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  • 151.
    Carlsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Interactions between Charged Latex Colloids and Starch Polyelectrolytes Studied by Fluorescence Microscopy with Image Analysis2005In: Nordic Pulp Pap. Res. J., 2005, 20, 192-199Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 152.
    Carlsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Chemistry.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Division for Chemistry.
    Interactions between Charged Latex Colloids and Starch Polyelectrolytes Studied with Fluorescence  Microscopy with Image Analysis2005In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 192-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interactions between carboxylated polystyrene latex probe particles and ionically substituted starches have been investi-gated by fluorescence microscopy with image analysis. The degree of substitution of the starches was varied, as was also thepolyelectrolyte molecular weight and the probe size. 

  • 153.
    Carlsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Fredriksson, Lars
    Normal and anomalous diffusion2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract

    Brownian motion is perhaps best described as the never-ceasing phenomenon responsible for

    self-diffusion occurring although there is no temperature or concentration gradients. The

    distribution of the steps P(r) is vital in order to see the underlying mechanism of diffusion.

    Normal diffusion is characterised by having Gaussian distributions of the step lengths.

    Diffusion can be classified as either normal or anomalous depending on how the mean square

    displacement is related to time:



    If a = 1, diffusion is classified as normal diffusion. With a > 1 , there is superdiffusion. When

    a < 1 , subdiffusion takes place. In order to replace normal diffusion by anomalous diffusion,

    pathologies must be present. Most anomalous diffusion takes the shape of subdiffusion

    [1, 2].

    Video-based fluorescence microscopy is the basis for all experimental work and has

    successfully been used earlier [3-5]. For each concentration the trajectories of 60 probes were

    determined using the built-in Particle Analysis function in Aquacosmos 2.6. The 6000 data

    points collected were used to extract both the coefficient G and the exponenta .

    Relatively few studies have been devoted to tell normal diffusion from anomalous diffusion in

    real chemical systems. In this study the probe is a fluorescent labeled latex particle, the matrix

    was changed in different ways. Unlabelled latex particles, DoTAB (a cationic surfactant),

    cationic starch of different molecular weight were all used to alter the sample.

    The conclusion is that it is safe to assume a = 1 in all cases except for very high

    concentrations of starch, where diffusion is hindered by the viscous matrix, which gives rise

    to subdiffusion. Moreover, all distributions are Gaussian except for the highest concentrations

    of starch and latex. In these latter cases, distributions appear as truncated normal distributions

    [6,7].

    References

    [1] Klafter J., Blumen A., Zumofen g. Shlesinger M.f., Physica A., 1990, 168, 637-645

    [2] Ott A., Bouchaud J.P., Langevin D., Urbach W., Phys. Rev. Lett., 1990, 65, 2201-2204

    [3] Carlsson G., Warszynski P., van Stam J., J. Colloid Interface Sci., 2003, 267, 500-508

    [4] Carlsson G., van Stam J., Nord. Pulp Pap. Res. J., 2005, 20, 192-199

    [5] Carlsson G., Järnström L., van Stam J., J. Colloid Interface Sci., 2006, 298, 162-171

