staff performance, while personality had less impact.

  • 166.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Wolgers, Gerhard
    Försvarsmaktens HR Centrum.
    Utvärdering av officersurvalet till Officersprogrammet vid Militärhögskolan Karlberg: Det psykologiska urvalet betydelse för studieprestationen2012Report (Other academic)
  • 167.
    Cannerstad, Christian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Barns fysiska aktivitet på fritiden- ett uppdrag för idrottsläraren?: En kvalitativ studie om hur idrottslärare i grundskolan tänker kring sitt arbete och hur de motiverar elever till fysisk aktivitet på fritiden2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study applied a qualitative approach in form of nine semi-structured interviews as appropriate selection. This mean that the participants would be working as sports teacher at low and middle schools, had a proper sports teacher education, and that they have worked at least one year. The purpose of this study was to investigate how sports teachers working within younger elementary school perceives their own work of motivating students to continue physical activity on their leisure time. Data were processed and analyzed using a thematic analysis. The two themes analyzed were "adapted education" and "Integration of leisure in teaching". The results revealed that participants actively worked with motivating students to continue physical activity on their leisure time. They adapt teaching at group and individual level in terms of feedback, adaptation of lessons, and influence teaching. Furthermore, the results also suggests that participants get in leisure time in teaching, through activities such as sports clubs, technology, and trends that are popular for students.

  • 168. Carlander, Otto
    et al.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Uni- and bimodal threat cueing with vibrotactile and 3D audio technologies in a combat vehicle2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 169. Carlander, Otto
    et al.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Kindström, Mattias
    Horizontal localisation accuracy with COTS and professional 3D audio display technologies2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 170. Carlander, Otto
    et al.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Oskarsson, Per-Anders
    Handling uni- and multimodal threat cueing with simultaneous radio calls in a combat vehicle setting2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 171.
    Carlsson, Tina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Liljestrand, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Extremsportares syn på risker och sensationer: En kvalitatativ studie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The object with this study is to examine phenomenon that motivate high-risk people to repeatedly risk their lives for different sensations and to try to understand the unique experience and gain insight into how extreme athletes view risks and how they make their assessments. Risk taking and sensation is a central idea and the material is analyzed by thematic analysis. The result of the analyze gave seven themes; reality escape, euphoria, mental self-discipline, denial, control, between life and death and changed conditions. The study was performed by recording semi-structured interviews with ten extreme athletes all with experience from sports like mounting climbing, diving and parachuting. This mainly qualitative study has a minor part of quantitative form because a questionarie study have been preformed with the intention to make sure that all the interviewed falls under the category sensation seeker.

    The result indicates a conflict between two contradicting sides where one is about control, security and safety and the other is about euphoria, speed and excitement.

    The conclusion of this study is that the controlling, safe and security side in some way must be suppressed to get the more risk inclined and excitement seeking side to be expressed. Strategies such as denial and mental self discipline are some of the methods extreme athletes use to be able to disregard the risks while the motivation is more about feelings like euphoria.

    Key words: Extreme sports, high risk sports, risky behaviour, sensation seeking and personality trait.

    Title: Extreme athletes’ perceptions of risks and sensations.

  • 172.
    Caruelle, Delphine
    et al.
    BI Norwegian Business Sch, Dept Mkt, N-0484 Oslo, Norway..
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). BI Norwegian Business Sch, Oslo, Norway.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Lervik-Olsen, Line
    BI Norwegian Business Sch, Norway.
    The use of electrodermal activity (EDA) measurement to understand consumer emotions: A literature review and a call for action2019In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 104, p. 146-160Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrodermal activity (EDA) is a psychophysiological indicator of emotional arousal. EDA measurement was first employed in consumer research in 1979 but has been scarcely used since. In the past decade, the ease of access to EDA recording equipment made EDA measurement more frequent in studies of consumer emotions. Additionally, recent calls to include physiological data in consumer studies have been voiced, which in turn is increasing the interest in EDA. Such a growing interest calls for assessing why and how EDA measurement has been used and should be used in consumer research. To this end, we undertook a critical review of studies of consumer emotions that employed EDA measurement. We found that most of these studies did not sufficiently report how they recorded and analyzed EDA data, which in turn impeded the replication of the findings. We therefore make recommendations derived from the psychophysiology literature to help consumer researchers get meaningful insights from EDA measurements. Finally, we call on researchers to be more transparent when reporting how they recorded and analyzed EDA data.

