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  • 151.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Choi, H
    Schmidbauer, N
    Spengler, J
    Sundell, J
    Sources of propylene glycol and glycol ethers in air at home2010In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 7, no 12, p. 4213-4237Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 152.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Choi, H
    Schmidbauer, N
    Spengler, J
    Sundell, J
    Hasselgren, M
    Common Household Chemicals and the Allergy Risks in Pre-School Age Children2010In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 153.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, MSSM, New York.
    Gennings, C.
    Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, MSSM, New York.
    A novel approach to chemical mixture risk assessment: Linking data from population based epidemiology and experimental animal tests2018In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 295, p. S52-S52Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 154.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Hederos, C-A
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Hedlin, G
    Six-year follow-up of an intervention to improve the management of preschool children with asthma2009In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 98, no 12, p. 1939-1944Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 155.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Holme, J
    Hagerhed-Engman, L
    Sundell, J
    Mattsson, J
    Culturable mold in indoor air and its association with moisture-related problems and asthma and allergy among Swedish children2010In: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 20, p. 329-340Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 156.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, NY, United States.
    Kitraki, E.
    National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greec.
    Stamatakis, A.
    National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Panagiotidou, E.
    National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greec.
    Rudén, C.
    tockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Shu, H.
    tockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindh, C.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Ruegg, J.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gennings, C.
    Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, NY, United States.
    A Novel Approach to Chemical Mixture Risk Assessment—Linking Data from Population-Based Epidemiology and Experimental Animal Tests2019In: Risk Analysis, ISSN 0272-4332, E-ISSN 1539-6924, Vol. 39, no 10, p. 2259-2271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans are continuously exposed to chemicals with suspected or proven endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Risk management of EDCs presents a major unmet challenge because the available data for adverse health effects are generated by examining one compound at a time, whereas real-life exposures are to mixtures of chemicals. In this work, we integrate epidemiological and experimental evidence toward a whole mixture strategy for risk assessment. To illustrate, we conduct the following four steps in a case study: (1) identification of single EDCs (“bad actors”)—measured in prenatal blood/urine in the SELMA study—that are associated with a shorter anogenital distance (AGD) in baby boys; (2) definition and construction of a “typical” mixture consisting of the “bad actors” identified in Step 1; (3) experimentally testing this mixture in an in vivo animal model to estimate a dose–response relationship and determine a point of departure (i.e., reference dose [RfD]) associated with an adverse health outcome; and (4) use a statistical measure of “sufficient similarity” to compare the experimental RfD (from Step 3) to the exposure measured in the human population and generate a “similar mixture risk indicator” (SMRI). The objective of this exercise is to generate a proof of concept for the systematic integration of epidemiological and experimental evidence with mixture risk assessment strategies. Using a whole mixture approach, we could find a higher rate of pregnant women under risk (13%) when comparing with the data from more traditional models of additivity (3%), or a compound-by-compound strategy (1.6%).

  • 157.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai.
    Lindh, C.
    Lunds universitet.
    Reichenberg, A.
    Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York.
    Wikström, S.
    Örebro University.
    Unenge Hallerbäck, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Evans, S. F.
    Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai.
    Sathyanarayana, S.
    University of Washington, Seattle.
    Barrett, E. S.
    Rutgers School of Public Health, Piscataway, NJ.
    Nguyen, R. H. N.
    University of Minnesota.
    Bush, N. R.
    University of California, San Francisco.
    Swan, S. H.
    Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai.
    Association of Prenatal Phthalate Exposure with Language Development in Early Childhood2018In: JAMA pediatrics, ISSN 2168-6203, E-ISSN 2168-6211, Vol. 172, no 12, p. 1169-1176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Importance: Prenatal exposure to phthalates has been associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes, but little is known about the association with language development. Objective: To examine the association of prenatal phthalate exposure with language development in children in 2 population-based pregnancy cohort studies. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data for this study were obtained from the Swedish Environmental Longitudinal Mother and Child, Asthma and Allergy (SELMA) study conducted in prenatal clinics throughout Värmland county in Sweden and The Infant Development and the Environment Study (TIDES) conducted in 4 academic centers in the United States. Participants recruited into both studies were women in their first trimester of pregnancy who had literacy in Swedish (SELMA) or English or Spanish (TIDES). This study included mothers and their children from both the SELMA study (n = 963) and TIDES (n = 370) who had complete data on prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite levels, language delay, and modeled covariables. For SELMA, the data were collected from November 1, 2007, to June 30, 2013, and data analysis was conducted from November 1, 2016, to June 30, 2018. For TIDES, data collection began January 1, 2010, and ended March 29, 2016, and data analysis was performed from September 15, 2016, to June 30, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mothers completed a language development questionnaire that asked the number of words their children could understand or use at a median of 30 months of age (SELMA) and 37 months of age (TIDES). The responses were categorized as fewer than 25, 25 to 50, and more than 50 words, with 50 words or fewer classified as language delay. Results: In the SELMA study, 963 mothers, 455 (47.2%) girls, and 508 [52.8%] boys were included. In TIDES, 370 mothers, 185 (50.0%) girls, and 185 (50.0%) boys were included in this analysis. The prevalence of language delay was 10.0% in both SELMA (96 reported) and TIDES (37 reported), with higher rates of delay in boys than girls (SELMA: 69 [13.5%] vs 27 [6.0%]; TIDES: 12 [12.4%] vs 14 [7.6%]). In crude analyses, the metabolite levels of dibutyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate were statistically significantly associated with language delay in both cohorts. In adjusted analyses, a doubling of prenatal exposure of dibutyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate metabolites increased the odds ratio (OR) for language delay by approximately 25% to 40%, with statistically significant results in the SELMA study (dibutyl phthalate OR, 1.29 [95% CI, 1.03-1.63; P =.03]; butyl benzyl phthalate OR, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.07-1.49; P =.003]). A doubling of prenatal monoethyl phthalate exposure was associated with an approximately 15% increase in the OR for language delay in the SELMA study (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.00-1.31; P =.05), but no such association was found in TIDES (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.79-1.23). Conclusions and Relevance: In findings from this study, prenatal exposure to dibutyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate was statistically significantly associated with language delay in children in both the SELMA study and TIDES. These findings, along with the prevalence of prenatal exposure to phthalates, the importance of language development, and the inconsistent results from a 2017 Danish study, suggest that the association of phthalates with language delay may warrant further examination.

  • 158.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Moniruzzaman, Syed
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Larsson, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Boman Lindström, Cecilia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Hasselgren, Mikael
    Centre for Clinical Research, County Council of Värmland, Karlstad.
    Bodin, Anna
    Centre for Clinical Research, County Council of Värmland, Karlstad.
    von Kobyletzki, Laura B.
    Centre for Clinical Research, County Council of Värmland, Karlstad.
    Carlstedt, Fredrik
    Centre for Clinical Research, County Council of Värmland, Karlstad.
    Lundin, Fredrik
    Centre for Clinical Research, County Council of Värmland, Karlstad.
    Nånberg, Eewa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Jönsson, Bo A. G.
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University.
    Sigsgaard, Torben
    Department of Public Health, Unit of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, University of Aarhus, Denmark.
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    The SELMA study: a birth cohort study in Sweden following more than 2000 mother-child pairs2012In: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, ISSN 0269-5022, E-ISSN 1365-3016, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 456-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:  This paper describes the background, aim and study design for the Swedish SELMA study that aimed to investigate the importance of early life exposure during pregnancy and infancy to environmental factors with a major focus on endocrine disrupting chemicals for multiple chronic diseases/disorders in offspring.