    [6] Fredriksson L., Bsc thesis, Karlstad university, 2010

    [7] Fredriksson L., Msc thesis, Karlstad university, 2010

  • 154. Cassland, P.
    et al.
    Larsson, S.
    Nilvebrant, N.-O.
    Jönsson, Leif J
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre.
    Heterologous expression of barley and wheat oxalate oxidase in an E. coli trxB gor double mutant2004In: J. Biotechnol. (2004) 109, 53-62Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 155.
    Cassland, Pierre
    et al.
    Applied Microbiology, Lund University/Lund Institute of Technology.
    Sjöde, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Winestrand, Sandra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof
    STFI-Packforsk AB, Swedish Pulp and Paper Research Institute, Stockholm.
    Comparison between oxalate decarboxylase and oxalate oxidase in the degradation of oxalic acid in filtrates from the pulp and paper industryManuscript (Other academic)
  • 156.
    Cassland, Pierre
    et al.
    Applied Microbiology, Lund University.
    Sjöde, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Winestrand, Sandra
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Evaluation of Oxalate Decarboxylase and Oxalate Oxidase for Industrial Applications2010In: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, ISSN 0273-2289, E-ISSN 1559-0291, Vol. 161, p. 255-263Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 157. Cesla, P.
    et al.
    Blomberg, Lars G
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Hamberg, M.
    Jandera, P.
    Characterization of anacardic acids by micellar electrokinetic chromatography and mass spectrometry2006In: J. Chromatogr. A, 1115 (2006) 253-259Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 158.
    Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Post it! - A cross-disciplinary approach to teach socioscientific issues2011In: Teaching Science, ISSN 1449-6313, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 25-28Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 159.
    Charcot, Maxime
    1997.
    Study of solar cells films with a Duetta fluorometer2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 160.
    Christophliemk, Hanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Jokela, Jukka
    Christophliemk, Mika
    Kuokkanen, Toivo
    Study of Organic Coagulants and Flocculants in the Waste Water Treatment2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 161.
    Christophliemk, Hanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Koskinen, Ari M.P.
    An Improved Synthesis of the C1-C9 -fragment of Calyculin C.1997Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 162.
    Christophliemk, Hanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Ullsten, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Johansson, Caisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences, Paper Surface Centre.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Exploiting the synergies between starch, nanoclay and other additives to enhance the barrier properties of paper; Starch coatings - striking balance between the benefits and the drawbacks2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 163.
    Christophliemk, Hanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Ullsten, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Johansson, Caisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Starch-poly(vinyl alcohol) barrier coatings for flexible packaging paper and their effects of phase interactions2017In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 111, p. 13-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Starch and poly(vinyl alcohol) based barrier coatings for flexible packaging papers were studied. Both octenyl succinate modified and hydroxypropylated corn and potato starches were blended with regular and ethylene modified poly(vinyl alcohol) to increase the water vapor barrier properties and enhance the flexibility of the starch coatings, in order to accomplish superior barrier performance. Phase separation between starch and poly (vinyl alcohol) was studied in detail, both in the solution and in dry draw-down coatings on paper. The barrier performance of the coated paper was evaluated with respect to water vapor transmission rate. Conditions for the creation of a thin surface layer consisting of only one of the pure polymers were identified and discussed in terms of phase separation in solution migration of poly(vinyl alcohol) to the uppermost surface layer. The phase separation promoted low water vapor transmission rates also with a rather high fraction of starch in the coatings

  • 164.
    Ciammaruchi, Laura
    et al.
    Parc Mediterani de la Technologia, ICFO.
    Hansson, Rickard
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Galagan, Yulia
    TNO Solliance, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Stability of organic solar cells with PCDTBT donor polymer: An interlaboratory study2018In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 33, no 13, p. 1909-1924Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work is part of the interlaboratory collaboration to study the stability of organic solar cells containing PCDTBT polymer as a donor material. The varieties of the OPV devices with different device architectures, electrode materials, encapsulation, and device dimensions were prepared by seven research laboratories. Sets of identical devices were aged according to four different protocols: shelf lifetime, laboratory weathering under simulated illumination at ambient temperature, laboratory weathering under simulated illumination, and elevated temperature (65 degrees C) and daylight outdoor weathering under sunlight. The results generated in this study allow us to outline several general conclusions related to PCDTBT-based bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. The results herein reported can be considered as practical guidance for the realization of stabilization approaches in BHJ solar cells containing PCDTBT.