  • 173.
    Carvajal Herrera, Dennis
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Hur påverkas studenters prestation i läsförståelse av klassisk musik i dur och moll?: Ett laboratorieexperiment2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there was a difference on the students’ performance in a reading comprehension test ( TISUS ), depending on the tone (major or minor) of the classical music they were listening to.The survey was conducted as a laboratory experiment in a study-room at the University of Karlstad, based on an independent between-group design. The selection was an opportunity sample of students (N = 26), between the ages 19-33, within the University of Karlstad. The independent variable was the classical music composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, which was divided into the two different tones, major and minor. The dependent variable was the student's performance in reading comprehension. The participants performed a reading comprehension test, consisting of three texts with all its questions to answer on, and background questions and an evaluation of the experiment. The results showed that students who listened to classical music, with the tone of major, performed better in the reading comprehension test. The conclusion is that the impact of the tones major and minor differs on the students’ performance in reading comprehension.

  • 174.
    Christensson, Jenny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Sökande efter mening och identitet - upplevelser i samband med pensionering: En explorativ studie med pensionärers egna berättelser som grund.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a qualitative study aiming to examine peoples’ experiences when retiring. In that purpose a criteria based sample has been used, participants have been asked in that they fulfilled the criteria’s to be a retiree within the age of 65 to 71 years of age. The reason of the age criteria was that the experiences should not be so far away in time. Data has been collected through 11 semi-structured interviews which has been recorded and transcribed ongoing during the collecting of data. Thematic analysis was used as a method of analysis under the premise that it is a flexible method which leaves room for interpretation if adequate depth exists in the material. Four overall themes emerged through the analysis, these are life changes, to leave work, demands changes and last chapter – hope or despair. The themes are founded in retirees’ own stories about their experiences and describes de different aspects of retiring which the respondents has gone through. A deeper analysis of the result gave that the central factors of the experiences is about searching for meaningful activities as a replacement for work and thereby finding a sense of meaning in life. It is also about searching for identity in the new role as a retiree. All together is a lack of meaning in life and uncertainty regarding the own identity reasons for experiencing existential anxiety, coping strategies are used to restore the imbalance sprung from retiring. With this in mind the process is also run through by a positive feeling of freedom in the new situation of being a retiree. The study finishes by proposing future research and applications, there underlying causes for the differences in the experiences and the production of a model over the process in retiring are the main proposals.

  • 175.
    Cirillo, Emilio N. M.
    et al.
    Sapienza Universit`a di Roma.
    Muntean, Adrian
    Eindhoven University of Technology.
    Can cooperation slow down emergency evacuations?2012In: Comptes rendus. Mecanique, ISSN 1631-0721, E-ISSN 1873-7234, Vol. 340, no 9, p. 625-628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the motion of pedestrians through obscure corridors where the lack of visibility hides the precise position of the exits. Using a lattice model, we explore the effects of cooperation on the overall exit flux (evacuation rate). More precisely, we study the effect of the buddying threshold (of no–exclusion per site) on the dynamics of the crowd. In some cases, we note that if the evacuees tend to cooperate and act altruistically, then their collective action tends to favor the occurrence of disasters.

  • 176. Cirillo, Emilio N.M.
    et al.
    Muntean, Adrian
    Eindhoven University of Technology.
    Dynamics of pedestrians in regions with no visibility: A lattice model without exclusion2013In: Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, ISSN 0378-4371, Vol. 392, no 17, p. 3578-3588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the motion of pedestrians through obscure corridors where the lack of visibility (due to smoke, fog, darkness, etc.) hides the precise position of the exits. We focus our attention on a set of basic mechanisms, which we assume to be governing the dynamics at the individual level. Using a lattice model, we explore the effects of non-exclusion on the overall exit flux (evacuation rate). More precisely, we study the effect of the buddying threshold (of no-exclusion per site) on the dynamics of the crowd and investigate to which extent our model confirms the following pattern revealed by investigations on real emergencies: If the evacuees tend to cooperate and act altruistically, then their collective action tends to favor the occurrence of disasters. The research reported here opens many fundamental questions and should be seen therefore as a preliminary investigation of the very complex behavior of the people and their motion in dark regions.

  • 177.
    Conde, Robert
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Yoga - ett självhjälpsverktyg för stressade individer: En randomiserad kontrollerad studie2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 178.
    Curseu, Petru Lucian
    et al.
    Tilburg University; Cognitrom.
    Krehel, Oleh
    Eindhoven University of Technology .
    Evers, Joep H. M.
    Eindhoven University of Technology .
    Muntean, Adrian
    Eindhoven University of Technology.
    Cognitive distance, absorptive capacity and group rationality: A simulation study2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the results of a simulation study in which we explore the joint effect of group absorptive capacity (as the average individual rationality of the group members) and cognitive distance (as the distance between the most rational group member and the rest of the group) on the emergence of collective rationality in groups. We start from empirical results reported in the literature on group rationality as collective group level competence and use data on real-life groups of four and five to validate a mathematical model. We then use this mathematical model to predict group level scores from a variety of possible group configurations (varying both in cognitive distance and average individual rationality). Our results show that both group competence and cognitive distance are necessary conditions for emergent group rationality. Group configurations, in which the groups become more rational than the most rational group member, are groups scoring low on cognitive distance and scoring high on absorptive capacity.