    Methods:  The cohort was established by recruiting women in the 10th week of pregnancy. Blood and urine from the pregnant women and the child and air and dust from home environment from pregnancy and infancy period have been collected. Questionnaires were used to collect information on life styles, socio-economic status, living conditions, diet and medical history.

    Results:  Of the 8394 reported pregnant women, 6658 were invited to participate in the study. Among the invited women, 2582 (39%) agreed to participate. Of the 4076 (61%) non-participants, 2091 women were invited to a non-respondent questionnaire in order to examine possible selection bias. We found a self-selection bias in the established cohort when compared with the non-participant group, e.g. participating families did smoke less (14% vs. 19%), had more frequent asthma and allergy symptoms in the family (58% vs. 38%), as well as higher education among the mothers (51% vs. 36%) and more often lived in single-family houses (67% vs. 60%).

    Conclusions:  These findings indicate that the participating families do not fully represent the study population and thus, the exposure in this population. However, there is no obvious reason that this selection bias will have an impact on identification of environmental risk factors.

  • 159.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Reichenber, A.
    Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States.
    Swan, S. H.
    Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States.
    Language Development of Young Children Is Not Linked to Phthalate Exposure: Reply2019In: JAMA pediatrics, ISSN 2168-6203, E-ISSN 2168-6211, Vol. 173, no 5, p. 499-499Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 160.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, NY, USA.
    Reichenberg, Avi
    Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, NY, USA.
    Unenge Hallerbäck, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Wikström, Sverre
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Koch, Holger M.
    Institute of the Ruhr-University, Bochum, Germany.
    Jonsson, B. A.
    Lund University.
    Swan, Shanna H.
    Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, NY, USA.
    Prenatal exposure to acetaminophen and children's language development at 30 months2018In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 51, p. 98-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine prenatal APAP exposure in relation to language development in offspring at 30 months of age. Method: A population-based pregnancy cohort study including 754 women who enrolled in the Swedish Environmental Longitudinal, Mother and child, Asthma and allergy (SELMA) study in pregnancy week 8-13. Two exposure measures were used: (1) maternally reported number of APAP tablets taken between conception and enrollment; (2) APAP urinary concentration at enrollment. Language development at 30 months was assessed by nurse's evaluation and parental questionnaire, including the number of words the child used (<25, 25-50 and >50). Main study outcome; parental report of use of fewer than 50 words, termed language delay (LD). Results: 59.2% of women enrolled in weeks 8-13 reported taking APAP between conception and enrollment. APAP was measurable in all urine samples and urinary APAP was correlated with the number of APAP taken during pregnancy (P < 0.01). Language delay was more prevalent in boys (12.6%) than girls (4.1%) (8.5% in total). Both the number of APAP tablets and urinary APAP concentration were associated with greater LD in girls but not in boys. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for LD among girls whose mothers reported >6 vs. 0 APAP tablets was 5.92 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-31.94). The OR for LD in girls whose mothers' urinary APAP was in the highest compared to the lowest quartile was 10.34 (95% CI 1.37-77.86). While it cannot be ruled out, our available data do not support confounding by indication. Conclusions: Given the prevalence of prenatal APAP use and the importance of language development, these findings, if replicated, would suggest that pregnant women should limit their use of this analgesic during pregnancy. (C) 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  • 161.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, NY, USA.
    Reichenberg, Avi
    Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, NY, USA.
    Unenge Hallerbäck, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Wikström, Sverre
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Koch, Holger M.
    Institute of the Ruhr-University, Bochum, Germany.
    Swan, Shanna H.
    Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, NY, USA.
    Reply to Shukla et al., Commentary on: Prenatal exposure to acetaminophen and children's language development at 30 months2018In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 51, p. 86-86Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 162.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Sundel, Jan
    Tech Univ Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    The Full Chain Model Following SVOCs Indoor From Sources to Health Effects2011In: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 22, no 1, p. S160-S160Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 163.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Sundell, J
    The healthy pet keeping effect2004In: Allergy 2004;59(5):554Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 164.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Sundell, J.
    Hagerhed, L.
    Janson, S.
    Pet-keeping in early childhood and airway, nose and skin symptoms later in life2003In: Allergy 2003;58(9):939-944Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 165.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Sundell, J.
    Hagerhed-Engman, L.
    Sigsggard, T.
    Janson, S.
    Aberg, N.
    Dampness at home and its association with airway, nose and skin symptoms among 10 851 preschool children in Sweden: a cross sectional study2005In: Indoor Air 2005 15 (Suppl 10) 48-55Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 166.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Sundell, J.
    Hägerhed-Engman, L.
    Sigsgaard, T.
    Ventilation rate in 390 Swedish homes and the association to allergic symptoms in children. A case control study2005In: Indoor Air 2005 15:275-280Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 167.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Sundell, J.
    Lundgren, B.
    Weschler, C.
    Sigsgaard, T.
    Hägerhed-Engman, L.
    Phthalates in indoor dust indoor and their association to building characteristics2005In: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 113, no 10, p. 1399-1404-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent study of 198 Swedish children with persistent allergic symptoms and 202 controls without such symptoms, we reported associations between the symptoms and the concentrations of n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in dust taken from the childrens' bedrooms. In the present study we examined associations between the concentrations of different phthalate esters in the dust from these bedrooms and various characteristics of the home. The study focused on BBzP and DEHP because these were the phthalates associated with health complaints. Associations have been examined using parametric and nonparametric tests as well as multiple logistic regression. For both BBzP and DEHP, we found associations between their dust concentrations and the amount of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) used as flooring and wall material in the home. Furthermore, high concentrations of BBzP (above median) were associated with self-reported water leakage in the home, and high concentrations of DEHP were associated with buildings constructed before 1960. Other associations, as well as absence of associations, are reported. Both BBzP and DEHP were found in buildings with neither PVC flooring nor wall covering, consistent with the numerous additional plasticized materials that are anticipated to be present in a typical home. The building characteristics examined in this study cannot serve as complete proxies for these quite varied sources. However, the associations reported here can help identify homes where phthalate concentrations are likely to be elevated and can aid in developing mitigation strategies.