  • 165.
    Cilpa-Karhu, Geraldine
    et al.
    Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki.
    Lipponen, Katriina
    Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki.
    Samuelsson, Jörgen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Ööri, Katariina
    Wihuri Research Institute, FIN-00290 Helsinki, Finland.
    Fornstedt, Torgny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Riekkola, Marja-Liisa
    Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki.
    Three complementary techniques for the clarification of temperature effect on low-density lipoprotein–chondroitin-6-sulfate interaction2013In: Analytical Biochemistry, ISSN 0003-2697, E-ISSN 1096-0309, Vol. 443, no 2, p. 139-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract A rigorous processing of adsorption data from quartz crystal microbalance technology was successfully combined with the data obtained by partial filling affinity capillary electrophoresis and molecular dynamics for the clarification of the temperature effect on the interaction of a major glycosaminoglycan chain chondroitin-6-sulfate (C6S) of proteoglycans with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and with a peptide fragment of apolipoprotein B-100 (residues 3359–3377 of LDL, PPBS). Two experimental techniques and computational atomistic methods demonstrated a nonlinear pattern of the affinity of C6S at temperatures above 38.0 °C to both LDL and PPBS. The temperature affects the interaction of C6S with LDL and PPBS by influencing the structural behavior of glycosaminoglycan C6S and/or that of LDL.

  • 166. Cochin, D
    et al.
    De Schryver, FC
    Laschewsky, A
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Polysoaps in Aqueous Solutions: Intermolecular versus Intramolecular Hydrophobic Aggregation and Long-Time Stability Studies by Fluorescence Spectroscopy2001In: Langmuir, 2001, 17, 2579-2584Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 167. Creutz, S
    et al.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Antoun, S
    De Schryver, FC
    Jérôme, R
    Exchange of Polymer Molecules Between Block Copolymer Micelles Studied by Emission Spectroscopy. A Method for the Quantification of Unimer Exchange Rates1997In: Macromolecules, 1997, 30, 4078-4083Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 168. Creutz, S
    et al.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    De Schryver, FC
    Jérôme, R
    Dynamics of Poly((dimethylamino)alkyl methacrylate-block-sodium methacrylate) Micelles. Influence of Hydrophobicity and Molecular Architecture on the Exchange Rate of Copolymer Molecules1998In: Macromolecules, 1998, 31, 681-689Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 169.
    Dabrowski, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Rening av rökgaskondensat i ett fjärrvärmeverk: Återanvändning av rökgaskondensat som spädvatten2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Arvika Fjärrvärme AB is manufacturing and distributing district heating to around 300 customers in Arvika. Heat production consists of a BFB boiler fed with GROT fuel (branches and peaks) and delivers a maximum power of 30 MW. In order to operate the plant, an average of 60 m3 of water per day is consumed from the urban water network. The water consumption is divided between water treatment, sooting and process cooling.

    In the processes, sulfur is dosed to obtain a more complete combustion of the hazardous flue gases that can occur. This is a result of previous thesis made for Arvika fjärrvärme. GROT is a fuel that contains high levels of moisture, which means that a high amount of condensate is formed during combustion, averaging 100 m3 per day. At present, condensate is sufficient to meet the condensate limit values ​​to be flushed into the drain. This is achieved by sand filtration and pH neutralization.

    Today, Arvika heat production is equipped with a purification stage for the feed water consisting of a softening filter and membrane filtration. This creates good conditions for cleaning the condensate and recirculating it in the process. Questions for this study are which hazardous substances the condensate can contain and how the condensate composition affected due to sulfur dosage. In addition, Arvika fjärrvärme wants to find out whether the purified condensate can replace the use of the urban water and, finally, if the condensate can be purified and used as feed water in the process.

    The execution of the work was based on a full-scale attempt in two operating cases of 9 and 18 MW. The tank collecting all condensate after purification in the sand filter and pH neutralization was coupled to the feed water purification stage. Thus, the condensate was pumped and purified in the softening filter and membrane filter. Assay substrates were collected before and after purification of the condensate.