  • 179.
    Dahlberg, Elin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Affekter och flow i dans: En experimentell undersökning om affekter och flow i dans2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftade till att testa effekterna av dans på kortsiktigt affektivt välmående samt flow hos unga kvinnor. Vidare var syftet att se om det finns någon skillnad mellan dansstilarna balett och improvisation med avseende på dessa variabler. Ett fältexperiment genomfördes med en mixed design där Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale – PANAS delades ut för att mäta positiva och negativa affekter före och efter improvisationslektioner samt balettlektioner i dans. För att mäta grad av upplevd flow delades även Flow Short Scale ut efter danslektionerna. Resultatet visade en signifikant huvudeffekt för både positiva och negativa affekter med en ökning av de positiva och en minskning av de negativa under lektionen. Ingen signifikant interaktionseffekt eller effekt av grupp uppkom. Vad gäller grad av upplevd flow under lektionen fanns inga signifikanta skillnader mellan grupperna. Slutsatsen blev att dans kan förbättra kortsiktigt affektivt välmående hos unga kvinnor. Eftersom ett tydligt samband mellan positiva affekter och flow uppkom finns möjligheten att upplevelsen av flow kan förklara det ökade affektiva välmåendet. Skillnader mellan balett och improvisationsdans är svåra att uttala sig om på grund av avsaknad av lärare under balettlektionerna samt ett litet deltagarantal. Eftersom välmående bland befolkningen är en förutsättning för att samhället ska fungera är resultatet av vikt på en samhällsnivå, vilket skulle kunna innebära att samhället bör öppna upp för dans inom olika områden, till exempel i skolan. Vidare forskning behöver dock genomföras kring dans i relation till välmående för att få en klarare bild av detta samband.

  • 180.
    Dalsborn, Sabina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Att uppleva konst som buller.: Atonal musik som verktyg för träning av selektiv uppmärsksamhet i kanpen mot bullerrelaterad stress.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Noise related stress and its consequences affect people regardless of age and is a problem that increases constantly. Among different treatments, music appers to be a common feature with a clear dominance of tonal genre among the receptive methods. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether negative emotions and negative cognitive assessments elicited by stimulus atonal music can be positively affected through organized selective attention directed towards individual sound elements. To confirm that atonal music can be understood as a synonym for the noise of an average listener, and because of a lack of relevant research, a pilot study was carried out with 30 participants. The main study included data collection from another 37 participants. Repeated measurements were collected over the Internet as self-reported studies and analyzed using analysis of variance (mixed-ANOVA) and t-tests. Results have shown that it is possible, with the aid of selective attention, to affect and reduce negative emotions and cognitions induced by atonal music. It is suggested that both conventional opinions about atonal music and its sound characteristics create the opportunity to use this form of art to promote successful stress management during exposure to auditory stimuli.

  • 181.
    Danielsen, Micela
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstads Universitet.
    Attityd till högre utbildning på universitet/högskola och studieengagemang bland gymnasieelever på bruksort2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined high school students’ attitudes to higher education at university/college and their study engagement in an industrial town in klarälvdalen in the county of Värmland. The main research question was whether there are any differences between students in vocational and theoretically oriented programs regarding their attitude to higher education and study engagement. The results was also compared with a study with the same research question conducted in Countryside town in fryksdalen, Värmland county to see whether attitude and student engagement differ between high school students in different parts of Värmland. The method used was quantitative with data collected by using questionnaires. The sample consisted of 107 upper secondary students where 55 students studied in the theory-based programs and 52 students were students in vocational programs. The results show that it is different in attitude factor 1(Views on likelihood of attending university), 2 (Likelihood of friends attending university) and 3 (Family attending university) between the vocational program and theoretically driven program. In study engagement differs factor 4 (aspirations and goal) between the two approaches. In the comparison between the regions there is a difference in attitude factor 2 (Likelihood of friends attending university) and factor 3 (Family attending university).

    Conclusions that can to be drawn using the results of the study which were that vocational high school students in each city in the klarälvdalen and fryksdalen estimated lower factors for attitude and engagement that these students' engagement could possibly be strengthened in order to achieve a desirable attitude to higher education at university / college.