  • 168.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Sundell, J.
    Sigsgaard, T.
    Dampness in buildings and health (DBH). Report from an on-going epidemiological investigation on the association between indoor environmental factors and health effects among children in Sweden2004In: Indoor Air. 2004;14 (Suppl 7):59-66Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 169.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Sundell, J.
    Sigsgaard, T.
    Janson, S.
    Potential self-selection bias in a case control study on indoor environmental factors and their association to asthma and allergy among pre-school children2006In: Scandinavian J Public Health 2006 34(5):534-43Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 170.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Sundell, J.
    Weschler, C.
    Sigsgaard, T.
    Potential selection biases2005In: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 112, p. 1393-1397Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 171.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Sundell,, J.
    Weschler, C.J.
    Sigsgaard, T.
    Lundgren, B.
    Hasselgren, M.
    Hägerhed-Engman, L.
    The association between asthma and allergic symptoms in children and phthalates in house dust: a nested case-control study2004In: Environmental Health Perspective 2004;112(14):1393-1397Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 172. Bornehag, C.G.
    et al.
    Hagerhed-Engman, L.
    Sigsgaard, T.
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Aberg, N.
    DBH-study group, the
    Dampness at home and its association with airway, nose and skin symptoms among 10 851 preschool children in Sweden:: A cross sectional study2005In: Indoor Air, Vol. 2005:15Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 173. Bornehag, C.G.
    et al.
    Sundell, J.
    Sigsgaard, T.
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Potential self-selection bias in a nested control study on indoor environmental factors and their association to asthma and allergy among preschool children2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, Vol. Vol 34Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 174.
    Boström, Sandra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    En litteraturstudie om ugandiska mäns involvering i familjeplanering: Sociokulturella och strukturella faktorers betydelse2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Uganda's rapid population growth due to low use of family planning leads to ill-health, unequal gender norms and reduced opportunities for sustainable development. Earlier research has shown that Ugandan men's resistance to family planning is crucial, but a nuanced and solid knowledge of the factors that lead to resistance is lacking. Purpose: The purpose with this literature review was to gain a deeper understanding of the factors that affect Ugandan men's involvement in family planning. Method: A systematic literature study has been conducted on six scientific articles published between 2010-2017. All articles were searched in the PubMed and Scopus databases and treated studies with qualitative method and Ugandan context. With an inductive approach, the articles were subsequently processed with qualitative content analysis. Results: Ugandan men's involvement in family planning is influenced by socio-cultural norms, which can be derived from established traditions and social structures, including norms advocating a high family ideal well as gender power relations. Men's participation is also affected by an extensive mistrust and lack of knowledge, which, according to the result, is due to lack of structure and service in the health care sector. The result further shows that all factors both lead to and, in part, are the result of unequal gender norms. Destructive structures and norms that impose unequal living conditions for women are thus a decisive factor in the low family planning and thus the increasing population in Uganda. Conclusion: By compiling and analyzing studies which has investigated factors affecting the involvement of Ugandan men in family planning, a deeper and nuanced understanding has emerged. Along with the Social Ecological Model SEM and the connected communication strategy C4D this knowledge has the ability to contribute to evidence-based public health interventions for increased use of modern family planning in Uganda and in similar contexts.

  • 175.
    Brandheim, Susanne
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Sluta stämpla ut tjocka2013In: Socialpolitik, ISSN 1104-6376, no 3, p. 43-43Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 176.
    Bruhn, Linnea
    Karlstad University.
    Motiverande samtal -En dynamisk process i arbetet med barn och ungdomar med övervikt: - En kvalitativ studie om professionella inom hälso- och sjukvårdens upplevelser av att använda MI tillsammans med överviktiga barn och ungdomar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The unhealthy lifestyles such as poor diets and lack of physical activity can lead to overweight and obesity for children and adolescents today. To not have the unhealthy lifestyles lead to future complications it’s important to give them the help and support they need to get motivated to change theirs behavior. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a method to help people change their behavior, this study will focus on a healthy lifestyle changes. A profession in healthcare uses the MI as a method to support the lifestyle change for children and adolescents with obesity. The purpose of this study is to examine what the professions experiences is concerning how the method works with children and adolescents with overweight. This study has used a qualitative method with six interviews. The interviews were recorded and analyzed. The result of this study showed that professions experiences MI as a very positive and useful method, also that the professions needed to use the method continuity to maintain the knowledge. The potential of MI as a method was that the professions often could see a positive change in the patient and the respondent had a positive view in using MI in the future. The author of this study believes that it’s incredibly important to keep working with MI as it probably can "save" money both for society and the work hours for professions in healthcare.

  • 177.
    Brydsten, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Johansson, Klara
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Youth unemployment and functional somatic symptoms in adulthood: Results from the Northern Swedish cohort2015In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 796-800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Little is known about the possible long-term health consequences of youth unemployment. Research indicates that unemployment may lead to socioeconomic downward mobility and mental health problems, but we still lack knowledge of the long-term health consequences of youth unemployment. This article examines the potential long-term association between youth unemployment and functional somatic symptoms in adulthood. 

    Methods: The ‘Northern Swedish cohort’ was used with data from five data collections, from 1981 (age 16) until 2007 (age 42). Youth unemployment was measured as months in unemployment between age 16 and 21, and health outcome as functional somatic symptoms (an index of 10 items of self-reported symptoms). Linear regression was used to analyse the relationship between months in youth unemployment and functional somatic symptoms at age 21 and age 42, stratified for women and men and adjusted for potential confounders, such as time spent in education at age 21 and later unemployment between age 21 and 42. 

    Results: Youth unemployment was significantly related to functional somatic symptoms at age 21 for men after controlling for confounders, but not for women. Among men, the association remained for functional somatic symptoms at age 42, after controlling for confounders. 

    Conclusions: Adolescence seems to be a sensitive period during which unemployment could have remaining health effects in adulthood, at least for men, though assumptions of causality are tentative and more research is needed.

  • 178.
    Bölling, Anette
    et al.
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Norway.
    Holme, Jörn
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Norway.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Nygaard, Unni C
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Norway.
    Bertelsen, Randi
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Norway.
    Nånberg, Eewa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Bodin, Johanna
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Norway.
    Sakhi, Amrit Kaur
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Norway.
    Thomsen, Cathrine
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Norway.
    Becher, Rune
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Norway.
    Pulmonary phthalate exposure and asthma: Is PPAR a plausible mechanistic link?2013In: EXCLI Journal, ISSN 1611-2156, E-ISSN 1611-2156, Vol. 12, p. 733-759Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to their extensive use as plasticisers in numerous consumer products, phthalates have become ubiquitous environmental contaminants. An increasing number of epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to phthalates may be associated with worsening or development of airway diseases. Peroxisome Proliferation Activated Receptors (PPAR)s, identified as important targets for phthalates in early studies in rodent liver, have been suggested as a possible mechanistic link. In this review we discuss the likelihood of an involvement of PPARs in asthma development and exacerbation due to pulmonary phthalate exposure. First, we go through the literature on indoor air levels of phthalates and pulmonary phthalate kinetics. These data are then used to estimate the pulmonary phthalate levels due to inhalation exposure. Secondly, the literature on phthalate-induced activation or modulation of PPARs is summarized. Based on these data, we discuss whether pulmonary phthalate exposure is likely to cause PPAR activation, and if this is a plausible mechanism for adverse effects of phthalates in the lung. It is concluded that the pulmonary concentrations of some phthalates may be sufficient to cause a direct activation of PPARs. Since PPARs mainly mediate antiinflammatory effects in the lungs, a direct activation is not a likely molecular mechanism for adverse effects of phthalates. However, possible modulatory effects of phthalates on PPARs deserve further investigation, including partial antagonist effects and/or cross talk with other signalling pathways. Moreover other mechanisms, including interactions between phthalates and other receptors, could also contribute to possible adverse pulmonary effects of phthalates.

  • 179.
    Callesen, M.
    et al.
    Denmark.
    Weschler, C.
    Denmark.
    Jensen, T.
    Denmark.
    Clausen, G.
    Denmark.
    Toftum, J.
    Denmark.
    Beko, G.
    Denmark.
    Bornehag, Carl Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Sigsgaard, T.
    Denmark.
    Hoest, A.
    Denmark.
    The adjuvant effect of phthalate exposure on IgE sensitisation in early childhood2012In: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0105-4538, E-ISSN 1398-9995, Vol. 67, p. 654-655Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 180.
    Carlsson, Axel C.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Ctr Family Med, Huddinge, Sweden.;Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Sci Mol Epidemiol & Sci Life, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Starrin, Bengt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Gigante, Bruna
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Div Cardiovasc Epidemiol, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Leander, Karin
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Div Cardiovasc Epidemiol, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hellenius, Mai-Lis
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp Solna, Stockholm, Sweden..
    de Faire, Ulf
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Div Cardiovasc Epidemiol, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Cardiol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Financial stress in late adulthood and diverse risks of incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in women and men2014In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, article id 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Financial stress may have adverse health effects. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether having a cash margin and living alone or cohabiting is associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. Methods: Representative population-based prospective cohort study of 60-year-old women (n = 2065) and men (n = 1939) in Stockholm County, Sweden. National registers were used to identify cases of incident CVD (n = 375) and all-cause mortality (n = 385). The presence of a cash margin was determined in the questionnaire with the following question: Would you, if an unexpected situation occurred, be able to raise 10 000 SEK within a week? (This was equivalent to US$ 1250 in 1998). Results: Compared with cohabiting women with a cash margin, the risk of all-cause mortality was higher among cohabiting women without a cash margin, with hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.97 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-3.66). Using cohabiting men with cash margin as referent, single men without a cash margin were at an increased risk of both incident CVD and all-cause mortality: HR 2.84 (95% CI 1.61-4.99) and 2.78 (95% CI 1.69-4.56), respectively. Single men with cash margins still had an increased risk of all-cause mortality when compared with cohabiting men with a cash margin: HR 1.67 (95% CI 1.22-2.28). Conclusions: Financial stress may increase the risks of incident CVD and all-cause mortality, especially among men. Furthermore these risks are likely to be greater in men living in single households and in women without cash margins. Living with a partner seems to protect men, but not women, from ill-health associated with financial stress due to the lack of a cash margin.