    In addition to the topics that Arvika investigates, high levels of alkalinity were found in the condensate. The sulfur dosage that Arvika technology works with can be the cause of the high concentrations of sulphate. However, it appears that both the sulfate and alkalinity were purified in the membrane filter.

    The amount of condensate formed cannot completely replace the entire water requirement, but definitely large parts. The condensate can be used as feed water based on the retention rate for all substances. However, it appears that two substances, chloride and sulphate can create problems for the membrane filter. To investigate this, the condensate should be tested over a longer period of time to see the affect the chloride as well as the sulphate in the long run.

  • 170. Danielsson Thorell, Helena
    et al.
    Beyer, Natascha H.
    Heegaard, Niels H.H.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Nilsson, Thomas
    Comparision of native and recombinant chlorite dismutase from Ideonella dechloratans2004In: European journal of biochemistryArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 171. Danielsson Thorell, Helena
    et al.
    Beyer, NH
    Heegaard, NH
    Öhman, M
    Nilsson, Thomas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Comparison of native and recombinant chlorite dismutase from Ideonella dechloratan2004In: Eur. J. Biochem. 271, 3539-46Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 172. Danielsson Thorell, Helena
    et al.
    Karlsson, J
    Portelius, E
    Nilsson, Thomas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Cloning, characterization, and expression of a novel gene encoding chlorite dismutase from Ideonella dechloratans2002In: Biochim. et Biophys. Acta, 1577, 445-451Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 173. Danielsson Thorell, Helena
    et al.
    Stenklo, K.
    Karlsson, J.
    Nilsson, Thomas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    A gene cluster for chlorate metabolism in Ideonella dechloratans2003In: Appl Environ Microbiol 69 5585-92Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 174. De Feyter, S
    et al.
    Larsson, M
    Schuurmans, N
    Verkuijl, B
    Zorniants, G
    Gesquière, A
    Abdel-Mottaleb, MM
    van Esch, J
    Feringa, BL
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    De Schryver, FC
    Supramolecular Control of Two-Dimensional Phase Behavior2003In: Chem. Eur. J., 2003, 9, 1198-1206Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 175. De Feyter, S
    et al.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Boens, N
    De Schryver, FC
    On the use of dynamic fluorescence measurements to determine equilibrium and kinetic constants. The inclusion of pyrene in .beta.-cyclodextrin cavities1996In: Chem. Phys. Lett., 1996, 249, 46-52Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 176. De Feyter, S
    et al.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Imans, F
    Viaene, L
    De Schryver, FC
    Evans, CH
    Observation of .alpha.-terthiophene excited dimer fluorescence in aqueous solutions of .gamma.-cyclodextrin1997In: Chem. Phys. Lett., 1997, 277, 44-50Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 177.
    de Jong, Onno
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Bringing everyday life into the chemistry classroom: Improving the use of analogies and contexts2009Book (Refereed)
  • 178.
    de Jong, Onno
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Chemistry teatcher education-: recent developments2009In: Chemistry education, ISSN 1109-4028, E-ISSN 1109-4028, no 10, p. 75-76Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 179.
    de Jong, Onno
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Empowering chemistry teatchers for adopting innovations such as ICT2010In: / [ed] M Bilek, Hradec Kralove: Gaudeamus Publishers , 2010, p. 10-11Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 180.