     

  • 182.
    Denise, Gustafsschöld
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Stereotyper kring hundägare: En studie om stereotyper avseende svenska hundägare2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stereotypes are common ways for human beings to simplify and facilitate situations they face in their surroundings. Despite the advantages of simplyfied living, stereotypes could lead to negative consequences, such as discrimination or exclusion. 

    This study investigated Swedes ideas regarding typical owners of five different dog breeds (labrador, poodle, pitbull, dachshund and chihuahua). The aim of the study was to examine whether stereotypes exist regarding swedish dog owners, and if these stereotypes differ between dog owners and non dog owners. 

    The study was performed using a questionnaire which was posted om Facebook. 120 persons participated, 27 men and 93 women. The participants were between 18 and 60 years old (mean=29,6 Sd=9,6). Each participant was asked to answer several questions regarding their idea of typical dog owners of the five breeds, and then grade how well they agreed to twelve statements regarding acceptance of stereotypes in general. At the end of the questionnaire, the participant answered background questions such as age, gender, level of education, if they themselves were dog owners and their attitude towards dogs in general.  

    The results show that stereotypes exist in great extent regarding the appearance of owners to different breeds. There was not much difference between the two groups when it came to stereotypical thinking. 

    Regarding acceptance for stereotypes in general this study showed that the participants show a low degree of acceptance, which is interesting because they at the same time showed stereotypical thinking when they answered the questions about the different breeds. 

    This study has shown that stereotypical thinking most likely occurs regarding owners of certain breeds. To sensitize stereotypes occurrence may be an important aspect to reduce the risk of further stereotypes.

  • 183. Derefeldt, Gunilla
    et al.
    Skinnars, Örjan
    Alfredson, Jens
    Eriksson, Lars
    National Defence Research Establishment, Division of Human Sciences.
    Andersson, Peter
    Westlund, Johan
    Berggrund, Ulf
    Holmberg, J
    Santesson, R
    Improvement of tactical situation awareness with colour-coded horizontal-situation displays in combat aircraft1999In: Displays (Guildford), ISSN 0141-9382, E-ISSN 1872-7387, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 171-184Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 184.
    Diana, Rama
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Sömnproblemet insomni för prediktion av subjektiv uppfattning av dysfunktionella föreställningar och tankar: En kvantitativ studie om sömnproblemet insomni och subjektiv uppfattning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine insomnia and to examine whether insomnia have any possible impact on individual´s subjective perception. The study was conducted through a quantitative survey which was constructed in the program Survey and Report, the completed questionnaire was then sent out to forums. The population studied were participants from the health care profession and a total of 147 participants took part. The participants' sleep problems were measured by a self-estimated sleep patterns based on the instrument ISI Insomnia Severity Index and the participant's cognitive ability was measured based on the measuring instrument DBAS 10- Dysfunctional belifs and attitudes about sleep. The study examined through a correlation and regression analysis. The results showed a positive correlation between insomnia and subjective perception. By regression analysis demonstrated a relatively low value of variance. The conclusion of the study is that insomnia is a common problem for individuals in health care occupation, and insomnia has an effect on subjective perception but there are other influencing factors which also play a role in the outcome.

  • 185.
    Dijkstra, Erika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Musikens effekt på kognitiva processer: Musiken som möjligt studiehjälpmedel2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose was to answer the question whether music has an effect or not, on students’ problem solving connected to different cognitive processes such as concentration/attention, creativity and logical thinking.

    An experiment was conducted where 30 university students were evenly distributed into two groups, one music group and one control group. The participants in the music group were tested in creativity, logical thinking and concentration through written tests while they were listening to music. The participants also rated their own impulsivity in order to discover any eventual differences between the groups that could affect the results. The control group did the same tests in silence.

    A significant result was discovered in one of the correlation tests. It was found that in the music group there was a correlation between impulsivity and concentration (r = .55, p= .04). A higher level of impulsivity in a participant resulted in more time completing the concentration. The result of the problem solving tests showed no significant differences between the music group and the control group. There were also no significant differences between the groups in connection to their impulsivity. And since there were no significant results, no conclusion can be drawn and the null hypothesis can’t be rejected. 

  • 186.
    Dindar, Katja
    et al.
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Lindblom, Anne
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013). University of Eastern Finland.
    Kärnä, Eija
    University of Eastern Finland.
    The construction of communicative (in)competence in autism:: a focus on methodological decisions2017In: Disability & Society, ISSN 0968-7599, E-ISSN 1360-0508, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 868-891Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on people diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (henceforth autism) is often based upon biomedical understanding. Such understanding tends to view the characteristics related to autism diagnosis, such as the lack of or atypical use of speech, as a sign of incompetence that can be reduced as an underlying pathology of an individual. However, little research has explicitly investigated how methodological decisions in research might influence the perception of these characteristics. This paper draws on two separate research cases involving minimally verbal children with autism to examine how methodological decisions in research design, data collection, data analysis, and data interpretation influence the construction of communicative (in)competence in these children. The paper encourages researchers to carefully consider and reflect on the methodological decisions they make throughout the research process.