  • 181.
    Carlstedt, F.
    et al.
    Landstinget i Värmland.
    Jonsson, B. A. G.
    Lunds universitet.
    Bornehag, C. -G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    PVC flooring is related to human uptake of phthalates in infants2013In: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 32-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) flooring material contains phthalates, and it has been shown that such materials are important sources for phthalates in indoor dust. Phthalates are suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Consecutive infants between 2 and 6 months old and their mothers were invited. A questionnaire about indoor environmental factors and family lifestyle was used. Urinary metabolites of the phthalates diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP), and dietylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were measured in the urine of the children. Of 209 invited children, 110 (52%) participated. Urine samples were obtained from 83 of these. Urine levels of the BBzP metabolite monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) was significantly higher in infants with PVC flooring in their bedrooms (P < 0.007) and related to the body area of the infant. Levels of the DEHP metabolites MEHHP (P < 0.01) and MEOHP (P < 0.04) were higher in the 2-month-old infants who were not exclusively breast-fed when compared with breast-fed children. The findings indicate that the use of soft PVC as flooring material may increase the human uptake of phthalates in infants. Urinary levels of phthalate metabolites during early life are associated with the use of PVC flooring in the bedroom, body area, and the use of infant formula. Practical Implications This study shows that the uptake of phthalates is not only related to oral uptake from, for example, food but also to environmental factors such as building materials. This new information should be considered when designing indoor environment, especially for children.

  • 182.
    Chalmers, J. R.
    et al.
    Univ Nottingham, Ctr Evidence Based Dermatol, Nottingham, England..
    Simpson, E.
    Oregon Hlth & Sci Univ, Dept Dermatol, Portland, OR 97201 USA..
    Apfelbacher, C. J.
    Univ Regensburg, Inst Epidemiol & Prevent Med, Med Sociol, D-93053 Regensburg, Germany..
    Thomas, K. S.
    Univ Nottingham, Ctr Evidence Based Dermatol, Nottingham, England..
    von Kobyletzki, Laura B.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hospital, Dept Dermatol, Malmo, Sweden.
    Schmitt, J.
    Univ Dresden, Ctr Lvidence Based Hlthcare, Dresden, Germany.;Tech Univ Dresden, Dept Occupat & Social Med, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Singh, J. A.
    Birmingham VA Med Ctr, Med Serv, Birmingham, AL USA.;Univ Alabama Birmingham, Dept Med, Birmingham, AL 35294 USA..
    Svensson, A.
    Malmo Univ Hosp, Dept Dermatol & Venerol, Malmo, Sweden..
    Williams, H. C.
    Univ Nottingham, Ctr Evidence Based Dermatol, Nottingham, England..
    Abuabara, K.
    Univ Calif San Francisco, Dept Dermatol, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA..
    Aoki, V.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sch Med, Dept Dermatol, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Ardeleanu, M.
    Regeneron Pharmaceut Inc, Immunol & Inflammat, New York, NY USA..
    Awici-Rasmussen, M.
    Psoriasis & Eczema Assoc Norway, Oslo, Norway..
    Barbarot, S.
    CHU Nantes, Dept Dermatol, F-44035 Nantes 01, France..
    Berents, T. L.
    Univ Oslo, Inst Clin Med, Oslo 3, Norway.;Oslo Univ Hosp, Dept Dermatol, Oslo, Norway..
    Block, J.
    Natl Eczema Assoc, Natl Eczema Org, San Rafael, CA USA..
    Bragg, A.
    Chugai Pharma Europe Ltd, London, England..
    Burton, T.
    Clemmensen, K. K. Bjerring
    Univ Copenhagen, Bispebjerg Hosp, Dept Dermatol, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Creswell-Melville, A.
    Soc Canadienne IEczema, Keswick, ON, Canada..
    Dinesen, M.
    LEO Pharma AS, Industriparken 55, Ballerup, Denmark..
    Drucker, A.
    Univ Hlth Nem ork, Div Dermatol, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Eckert, L.
    Hlth Econ & Outcomes Res, Sanofi, France..
    Flohr, C.
    Guys & St Thomas Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, St Johns Inst Dermatol, London, England.;Kings Coll London, London, England..
    Garg, M.
    LEO Pharma, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Gerbens, L. A. A.
    Univ Amsterdam, Acad Med Ctr, Dept Dermatol, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Graff, A. L. B.
    Natl Eczema Soc, London, England..
    Hanifin, J.
    Oregon Hlth & Sci Univ, Dept Dermatol, Portland, OR 97201 USA..
    Heinl, D.
    Univ Regensburg, Inst Epidemiol & Prevent Med, Med Sociol, D-93053 Regensburg, Germany..
    Humphreys, R.
    Natl Eczema Soc, London, England..
    Ishii, H. A.
    Brazilian Atop Dermatitis Assoc AADA, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Kataoka, Y.
    Osaka Prefectural Med Ctr Resp & Allerg Dis, Osaka, Japan..
    Leshem, Y. A.
    Oregon Hlth & Sci Univ, Dept Dermatol, Portland, OR 97201 USA..
    Marquort, B.
    Massuel, M. -A
    Merhand, S.
    Assoc Francaise Eczema, Redon, France..
    Mizutani, H.
    Mie Univ, Grad Sch Med, Tsu, Mie, Japan.;Mie Univ, Hosp Tsu, Tsu, Mie, Japan..
    Murota, H.
    Osaka Univ, Dept Dermatol, Osaka, Japan..
    Murrell, D. F.
    St George Hosp, Dept Dermatol, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Univ New S Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Nakahara, T.
    Kyushu Univ, Grad Sch Med Sci, Dept Dermatol, Fukuoka, Japan..
    Nasr, I.
    Nograles, K.
    Greater New York City Area Pharmaceut, Celgene Corp, New York, NY USA..
    Ohya, Y.
    Natl Ctr Child Hlth & Dev, Dept Med Subspecialties, Div Allergy, Tokyo, Japan..
    Osterloh, I.
    Ostermed Ltd, Kent, OH USA..
    Pander, J.
    Celgene BV, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Prinsen, C.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, EMGO Inst Hlth & Care Res, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Purkins, L.
    Ziarco Pharma Ltd, Canterbury, Kent, England..
    Ridd, M.
    Univ Bristol, Sch Social & Community Med, Bristol, Avon, England..
    Sach, T.
    Univ E Anglia, Hlth Econ Grp, Norwich, Norfolk, England..
    Schuttelaar, M. -LA.
    Shindo, S.
    Osaka Univ, Dept Dermatol, Osaka, Japan..
    Smirnova, J.
    Karlstad Univ, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Sulzer, A.
    Sanofi Aventis, Montpellier, France..
    Gjerde, E. Synnove
    Psoriasis & Eczema Assoc Norway, Oslo, Norway..
    Takaoka, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sch Med, Dept Dermatol, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Talmo, H. Vestby
    Sanofi Aventis, Montpellier, France..
    Tauber, M.
    Toulouse Univ, Toulouse, France..
    Torchet, F.
    Mie Univ, Grad Sch Med, Tsu, Mie, Japan.;Mie Univ, Hosp Tsu, Tsu, Mie, Japan..
    Volke, A.
    Univ Tartu, Dept Dermatol, Tartu, Estonia..
    Wahlgren, C. -F
    Weidinger, S.
    Venereol & Allergy Univ Hosp Schleswig Holstein, Dept Dermatol, Kiel, Germany..
    Weisshaar, E.
    Heidelberg Univ, Dept Social Med, Occupat & Environm Dermatol, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Wollenberg, A.
    Univ Munich, Dept Dermatol & Allergy, Munich, Germany..
    Yamaga, K.
    Osaka Univ, Dept Dermatol, Osaka, Japan..
    Zhao, C. Y.
    St George Hosp, Dept Dermatol, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Univ New S Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Spuls, P. I.
    Univ Amsterdam, Acad Med Ctr, Dept Dermatol, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Report from the fourth international consensus meeting to harmonize core outcome measures for atopic eczema/dermatitis clinical trials (HOME initiative)2016In: British Journal of Dermatology, ISSN 0007-0963, E-ISSN 1365-2133, Vol. 175, no 1, p. 69-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is a report of the fourth meeting of the Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative held in Malmo, Sweden on 23-24 April 2015 (HOME IV). The aim of the meeting was to achieve consensus over the preferred outcome instruments for measuring patient-reported symptoms and quality of life for the HOME core outcome set for atopic eczema (AE). Following presentations, which included data from systematic reviews, consensus discussions were held in a mixture of whole group and small group discussions. Small groups were allocated a priori to ensure representation of different stakeholders and countries. Decisions were voted on using electronic keypads. For the patient-reported symptoms, the group agreed by vote that itch, sleep loss, dryness, redness/inflamed skin and irritated skin were all considered essential aspects of AE symptoms. Many instruments for capturing patient-reported symptoms were discussed [ including the Patient-Oriented SCOring Atopic Dermatitis index, Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM), Self-Administered Eczema Area and Severity Index, Itch Severity Scale, Atopic Dermatitis Quickscore and the Nottingham Eczema Severity Score] and, by consensus, POEM was selected as the preferred instrument to measure patient-reported symptoms. Further work is needed to determine the reliability and measurement error of POEM. Further work is also required to establish the importance of pain/soreness and the importance of collecting information regarding the intensity of symptoms in addition to their frequency. Much of the discussion on quality of life concerned the Dermatology Life Quality Index and Quality of Life Index for Atopic Dermatitis; however, consensus on a preferred instrument for measuring this domain could not be reached. In summary, POEM is recommended as the HOME core outcome instrument for measuring AE symptoms.