    de Jong, Onno
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Examining pre-service chemistry teahers pedagogical content knowledge: Influences of teacher cource ant practice school2010Report (Refereed)
  • 181.
    de Jong, Onno
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Exploring and changing teachers`pedagogical content knowledge: An owerview2009In: Teachers Proffessional Knowledge in Science and Mathematics Education: Views from Malaysia and Abroad / [ed] Onno de Jong and Lilia Halim, Bangi, Selangor: Bangi : Faculty of Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia , 2009, p. 1-33Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 182.
    de Jong, Onno
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Supporting innovations in chemistry teacher education: The Critical Incident Method2009In: Research, Theory and Practice in Chemistry Education / [ed] M. Bilek (Ed)., Hradec Kralove: Gaudeamus Press , 2009, p. 342-352Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 183.
    de Jong, Onno
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Teatchers Proffessional Knowledge in Science and Mathematics Education: Views from Malaysia and Abroad2009Book (Refereed)
  • 184. De Schryver, FC
    et al.
    Boens, N
    Van der Auweraer, M
    Viaene, L
    Reekmans, S
    Hermans, B
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Gehlen, M
    Berghmans, H
    Berghmans, M
    Ameloot, M
    Excited-state probing of associative and covalent macromolecules1995In: Pure & Appl. Chem., 1995, 67, 157-165Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 185. De Schryver, FC
    et al.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Gehlen, MH
    Van der Auweraer, M
    Boens, N
    Reekmans, S
    Negri, RM
    Wittouck, N
    Bernik, D
    Ameloot, M
    Faes, H
    Noukakis, D
    Luminescence spectroscopy and microdomains1994In: MICROCHEMISTRY: Spectroscopy and Chemistry in Small Domains; Masuhara H., De Schryver F.C., Kitamura N., Tamai N. (eds), Elsevier, Amsterdam, New York, Tokyo (1994), 415-430, 1994Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 186.
    De Vlaemynck, Thijs
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Study of the effect of solvent and molecular weight of TQ1 on the morphology of TQ1:PC60BM and TQ1:PC70BM spin coated systems2018Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 187.
    Dou, Yangpeng
    et al.
    China.
    Peng, Junjun
    China.
    Li, Wei
    China.
    Li, Ming
    China.
    Liu, Huihong
    China.
    Zhang, Hanmin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    Effects of reducibility of graphene oxide nanosheets on preparation of AgNPs/GO nanocomposites and their electrocatalytic performance2015In: Journal of nanoparticle research, ISSN 1388-0764, E-ISSN 1572-896X, Vol. 17, no 12, p. 1-10, article id 489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silver nanoparticles/graphene oxide (AgNPs/GO) nanocomposites were prepared in a solution of AgNO3 and GO. The GO serves not only as a reductant but also as a substrate to support the as-reduced silver nanoparticles. The reducibility of GO was investigated by analyzing the influence factors such as pH, duration, the reaction temperature, and the weight ratio of AgNO3 and GO in the AgNP/GO nanocomposite mixture, which were evaluated by the UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that Ag nanoparticles with an average diameter of 5–10 nm were uniformly dispersed on the surface of GO nanosheets under the optimum synthesis conditions of pH between 8 and 11, weight ratio of AgNO3 and GO between 55 % and 60 %, and at 80 °C for 6 h. Moreover, the obtained AgNPs/GO nanocomposites exhibit good electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of p-nitrophenol to 4-(hydroxyamino) phenol.