  • 187.
    Dost, Zarlasht
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Utvärdering av samtalen vid Krismottagningen för män: Utvärdering av verkan av samtal på psykisk hälsa vid en krismottagning för män2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The aim of the present study was to use a quasi-experimental design with before-after measurement to investigate the effects of counseling on men's mental health concerning anxiety, depression, sleep disturbance, and sense of coherence after contact with the Crisis Clinic for Men (Kfm) in Karlstad, Sweden. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were used. The main focus was on the effect of counseling sessions as well as the participants’ initial reasons for coming to therapy and whether they considered to have received help related to their reason(s) for contacting the clinic. Seventy-five (75) men participated, of which the results of 53 men, aged 19-72 years (M = 37.32), could be used. Data from the remaining 22 subjects could not be used, as they did not allow a before-after result. The results suggest that men who sought help through Kfm were helped by the counseling sessions; there were significant improvements for all variables. For depression, however, there was an interaction effect that emphasizes the importance of the breakdown of number of counseling sessions, namely that the groups that received 4-6 sessions and 7-15 sessions showed a decrease in depression whereas the group with 2-3 sessions did not. The results also show that the reasons for seeking help were mental illness, needing someone to talk to, traumatic events, relationship problems and crime, and that the men considered having received the help they wanted. What has been most helpful for them is the ventilating effect of counseling, self-knowledge, self-control as a tool and to discuss with an expert. The conclusions are that counseling had the intended effects, but not for decreasing depression for the group with 2-3 sessions. Further research is needed to increase understanding of the causes of early patient dropout and to further investigate the effect of the number of counseling sessions on treatment result.

    Keywords: Mental health, crisis, therapies, counseling, crisis clinic for men. 

  • 188.
    Draxler, Helena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Project Support i svensk socialtjänst: En genomförbarhetsstudie av ett föräldrastödsprogram för våldsutsatta föräldrar och deras barn som utvecklat beteendeproblematik2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Project Support (PS) is a parenting programme that has been developed in the United States for mothers and children exposed to intimate partner and for their children with subsequent emotional and behavioural problems. The aim of this licentiate thesis is to explore how the programme was received by counsellors and parents in the context of Swedish social service, taking account of the differences between the countries.

    Two studies were conducted. In the first study (study I), counsellors (n 11) and mothers (n 13) from three municipalities and Sweden’s largest shelter were interviewed about their experiences of giving and receiving the parenting intervention. The interviews were separately analysed using thematic analysis and were unitised by a following synthesis. The results were grouped into six themes, which indicated initial doubts to the intervention, and doubts about the participants’ own capability. The themes also showed that working with PS led to an experience of positive change in children’s behaviour, as well as highlighted the need of competent counsellors and adaptation for cultural differences. The second study (study II) evaluated the effect of the intervention according to parents’ parenting capacity (n 35) and their children’s psychological symptoms (19 boys and 16 girls, mean age 6year). The results showed that the effectiveness of PS in Sweden can be sustained to almost the same extent as shown in previous studies done in the US. Primarily, the children’s emotional symptoms, conduct problems and hyperactivity decreased, and the parents behaved more positively with their children. The parents also experienced reduced helplessness and fear in their relationships with their children. There was also a covariance between the parents’ emotions (helplessness and fear) and the children’s conduct problems and hyperactivity as they decreased.

    The conclusions drawn in this licentiate thesis are first, that PS is a feasible parenting programme for parents exposed to intimate partner violence and their children who have developed emotional and behavioural problems, and second, that organisational conditions need to be met in order for the programme to be implemented in Swedish social services. 

  • 189.
    Draxler, Helena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    A modification of enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy for Anorexia Nervosa – a case study2012In: Clinical Case Studies, ISSN 1534-6501, E-ISSN 1552-3802, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 201-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study illustrates the treatment of an adult woman who was diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN). For approximately 10 years, the client had suffered from various forms of eating disorders and had had several unsuccessful encounters with the health care services. In this study, she was treated with a modification of enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-E). CBT-E is a relatively new treatment guide with a transdiagnostic perspective on eating disorders. In all, the treatment consisted of 14 sessions where most sessions were held on a weekly basis. Thereafter, a maintenance and follow-up was conducted via email and with the aid of self-help literature. Treatment time lasted for 8 months followed by a follow-up of 4 months. In this study, the content of each session is described, as are the modifications that were made. The modifications were made to increase motivation and self-esteem, as well as perceived control of eating, which, in itself, is a contribution to increased efficiency and a clarification of important treatment components. Apart from a description of treatment interventions, the study shows the weight gain and other clinically significant components regarding eating disorders that concern, among other things, self-esteem and general mental health. The results of this study demonstrate that this treatment, with the proposed modifications, has been highly effective for this client and hence provides a positive anticipation that this might be a more effective treatment in general for people with AN.