  • 183.
    Choi, H.
    et al.
    Univ Albany, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Environm Hlth Sci, Rensselaer, NY 12144 USA..
    Byrne, S.
    Univ Albany, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Environm Hlth Sci, Rensselaer, NY 12144 USA..
    Larsen, L. S.
    Danish Technol Inst, Mycol Lab, Taastrup, Denmark..
    Sigsgaard, T.
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Sect Environm Occupat & Hlth, Aarhus C, Denmark..
    Thorne, P. S.
    Univ Iowa, Dept Occupat & Environm Hlth, Iowa City, IA USA..
    Larsson, L.
    Lund Univ, Lund, Sweden..
    Sebastian, A.
    Lund Univ, Lund, Sweden..
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences. Tech Res Inst Sweden, Boras, Sweden.
    Residential culturable fungi, (1-3,1-6)-beta-d-glucan, and ergosterol concentrations in dust are not associated with asthma, rhinitis, or eczema diagnoses in children2014In: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 158-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Qualitative reporting of home indoor moisture problems predicts respiratory diseases. However, causal agents underlying such qualitative markers remain unknown. In the homes of 198 multiple allergic case children and 202 controls in Sweden, we cultivated culturable fungi by directly plating dust, and quantified (1-3, 1-6)-beta-d-glucan and ergosterol in dust samples from the child's bedroom. We examined the relationship between these fungal agents and degree of parent or inspector-reported home indoor dampness, and microbiological laboratory's mold index. We also compared the concentrations of these agents between multiple allergic cases and healthy controls, as well as IgE-sensitization among cases. The concentrations of culturable fungal agents were comparable between houses with parent and inspector-reported mold issues and those without. There were no differences in concentrations of the individual or the total summed culturable fungi, (1-3, 1-6)-beta-d-glucan, and ergosterol between the controls and the multiple allergic case children, or individual diagnosis of asthma, rhinitis, or eczema. Culturable fungi, (1-3, 1-6)-beta-d-glucan, and ergosterol in dust were not associated with qualitative markers of indoor dampness or mold or indoor humidity. Furthermore, these agents in dust samples were not associated with any health outcomes in the children.