  • 188.
    Drechsler, Michal
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Are Models used from a 'Nature of Science' Perspective?2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 189.
    Drechsler, Michal
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Models in chemistry education: A study of teaching and learning acids and bases in Swedish upper secondary schools2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 190.
    Drechsler, Michal
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Relating course theory to school practice: a study of science student teachers learning2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 191.
    Drechsler, Michal
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Relating course theory to school practice: a study of science student teachers learning2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between theory taught at teacher training courses and school practice is an important issue in teacher education. From research, however, we know that this relationship is often quite weak and always not very clear (de Jong 2005). The aim for this study is to clarify this relationship and to contribute to enhance the relationship between courses and practice.

    The study focus on 25 science student teacher's participating in short (1½ year) teacher training program in our University. The students had completed their subject studies earlier, perhaps in another education program, and by adding this course they would be qualified secondary teachers.  Since the students already achieved their subject matter knowledge (SMK), the focus of the course is general pedagogy (PK) and science education in order to increase the students' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). "PCK is involved in knowing what knowledge is relevant, Re-constructing the knowledge in pedagogically appropriate ways, and re-presenting the knowledge in ways that effectively mediate the learning of all students." (Tobin & McRobbie 1999). Within the course several periods of teaching practice is included. In their practice the students should become aware of critical events in the classroom. A critical event is a specific situation in a lesson that is critical or significant for the student, and evokes their concerns, questions or needs for support for learning how to teach science (Tripp 1993). Critical Incidents has been used successfully to help student teacher focus on the problematic nature of teaching (Nott & Wellington 1995; Griffin 1993; de Jong 2009). In self reflection and discussions with peers and educators about these incidents, student teachers might explicit their concerns for teaching and needs for learning (de Jong 2000).

    General research question: To what extent does the Teacher education course help student teachers to overcome these concerns and to fulfil their needs for learning?

    The method used is teacher student self reporting about their lesson observations and/or about their teaching in terms of:

    a)      Critical events

    b)      Evoked concerns

    c)       Needs for learning

    In the report, a critical event should deal with teaching and learning specific science topics, no general issues like 'law and order' in the classroom. In addition, two workshops were included in the data collection were the students discussions about their experiences were recorded.

    The Teacher students expressed that they felt comfortable with their Subject Matter Knowledge (SMK), however, they expressed needs for teaching strategies for i) explaining difficult concepts but also for ii) motivating and enthusiasm their pupils. They were also surprised over some of the pupils' preconceptions and difficulties. Knowledge of teaching strategies and students' difficulties are the two major parts of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) i.e., the knowledge of how to transform scientific knowledge to a form appreciated by the learners. Further, some students asked for all set lectures, explanations and arguments for motivation. These statements might indicate that the teacher students weren't so comfortable with their SMK as they felt.  The critical incidents found in this study are quite similar to what other studies have found.  Regarding 'concerns 'and 'needs' the students show a lack of self criticism. This has also been reported by de Jong & Van Driel (1999).  Further, from the 'concerns' we can see that the students have some insight of deficiencies in the course but from 'needs' we can conclude that students prefer to be 'feed' from the teacher education program. Deeper reflections in several steps were also lacking, which are crusial in order to initiate development od PCK (Nilsson 2008).

    De Jong, O. (2000), The Teacher Trainer as Researcher: Exploring the initial pedagogical content concerns of prospective science teachers, European Journal of Teacher Education, Volume 23, Issue 2, 2000

    De Jong, O. (2005), Research and teaching practice in chemical education: Living apart or together?, Chemical Education International, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2005

    De Jong, O. (2009). Supporting innovations in chemistry teacher education: the Critical Incident Method. In M. Bilek (Ed.). Research, Theory and Practice in Chemistry Education (pp. 342-352). Hradec Kralove: Gaudeamus Publishers.

    de Jong, O. & van Driel, J.H. (1999), Prospective Teachers' Concerns about Teaching Chemistry Topics at a Macro-Micro-Symbolic Interface, Paper presented at the 72nd Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, Boston

    Griffin, M.L. (2003), Using critical incidents to promote and assess reflective thinking in preservice teachers, Reflective Practice, 4 (2003), pp. 207–220

    Nilsson, P. (2008), Teaching for Understanding: The complex nature of pedagogical content knowledge in pre‐service education, International Journal of Science Education, Volume 30, Issue 10, 2008

    Nott, M. and Wellington, J.(1995), Critical incidents in the science classroom and the nature of science, School Science Review, 76 (1995), pp. 41–46

    Tobbin, K. & McRobbie, C.J.,(1999). Nature, sources and development of pedagogical content knowledge. In J. Gess-Newsome & N. G. Lederman (Eds.), Examining pedagogical content knowledge (pp.95-132). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

    Tripp, D. (1993). Critical incidents in teaching. Developing professional judgement. London: Routledge.

    Van Driel, J.H., De Jong, O. & Verloop, N. (2002), The Development of Preservice Chemistry Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Science Education, v86 n4 p572-90

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