  • 190.
    Draxler, Helena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Manuscript- The sustainability of effects when transferring a supportive programme for parents exposed to intimate partner violence and their children from the US to SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 191.
    Draxler, Helena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Replicability of effect when transferring a supportive programme for parents exposed to intimate partner violence and their children from the US to Sweden2019In: Child Care in Practice, ISSN 1357-5279, E-ISSN 1476-489X, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 367-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transferring an evidence-based parenting programme for parents exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) and their children with emotional and behavioural problems reveals the extent to which cultural and social aspects can interfere with the programme’s effectiveness. Feasibility studies are of value in such circumstances, and the aim of the present feasibility study was to explore, on a small scale and in its natural context, whether the effects of the parenting programme, Project Support, were replicable when transferred to another country. In this study, the programme, which was originally designed for parents exposed to IPV and their children who had developed psychological symptoms in the United States, was evaluated in an equivalent population receiving Swedish social services. Parents (n = 35) self-assessed their parenting capacity and their children’s (n = 35) psychological symptoms. The results indicate that the parents improved their parenting capacity, and feelings of helplessness and fear regarding parenting their children decreased. Those feelings were also associated with the children’s psychological symptoms. The promising results are similar to the findings of previous research from the US, and further implementation and evaluation of Project Support in Sweden are indicated.

  • 192.
    Draxler, Helena
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    McDonald, Renée
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Manuscript- Counselors' and mothers' experiences of a parenting program for mothers exposed to intimate partner violence—A qualitative feasibility studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 193.
    Edberg, Therese
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Sambandet mellan arbetsengagemang och samvetsgrannhet: En enkätundersökning om kvinnliga undersköterskor i äldreomsorgen2018Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande studie undersökte sambandet mellan personlighetsdimensionen samvetsgrannhet och det organisationspsykologiska fenomenet arbetsengagemang hos kvinnliga undersköterskor i äldreomsorgen. Enkätundersökning omfattade 70 respondenter. Resultatetet visade på hög grad av samvetsgrannhet, medelnivå av vitalitet, medelnivå av försjunkenhet i arbetet, medelhög entusiasm samt medelhög arbetsengagemang som helhet hos respondenterna. Resultatet tyder också på ett medelstarkt positivt signifikant samband mellan samvetsgrannhet och vitalitet, samvetsgrannhet och försjunkenhet i arbetet samt samvetsgrannhet och arbetsengagemang som helhet. Inget signifikant samband visades mellan samvetsgrannhet och entusiasm. Följaktligen tyder resultatet på att respondenternas samvetsgrannhet kan ses som en resurs för att centrera deras energi på arbetet, som vidare bidrar till högre arbetsengagemang. Det medelhöga arbetsengagemanget som helhet är också betydelsefullt för att respondenterna ska uppleva arbetsrelaterade emotioner och kognitioner på ett positivt vis. Högt arbetsengagemang kan vidare ses som en motpol till utbrändhet. Slutsatsen är att hög samvetsgrannhet är en betydelsefull resurs för både medarbetare och deras arbetsgivare för att motverka utbrändhet som skulle kunna utvecklas av ett slitsamt arbete som undersköterskor i äldreomsorgen har.

  • 194.
    Edberg, Therese
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Sambandet mellan subjektivt välbefinnande och anknytningsmönster: En enkätundersökning om socionomstudenter i Sverige2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between subjective well-being and attachment style within social welfare students in a quantitative questionnaire survey. To measure subjective well-being the instrument Satisfaction With Life Scale was used. To measure attachment style the instrument Attachment Style Questionnaire was used. The data collection took place via the learning platform It's Learning and the website facebook as a cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 165 respondents. A standard method performed a multiple regression analysis. Based on a theoretical perspective, the interpretation of the result is that the variation in the attachment aspects trust and need of confirmation explain 30 per cent in total of the variation of subjective well-being among social welfare students. Possible interpretations based on the regression analysis are that subjective well-being increases if trust increases and need of confirmation is kept constant, and that subjective well-being decreases if need of confirmation increases and trust is maintained constant. Furthermore, the result showed that respondents are a bit satisfied with their lives. Being a bit satisfied is a positive direction of life satisfaction, which is above the level of being neutral (neither satisfied nor dissatisfied). The conclusion is that the respondents subjective well-being correlate with the attachment aspects trust and need of confirmation. As the respondents most common attachment styles were found to be anxious- ambivalent attachment or anxious-avoidant attachment, they may be in need of support and assistance to handle it. The support and assistance could be a security-creating relationship from a mentor or curator that could increase their trust. 