  • 184.
    Choi, H.
    et al.
    SUNY Albany, Rensselaer, NY 12144 USA.
    Thorne, P.
    Univ Iowa, Coll Publ Hlth, Iowa City, IA USA.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Response to Miller2015In: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 117-117Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 185.
    Choi, H.
    et al.
    SUNY Albany, Dept Environm Hlth Sci, Albany, NY 12222 USA..
    Thorne, P. S.
    Univ Iowa, Dept Occupat & Environm Hlth, Iowa City, IA USA..
    Sigsgaard, T.
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Sect Environm Occupat & Hlth, Aarhus C, Denmark..
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences. Tech Res Inst Sweden, Boras, Sweden.
    Response to Rylander2014In: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 223-224Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 186.
    Choi, Hyunok
    et al.
    Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Risks of Multiple Allergy Diseases and Asthma From Indoor Exposure to Modern Chemicals and Mould Species2011In: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 22, no 1, p. S173-S173Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 187.
    Choi, Hyunok
    et al.
    SUNY Albany, Dept Environm Hlth Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Albany, NY 12222 USA..
    Schmidbauer, Norbert
    Norwegian Inst Air Res, POB 100,2027 Kjeller,Inst 18, N-2007 Kjeller, Norway..
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences. Tech Res Inst Sweden, Box 857, SE-50115 Boras, Sweden..
    Non-microbial sources of microbial volatile organic compounds2016In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 148, p. 127-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The question regarding the true sources of the purported microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) remains unanswered. Objective: To identify microbial, as well as non-microbial sources of 28 compounds, which are commonly accepted as microbial VOCs (i.e. primary outcome of interest is Sigma 28 VOCs). Methods: In a cross-sectional investigation of 390 homes, six building inspectors assessed water/mold damage, took air and dust samples, and measured environmental conditions (i.e., absolute humidity (AH, g/m(3)), temperature (degrees C), ventilation rate (ACH)). The air sample was analyzed for volatile organic compounds (mu g/m(3)) and; dust samples were analyzed for total viable fungal concentration (CFU/g) and six phthalates (mg/g dust). Four benchmark variables of the underlying sources were defined as highest quartile categories of: 1) the total concentration of 17 propylene glycol and propylene glycol ethers (Sigma 17 PGEs) in the air sample; 2) 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol monoisobutyrate (TMPD-MIB) in the air sample; 3) semi-quantitative mold index; and 4) total fungal load (CFU/g). Results: Within severely damp homes, co-occurrence of the highest quartile concentration of either E17 PGEs or TMPD-MIB were respectively associated with a significantly higher median concentration of Sigma 28 VOCs (8.05 and 1338 mu g/m(3), respectively) compared to the reference homes (430 and 4.86 mu g/m(3), respectively, both Ps <= 0.002). Furthermore, the homes within the highest quartile range for Sigma fungal load as well as AH were associated with a significantly increased median Sigma 28 VOCs compared to the reference group (8.74 vs. 4.32 mu g/m(3), P=0.001). Within the final model of multiple indoor sources on E 28 VOCs, one natural log-unit increase in summed concentration of Sigma 17 PGEs, plus TMPD-MIB (Sigma 17 PGEs TMPD-MIB) was associated with 1.8-times (95% CI, 1.3-2.5), greater likelihood of having a highest quartile of Sigma 28 VOCs, after adjusting for absolute humidity, history of repainting at least one room, ventilation rate, and mold index (P-value =0.001). Homes deemed severely mold damaged (i.e., mold index =1) were associated with 1.7-times (95% CI, 0.8-3.6), greater likelihood of having a highest quartile of Sigma 28 VOCs, even though such likelihood was not significant (P-value =0.164). In addition, absolute humidity appeared to positively interact with mold index to significantly elevate the prevalence of the highest quartile category of Sigma 28 VOCs. Conclusion: The indoor concentration of Sigma 28 VOCs, which are widely accepted as MVOCs, are significantly associated with the markers of synthetic (i.e. E17 PGEs and TMPD-MIB), and to less extent, microbial (i.e., mold index) sources. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 188.
    Choi, Hyunok
    et al.
    Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Spengler, John
    Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Sources of Glycol Ether Exposure at Home2011In: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 22, no 1, p. S38-S38Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 189.
    Choi, Jieun
    et al.
    Yonsei Univ, Coll Human Ecol, Seoul 120749, South Korea..
    Chun, Chungyoon
    Yonsei Univ, Coll Human Ecol, Seoul 120749, South Korea..
    Sun, Yuexia
    Tianjin Univ, Sch Environm Sci & Engn, Tianjin 300072, Peoples R China..
    Choi, Yoorim
    Yonsei Univ, Coll Human Ecol, Seoul 120749, South Korea..
    Kwon, Suhyun
    Yonsei Univ, Coll Human Ecol, Seoul 120749, South Korea..
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Sundell, Jan
    Tsinghua Univ, Sch Architecture, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China..
    Associations between building characteristics and children's allergic symptoms: A cross-sectional study on child's health and home in Seoul, South Korea2014In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 75, p. 176-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A cross-sectional study on the home environment and asthma and allergy in children was carried out among children 1-8 years old in Seoul, South Korea from 2009 to 2010. Questionnaires were distributed to 5107 parents through daycare centers and kindergartens; 2755 parents responded, a response rate of 54%. Seven percent and 23% of children were reported to have doctor-diagnosed asthma and hay fever, respectively. A majority (57%) of the families reported having PVC flooring in child's or parents' bedroom. More than 96% of homes used a floor heating system. PVC was used more often as a floor covering in single family houses than in apartments (67% vs. 49%, p < 0.001). PVC flooring was significantly associated with eczema in the previous 6 months (AOR 1.54,95% Cl 1.13-2.09) when adjusted for gender, age, family allergy, socioeconomic status and environmental tobacco smoke. Older buildings tended to have dampness problems, and, consequently, were positively correlated with the prevalence of wheeze. Floor moisture significantly increased the association between PVC and symptoms of wheezing (AOR 2.57, 95% Cl 1.36-4.82) and eczema (AOR 1.97, 95% Cl 1.18-3.28). Apartments without mechanical ventilation in bedrooms were associated with a slight increase in asthma and allergy among children. This study suggests that building characteristics and home exposure can partly explain recent increases in asthma and allergy among children in Seoul. (c) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 190.
    Clausen, G.
    et al.
    Denmark.
    Host, A.
    Denmark.
    Toftum, J.
    Denmark.
    Beko, G.
    Denmark.
    Weschler, C.
    Denmark; USA.
    Callesen, M.
    Denmark.
    Buhl, S.
    Denmark.
    Ladegaard, M. B.
    Denmark.
    Langer, S.
    Sweden.
    Andersen, B.
    Denmark.
    Sundell, J.
    Denmark; China.
    Bornehag, Carl Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Sigsgaard, T.
    Denmark.
    Children's health and its association with indoor environments in Danish homes and daycare centres - methods2012In: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 467-475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The principle objective of the Danish research program Indoor Environment and Childrens Health (IECH) was to explore associations between various exposures that children experience in their indoor environments (specifically their homes and daycare centers) and their well-being and health. The targeted health endpoints were allergy, asthma, and certain respiratory symptoms. The study was designed with two stages. In the first stage, a questionnaire survey was distributed to more than 17 000 families with children between the ages of 1 and 5. The questionnaire focused on the childrens health and the environments within the homes they inhabited and daycare facilities they attended. More than 11 000 questionnaires were returned. In the second stage, a subsample of 500 children was selected for more detailed studies, including an extensive set of measurements in their homes and daycare centers and a clinical examination; all clinical examinations were carried out by the same physician. In this study, the methods used for data collection within the IECH research program are presented and discussed. Furthermore, initial findings are presented regarding descriptors of the study population and selected characteristics of the childrens dwellings and daycare centers. Practical Implications This study outlines methods that might be followed by future investigators conducting large-scale field studies of potential connections between various indoor environmental factors and selected health endpoints. Of particular note are (i) the two-stage design a broad questionnaire-based survey followed by a more intensive set of measurements among a subset of participants who have been selected based on their responses to the questionnaire; (ii) the casebase approach utilized in the stage 2 in contrast to the more commonly used casecontrol approach; (iii) the inclusion of the childrens daycare environment when conducting intensive sampling to more fully capture the childrens total indoor exposure; and (iv) all clinical examinations conducted by the same physician. We recognize that future investigators are unlikely to fully duplicate the methods outlined in this study, but we hope that it provides a useful starting point in terms of factors that might be considered when designing such a study.

  • 191.
    Crowley, R
    et al.
    Department of Health Services Research and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Wolfe, Ingrid
    Department of Health Services Research and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Lock, K
    Department of Health Services Research and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    McKee, M
    Department of Health Services Research and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Improving the transition between paediatric and adult healthcare: A systematic review.2011In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 96, no 6, p. 548-553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: The transition between paediatric and adult care for young people with chronic illness or disability is often poorly managed, with adverse consequences for health. Although many agree that adolescent services need to be improved, there is little empirical data on which policies can be based.

    OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the evidence of effectiveness of transitional care programmes in young people aged 11-25 with chronic illness (physical or mental) or disability, and identify their successful components.

    DESIGN: A systematic literature review in July 2010 of studies which consistently evaluated health outcomes following transition programmes, either by comparison with a control group or by measurement pre-intervention and post-intervention.

    RESULTS: 10 studies met the inclusion criteria, six of which showed statistically significant improvements in outcomes. Descriptive analysis identified three broad categories of intervention, directed at: the patient (educational programmes, skills training); staffing (named transition co-ordinators, joint clinics run by paediatric and adult physicians); and service delivery (separate young adult clinics, out of hours phone support, enhanced follow-up). The conditions involved varied (eg, cystic fibrosis, diabetes mellitus), and outcome measures varied accordingly. All six interventions that resulted in significant improvements were in studies of patients with diabetes mellitus, with glycosylated haemoglobin level, acute and chronic complications, and rates of follow-up and screening used as outcome measures.