  • 195. Edebol, H.
    et al.
    Bood, Sven-Åke
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Case studies on chronic whiplash associated disorders and their treatment using flotation-REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation technique)2008In: Qualitative Health Research, 18, 480-488Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 196.
    Edebol, Hanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Global Assessment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Examining Objective Measures of Hyperactivity, Impulsivity and Inattention in Adults2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to examine objective laboratory measures of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adult persons and to develop measures for diagnosis and treatment using a psychometric instrument called the Quantified Behavior Test Plus. The instrument objectively quantifies cardinal symptom manifestations in adult ADHD using motion tracking devices and continuous performance testing. Paper I-IV suggest that ADHD predisposes adult persons to perform poorer on continuous performance tasks and to have higher levels of motor activity while performing these tasks as compared to other clinical as well as non-clinical groups. Performance by adults with ADHD is normalized following stimulant treatment which implicates therapeutic effects and measures of response to treatment and remission for ADHD is suggested.

    Paper I concludes that the psychometric instrument needs to be calibrated with regard to adult ADHD and emphasizes the importance of a composite measure for the disorder. Paper II generates two new measures, the Weighed Core Symptom scale (WCS) - a composite measure of adult ADHD ranging from 0 to 100, and Prediction of ADHD (PADHD) - a categorical variable of the diagnostic status with good predictive power. A majority of participants with ADHD has low points on WCS (indicating high levels of symptoms) and a majority of non-ADHD normative participants has high points on WCS (indicating low levels of symptoms). Paper III examines WCS and PADHD among complex clinical groups with shared symptoms vis-à-vis ADHD. Here, findings from Paper II are replicated since participants with ADHD present the highest level of global symptoms, followed by participants with bipolar II disorder and borderline personality disorder, participant with diconfirmed ADHD and finally, non-clinical participants has the lowest level of global symptoms. In Paper IV, the measures are proposed as indications of response to treatment and remission after titration with stimulant treatment and WCS indicates response to small changes in dose level.

    The major findings of the present thesis may be summarized as the construction of two new objective measures for ADHD in adult persons with practical implications for diagnosis and treatment. Hyperactivity is the most specific marker of ADHD in both men and women, followed by the cognitive markers of inattention and impulsivity. The composite measure, WCS, quantifies the global amount of ADHD symptoms and provides the most sensitive measure for the disorder. PADHD and WCS may not replace a thorough neuropsychiatric assessment and further studies promoting diagnostic subtype stratification is suggested. Future studies may want to consider these measures in outcome-based investigations of treatment efficacy as well as in the study of neuropsychological endophenotypes. Practical implications include clinical strategies to enhance objectivity during assessment as well as optimizing beneficial effects of treatment and attaining remission.

     

     

  • 197.
    Edebol, Hanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Measuring Cardinal Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults: Examining objective measures of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this licentiate thesis is to examine measures of ADHD in adult persons. An instrument that reports objective measures of cardinal symptoms of ADHD in adult persons is used for this purpose. The instrument is called the Quantified Behavior Test Plus and records motor activity by means of an infrared motion tracking system and cognitive deficits with a continuous performance test. Paper I investigates sensitivity and specificity for the test with regard to ADHD in a clinic-referred sample. When the test was compared to clinical assessments, results yielded 83 % sensitivity and 57 % specificity. The high level of comorbid psychiatric disorders motivates continuous search for a composite measure of ADHD cardinal symptoms and better understanding of normative behavior in healthy participants. In Paper II, a composite measure of ADHD called the Weighed Core Symptom scale (WCS) is developed. WCS integrates measures of ADHD cardinal symptoms on a ten point scale. A majority of participants with ADHD has low points on the scale (indicating high levels of symptoms) and a majority of healthy normative participants has high points on the scale (indicating low levels of symptoms). Levels of sensitivity and specificity for the test were examined with a measure called Prediction of ADHD (PADHD), and results yielded 86 % sensitivity and 83 % specificity. The measures developed in Paper II are tentative and needs to be tested in further studies in order to better understand behavior manifestations of ADHD in adult persons.