    CONCLUSIONS: The most commonly used strategies in successful programmes were patient education and specific transition clinics (either jointly staffed by paediatric and adult physicians or dedicated young adult clinics within adult services). It is not clear how generalisable these successful studies in diabetes mellitus will be to other conditions.

  • 192.
    Dahlquist, G
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Barn och ungdomar - sårbara "osynliga" anhöriga2013In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 110, no 45Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 193.
    Dahlquist, G
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Kräv vetenskaplig evidens för surrogatmoderskap2013In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 110, no 25/26Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 194.
    Dahlström, Sanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Uppfattningar om hälsocoaching: En kvalitativ studie som belyser en grupp människors tankar om begreppet hälsocoaching2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Allt fler människor i vårt samhälle lider av ohälsa, detta av diverse bakomliggande orsaker. Övervikt, hjärt- och kärlsjukdom, högt blodtryck, förhöjda blodfetter, typ 2- diabetes samt cancer är några av de sjukdomar som kan kopplas till denna problematik. Kostnaderna för sjukvården i samhället visar en successiv ökning som inte tycks avta. Att arbeta mer hälsofrämjande inom sjukvården skulle kunna reducera vissa av dessa kostnader. Detta skulle kunna ske genom att erbjuda tjänsten hälsocoaching. Hälsocoaching är en ny roll som uppstått inom sjukvården, på friskvårdsanläggningar och privata praktiker de senaste åren. Hälsocoachen arbetar för att hjälpa personer att uppnå sina hälsomål genom olika typer av livsstilsförändringar. Det finns idag flera utbildningar med växlande innehåll som utbildar hälsocoacher. Definitionen av begreppet hälsocoaching är dock vag och måste utvecklas vidare för att kunna användas i större utsträckning.

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka vilka tankar och åsikter som finns kring individuell hälsocoaching genom att ta reda på vad begreppet innebär och förknippas med, vilka önskningar som finns på hälsocoachen och dennes arbete samt vad det finns för behov och intresse för att besöka en hälsocoach. Metoden som använts är kvalitativa intervjuer och resultatet har tagits fram med hjälp av kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Olika personer med olika bakgrund har valts ut att deltaga i studien, detta för att få en så bred bild som möjligt inom området.

    Utifrån analysen av intervjumaterialet växte tre huvudkategorier fram: ”föreställningar om en hälsocoach uppgifter”, ”förväntningar på hälsocoachen” och ”intresse för hälsocoaching”. Utifrån dessa kategorier framkom temat; ”uppfattningar om hälsocoaching”. Att bidra till välmående anses vara en av hälsocoachens huvuduppgifter. Detta kan uppnås genom att hälsocoachen i praktiken tillämpar sina färdigheter inom olika hälsoområden och använder sig av vissa givna tillvägagångssätt. Att hälsocoachen har en bred kunskapsbas samt att denne är motiverande och lyhörd tycks vara viktiga delar av dennes arbete. Resultatet från denna studie visar dessutom att det finns ett etablerat intresse för hälsocoaching och att attityden till tjänsten överlag är positiv. Detta samtidigt som begreppet ses som aningen diffust och svårdefinierat, vilket kan skapa en viss osäkerhet för konsumenterna. Mer forskning inom ämnet är därför nödvändig för att konsekvent kunna definiera innebörden av hälsocoachingbegreppet.

  • 195.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    et al.
    Linköping university.
    Backe, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Ekberg, Joakim
    Linköping university.
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping university.
    Is "football for all" safe for all?: Cross-Sectional Study of Disparities as Determinants of 1-Year Injury Prevalence in Youth Football Programs2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 8, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Football (soccer) is endorsed as a health-promoting physical activity worldwide. When football programs are introduced as part of general health promotion programs, equal access and limitation of pre-participation disparities with regard to injury risk are important. The aim of this study was to explore if disparity with regard to parents' educational level, player body mass index (BMI), and self-reported health are determinants of football injury in community-based football programs, separately or in interaction with age or gender.

    Methodology/Principal Findings

    Four community football clubs with 1230 youth players agreed to participate in the cross-sectional study during the 2006 season. The study constructs (parents' educational level, player BMI, and self-reported health) were operationalized into questionnaire items. The 1-year prevalence of football injury was defined as the primary outcome measure. Data were collected via a postal survey and analyzed using a series of hierarchical statistical computations investigating associations with the primary outcome measure and interactions between the study variables. The survey was returned by 827 (67.2%) youth players. The 1-year injury prevalence increased with age. For youths with parents with higher formal education, boys reported more injuries and girls reported fewer injuries than expected; for youths with lower educated parents there was a tendency towards the opposite pattern. Youths reporting injuries had higher standardized BMI compared with youths not reporting injuries. Children not reporting full health were slightly overrepresented among those reporting injuries and underrepresented for those reporting no injury.

    Conclusion

    Pre-participation disparities in terms of parents' educational level, through interaction with gender, BMI, and self-reported general health are associated with increased injury risk in community-based youth football. When introduced as a general health promotion, football associations should adjust community-based youth programs to accommodate children and adolescents with increased pre-participation injury risk.

  • 196.
    Delvert, Johanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Prevention och behandling av fetma hos barn och ungdomar med funktionshinder: - en litteraturgenomgång med kvalitativ ansats2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Overweight and obesity is a global public health problem which could lead to serious health problems for the individual as well as for the society. Both prevention and treatment of obesity has positive effect, but it is difficult and takes great effort and high motivation from the family to succeed. Research has shown that intervention early in life produces better results. Disabled children and adolescents are overlooked groups, having a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity, a lower level of physical activity and a higher risk of negative health outcomes if obese. Promoting a healthy lifestyle is therefore of great importance, but interventions targeting disabled persons so far haven´t got enough attention. The aim of this thesis was to investigate research interventions made to prevent and/or treat obesity targeting children and adolescents with disabilities and to investigate what effect these methods have had. The results are expected to contribute to increased knowledge about how further research targeting this group can be formed and to contribute to a deeper understanding when implementing heath promoting programs.  A structured literature search was undertaken and was analyzed with qualitative content analysis. The result shows that research on the problem has started, but further investigation on effective intervention needs to be undertaken. The analysis shows that this group will probably face greater obstacles trying to choose a healthy life style than others but interventions and knowledge adjusted to this group seem to help. Family based interventions, changing eating habits, physical activity levels and adapted exercise to promote strength and fitness seems to have good results on lifestyle-related health problems. Knowledge to be able to analyze the individual’s conditions is important to be able to preserve a salutogenetic approach in the work with lifestyle related health problems in individuals with disabilities.

  • 197.
    Deng, Qihong
    et al.
    Cent S Univ, Sch Energy Sci & Engn, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China.;Cent S Univ, Inst Environm Hlth, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China..
    Lu, Chan
    Cent S Univ, Sch Energy Sci & Engn, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China..
    Norback, Dan
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Sci Occupat & Environm Med, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Zhang, Yinping
    Tsinghua Univ, Sch Architecture, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China..
    Liu, Weiwei
    Cent S Univ, Sch Energy Sci & Engn, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China.;Cent S Univ, Inst Environm Hlth, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China..
    Yuan, Hong
    Cent S Univ, Inst Environm Hlth, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China.;Cent S Univ, Xiangya Hosp 3, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China..
    Sundell, Jan
    Cent S Univ, Sch Energy Sci & Engn, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China.;Tsinghua Univ, Sch Architecture, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China..
    Early life exposure to ambient air pollution and childhood asthma in China2015In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 143, p. 83-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Early life is suggested to be a critical time in determining subsequent asthma development, but the extent to which the effect of early-life exposure to ambient air pollution on childhood asthma is unclear. Objectives: We investigated doctor-diagnosed asthma in preschool children due to exposure to ambient air pollution in utero and during the first year of life. Methods: In total 2490 children aged 3-6 years participated in a questionnaire study regarding doctor-diagnosed asthma between September 2011 and January 2012 in China. Children's exposure to critical air pollutants, sulfur dioxide (SO2) as proxy of industrial air pollution, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as proxy of traffic pollution, and particulate matter <= 10 mu m in diameter (PM10) as a mixture, was estimated from the concentrations measured at the ambient air quality monitoring stations by using an inverse distance weighted (IDW) method. Logistic regression analysis was employed to determine the relationship between early-life exposure and childhood asthma in terms of odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Association between early-life exposure to air pollutants and childhood asthma was observed. SO2 and NO2 had significant associations with adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.45 (1.02-2.07) and 1.74 (1.15-2.62) in utero and 1.62 (1.01-2.60) and 1.90 (1.20-3.00) during the first year for per 50 mu g/m(3) and 15 mu g/m(3) increase respectively. Exposure to the combined high level of SO2 and NO2 in China significantly elevated the asthmatic risk with adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.76 (1.18-2.64) in utero and 1.85 (1.22-2.79) during the first year compared to the low level exposure. The associations were higher for males and the younger children aged 3-4 than females and the older children aged 5-6. Conclusions: Early-life exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with childhood asthma during which the level and source of air pollution play important roles. The high level and nature of combined industrial and traffic air pollution in China may contribute to the recent rapid increase of childhood asthma. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 198.
    Derakhshan, A.
    et al.
    Academic Center for Thyroid Diseases, Erasmus MC, Dr. Molewaterplein 15, Rotterdam.
    Shu, H.
    Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Peeters, R. P.
    Academic Center for Thyroid Diseases, Erasmus MC, Dr. Molewaterplein 15, Rotterdam, 3051 GE, Netherlands.
    Kortenkamp, A.
    Institute of Environment, Health and Societies, Brunel University, London, Uxbridge, United Kingdom.
    Lindh, C. H.
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, 22363, Sweden.
    Demeneix, B.
    Laboratoire d'Evolution des Régulations Endocriniennes, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 57 Rue Cuvier, Paris,.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York City, NY, United States.
    Korevaar, T. I. M.
    Academic Center for Thyroid Diseases, Erasmus MC, Dr. Molewaterplein 15, Rotterdam, 3051 GE, Netherlands.
    Association of urinary bisphenols and triclosan with thyroid function during early pregnancy2019In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 133, article id 105123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Bisphenols and triclosan are considered as potential thyroid disruptors. While mild alterations in maternal thyroid function can result in adverse pregnancy and child developmental outcomes, there is still uncertainty whether bisphenols or triclosan can interfere with thyroid function during pregnancy. Objectives: We aimed to investigate the association of urinary bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF) and triclosan with early pregnancy thyroid function. Methods: This study was embedded in the Swedish Environmental Longitudinal, Mother and child, Asthma and allergy study (SELMA), a population-based prospective pregnancy cohort. In total, 1996 participants were included in the current study. Maternal urinary concentrations of three bisphenols and triclosan, collected at median (95% range) 10 (6–14) weeks of pregnancy as well as serum concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), total thyroxine (TT4), and total triiodothyronine (TT3) were measured. Results: Higher BPA levels were associated with lower TT4 concentrations (non-monotonic, P = 0.03), a lower FT4/FT3 ratio (β [SE] -0.02 [0.01], P = 0.03) and a lower TT4/TT3 ratio (β [SE] -0.73 [0.27], P = 0.008). Higher BPF levels were associated with a higher FT3 (β [SE] 0.01 [0.007], P = 0.04). There were no associations between other bisphenols or triclosan and absolute TSH, (F)T4 or (F)T3 concentrations. The association of BPA with thyroid function differed with gestational age. The negative association of BPA with FT4/FT3 and TT4/TT3 ratios was only apparent in early but not late gestation (P for interaction: 0.003, 0.008, respectively). Conclusion: These human data during pregnancy substantiate experimental findings suggesting that BPA could potentially affect thyroid function and deiodinase activities in early gestation.

  • 199.
    Derakhshan, Arash
    et al.
    rasmus MC, Acad Ctr Thyroid Dis, NL-3051 GE Rotterdam, Netherland.
    Shu, Huan
    Stockholms universitet.
    Broeren, Maarten A. C.
    Maxima Med Ctr, Lab Clin Chem & Haematol, NL-5504 DB Veldhoven, Netherlands.
    de Poortere, Ralph A.
    Maxima Med Ctr, Lab Clin Chem & Haematol, NL-5504 DB Veldhoven, Netherlands.
    Wikstrom, Sverre
    Örebro University.
    Peeters, Robin P.
    rasmus MC, Acad Ctr Thyroid Dis, NL-3051 GE Rotterdam, Netherland.
    Demeneix, Barbara
    Museum Natl Hist Nat, Lab Evolut Regulat Endocriniennes, Paris.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, New York, NY.
    Korevaar, Tim I. M.
    Erasmus MC, Acad Ctr Thyroid Dis, NL-3051 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Reference Ranges and Determinants of Thyroid Function During Early Pregnancy: The SELMA Study2018In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 103, no 9, p. 3548-3556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Establishing reference ranges as well as identifying and quantifying the determinants of thyroid function during pregnancy is important for proper clinical interpretation and optimizing research efforts. However, such data are sparse, specifically for triiodothyronine measurements, and most studies do not take into account thyroid antibodies or human chorionic gonadotropin. Objective: To determine reference ranges and to identify/quantify determinants of TSH, free T4 (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), total T4 (TT4), and total triiodothyronine (TT3). Design, Setting, and Participants: This study included 2314 participants of the Swedish Environmental Longitudinal, Mother and child, Asthma and allergy study, a population-based prospective pregnancy cohort of mother-child pairs. Reference ranges were calculated by 2.5th to 97.5th percentiles after excluding thyroperoxidase antibody (TPOAb)-positive and/or thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb)-positive women. Intervention: None. Main Outcome Measures: TSH, FT4, FT3, TT4, and TT3 in prenatal serum. Results: After exclusion of TPOAb-positive women, reference ranges were as follows: TSH, 0.11 to 3.48 mU/L; FT4, 11.6 to 19.4 pmol/L; FT3, 3.72 to 5.92 pg/mL; TT4, 82.4 to 166.2 pmol/L; and TT3, 1.28 to 2.92 nmol/L. Additional exclusion of TgAb-positive women did not change the reference ranges substantially. Exposure to tobacco smoke, as assessed by questionnaires and serum cotinine, was associated with lower TSH and higher FT3 and TT3. Body mass index (BMI) and gestational age were the main determinants of TSH (only for BMI), FT4, FT3, TT4, and TT3. Conclusions: We show that the exclusion of TgAb-positive women on top of excluding TPOAb-positive women hardly affects clinical reference ranges. We identified various relevant clinical determinants of TSH, FT4, FT3, TT4, and TT3 that could reflect endocrine-disrupting effects and/or effects on thyroid hormone transport or deiodination.

  • 200. Durrant, J.
    et al.
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Law reform, corporal punishment and child abuse:: The case of Sweden2005In: International Review of Victimology, Vol. 2005:12Article in journal (Refereed)
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