  • 198.
    Edebol, Hanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Helldin, Lars
    NU health care.
    Holmberg, Ebba
    NU health care.
    Gustafsson, Stig-Arne
    NU health care.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    In search for objective measures of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder using the Quantified Behaviour Test Plus2011In: Europe's Journal of Psychology, ISSN 1841-0413, E-ISSN 1841-0413, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 443-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical assessment tools for adult ADHD such as rating scales, interviews and behavior observations are often based on subjective judgments which enhance the risk of overlooking or misinterpreting symptoms. In search for objective measures of adult ADHD, the present study investigated levels of sensitivity and specificity for the Quantified Behavior Test Plus, QbTest-Plus, in adult patients (N = 19) awaiting clinical assessment for ADHD. QbTest-Plus report objective measures of ADHD core symptoms using an infrared motion tracking system and a continuous performance test. The measures were collected and evaluated previous to clinical assessment and compared regarding the diagnosis of ADHD. Sensitivity for detecting ADHD with QbTest-Plus was 83 % and specificity was 57 %. The results, possibly affected by confounding factors, suggest further examination of calibrated and objective measure for the QbTest-Plus with regard to ADHD in adults.

     

  • 199.
    Edebol, Hanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Helldin, Lars
    Department of Psychiatry, NU-health care, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Evidence Research and Development Center Göteborg Sweden.
    Measuring Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder using the Quantified Behaviour Test Plus2013In: PsyCh Journal, ISSN 2046-0260, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 48-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, ADHD, occurs in about 5 % of the adult population and includes cardinal symptoms of hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity that may be difficult to identify with clinical routine methods. Continuous performance tests are objective measures of inattention and impulsivity that, combined with objective measures of motor activity, facilitate identification of ADHD among adults. The aim of the present study was to examine sensitivity, specificity and a composite measure of ADHD using objective measures of the ADHD-cardinal symptoms in adult participants with ADHD and non-ADHD normative participants.

    Cardinal symptoms were measured in 55 participants having ADHD, 202 non-ADHD normative participants, as well as 84 ADHD normative participants using the Quantified Behavior Test Plus, QbTest-Plus. This test measures inattention and impulsivity with a continuous performance test and hyperactivity with a motion tracking system.

    A predictive variable for detection of ADHD called Prediction of ADHD, PADHD, yielded 86 % sensitivity and 83 % specificity. A composite measure of ADHD cardinal symptoms was developed with a Weighed Core Symptoms scale, WCS, that indicates the total amount of ADHD symptoms on a numeric scale from 0 to 100.

    The total amount of ADHD symptoms was measured on a scale and predicted with the categorical variable in a majority of the cases in the present study. Further studies are needed in order to confirm the results with regard to additional clinical and normative samples. Careful consideration of potential gender and diagnostic subtype differences are noteworthy aspects for future examinations of the new instruments.

  • 200.
    Edebol, Hanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Helldin, Lars
    The NU-Health Care, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Division of Psychology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Objective measures of behavior manifestations in adult ADHD and differentiation from participants with Bipolar II disorder, Borderline personality disorder, participants with disconfirmed ADHD as well as Normative participants2012In: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health, ISSN 1745-0179, E-ISSN 1745-0179, Vol. 8, p. 134-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The present study evaluated two psychometric instruments derived from the objective measurement of adult ADHD using the Quantified Behavior Test Plus. The instruments were examined in ADHD versus a clinical group with overlapping symptoms including borderline personality disorder and bipolar II disorder, and another clinical group with participants assessed for but disconfirmed a diagnosis of ADHD as well as adult normative participants.

    Methods: The Quantified Behavior Test Plus includes Continuous Performance Testing and a Motion Tracking System with parameters related to attention and activity operationalized as the cardinal symptoms of ADHD and then summarized into a Weighed Core Symptoms scale with ten cut-points ranging from 0 to 100. A categorical predictor variable called Prediction of ADHD was used to examine the levels of sensitivity and specificity for the Quantified Behavior Test Plus with regard to ADHD.

    Results: The Weighed Core Symptoms scale separated ADHD and normative participants from each other as well as from the two clinical reference groups. The scale reported highest levels of core symptoms in the ADHD group and the lowest level of core symptoms in the normative group. Analyses with Prediction of ADHD yielded 85 % specificity for the normative group, 87 % sensitivity for the ADHD group, 36 % sensitivity for the bipolar II and borderline group and 41 % sensitivity for the group with a disconfirmed diagnosis of ADHD.

    Conclusions: The Weighed Core Symptoms scale facilitated objective assessment of adult ADHD insofar that the ADHD group presented more core symptoms than the other two clinical groups and the normative group. Sensitivity for the Quantified Behavior Test Plus was lower in complex clinical groups with Bipolar II disorder, Borderline disorder and in patients with a disconfirmed diagnosis of ADHD. The psychometric instruments may be further evaluated with regard to well-documented and effective treatment programs for ADHD core symptoms.

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