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  • 151.
    Eriksson, Bodil
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Klimatsmart politik? Ingen vill väl vara klimat-dum.: En diskursanalys av begreppet klimatsmart i politiken och hos allmänheten.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid sidan av begrepp som miljövänlig, grön och hållbar har ett nytt ord dykt upp i miljödiskursen - klimatsmart.Klimatsmart, eller enbart smart i olika miljörelaterade sammansättningar, används flitigt av gemene man, i media, i debattartiklar och reklamkampanjer. Vad innebär då klimatsmart?Denna uppsats syftar till att i en diskursanalytisk kontext undersöka begreppet klimatsmart, dels ur ett politiskt perspektiv samt i den svenske medborgarens vardag.

    Medborgaren och dennes vardagliga val är onekligen en stor del av miljö- och klimatfrågan idag. Den svenska miljö- och klimatpolitiken kräver ofta medborgares aktiva deltagande. Allt pekar på att den stora källan till dagens miljöproblem och klimatförändringar ligger i de miljontals val människor gör varje dag, och att det därför krävs att varje enskild människa tar ansvar för sina val och dess konsekvenser, för att vi ska kunna se en förändring. Samtidigt som en stor del av detta ansvar har lagts på den enskilde medborgaren, har politiken fortfarande huvudansvaret, det är politikens ansvar att förse medborgare med de medel som krävs för att möjliggöra och underlätta dessa val.Ett slående inslag i miljö- och klimatpolitiken är den kontrast som finns mellan hur allmänheten ser frågan i allmänna och enkla termer, medan hos beslutsfattare och politiker är frågan mycket mer teknisk och detaljerad. Politiken kan bli legitim och effektiv först när den lyssnar på medborgaren.

    I studien har e-postserveys med medborgare boende i Karlskoga samt intervjuer med regionala politiker verksamma i Karlskoga kommun eller Örebro län genomförts. Denna empiriska data har analyserats med hjälp av diskurs både som teori och metod samt framing-teorin. Även politiska styrdokument på nationell och internationell nivå har använts som underlag. Studien visar att för medborgaren innebär klimatsmart att i vardagen göra val som i första hand är bra för miljö och klimat, men som även har någon personlig nytta, utifrån varje individs egna förutsättningar, värderingar och intresse.I politiken har klimatsmart en plats i den talade politiska retoriken och då framförallt i regionpolitiken. Ju närmre den enskilde medborgaren politiken rör sig, desto men relevant blir begreppet klimatsmart. Med detta blir det också relevant för politiker att kunna nyttja begreppet till sin och politikens fördel, för att den medborgarinriktade miljö- och klimatpolitiken skall lyckas.

  • 152.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Mogren, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    NRTK-mätningar och kartering i Borgvik: En jämförelse mellan mätmetoderna snabbpunktsmätning och intervallmätning2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    The objective of this work was to compare two different methods of NRTK measurements, specifically rapidpoint measurement and interval measurement of 20 samples per point. Measurements of known points at Karlstad University were made to test the quality, or how much it differed between the two methods.   

    Later, measurements were carried out at Borgviks Nya Hamncafé in Grums municipality. The shoreline was the object that was measured as a test of the two methods which later was compared with control measurements made at Karlstad University.    

    The rest of the area around the café was measured by the rapid point method that went to be the basis for the map that was created over the area.    

    The coordinate and the altitude systems used during the measurements were SWEREF 99 13 30 and RH 2000. The results after the measurements were a coordinate list of the points where the both methods were used and shows how much they differ from each other in Northing and Easting direction. Calculations of the coordinates led to the conclusion that rapid point measurement method is excellent to use in similar projects, however, some parts could be measured with a total station if there are trees or houses obscuring the view to satellites. This would be recommended if the accuracy demands are at a high level.    

    Finally, a detailed map of the marina was produced that can be used by camping guests, but also for other short-term visitors, according to the wishes of the manager of Borgviks Nya Hamncafé (Niclas Lundsten, 0555-22100).

  • 153.
    Eriksson, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Storskalig utrymning - en fråga om samverkan och flexibilitet: Vilka uppfattningar finns om ett genomförande på lokal och regional nivå i närheten av kärnkraftverket i Ringhals2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today many Swedish organizations have weak capacity to plan and prepare for a large-scale evacuation. According to MSB:s guide on evacuation 2014 todays planning is often considered outdated and feedback of experience is done arbitrarily. Furthermore, interpretation and application of existing legislation is varying. The legislation is generally perceived as unclear and responsibilities between different organizations need to be clarified.

    The purpose of the study is, based on the experience of international examples and general principles for large-scale evacuation compare it with Swedish context. The hypothesis is that the lack of experience actually implementing the evacuation on a large scale is likely affecting how society's preparedness looks today. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with people in key positions at various agencies on local and regional level in Halmstad, Halland. A qualitative content analysis was used. The study also consists of a case study where Halmstad Municipality and its proximity to the nuclear power plant in Ringhals represent delimitation and a case study. The result demonstrates that knowledge and ability to carry out large-scale evacuation is incomplete or missing. All organizations miss practical experience of large-scale evacuations and envision the implementation as a major challenge. There is a need for planning, in own organization and joint with interested organizations. It is also considered to be expertise within the organizations, as example Varbergs and Kungsbackas municipalities together with Police Authority West has many years of experience in emergency planning and exercises related to nuclear accidents. A joint training program, from general principles, with the aim of creating a common focus and action structure for large-scale evacuation is recommended.

  • 154.
    Eriksson, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Energy & Technol, Box 7070, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ghosh, Ranjan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Econ, Box 7013, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Mattsson, Lisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Ismatov, Alisher
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Econ, Box 7013, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Take-back agreements in the perspective of food waste generation at the supplier-retailer interface2017In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 122, p. 83-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food waste must be minimised to make food supply chains sustainable. This is especially relevant since food waste valorisation measures, such as energy recovery, have limited possibilities to fully recover the resources invested in food production. However, waste minimisation is costly when it includes new infrastructure or technology. Policy measures, on the other hand, can provide a low-cost option. Food rejection practices in supermarkets, such as take-back agreements (TBA), have long been identified as risk factors for food waste generation at the supplier-retailer interface, but given the relational, and often discreet, nature of these agreements, there is little evidence of their impact. In this study we provide, concrete evidence of different rejection practices. This is done by studying three types of food chains those for bread, fresh fruit and vegetables, and milk with different rejection practices in Sweden. Based on a combination of primary company information and stakeholder interviews, we found that a full TBA is in operation for bread. The retailer only pays for bread that is sold and any bread left unsold three days before the best-before date is returned to the supplier. For fresh fruit and vegetables, only goods of 'inadequate' quality are returned, but supermarkets have sole rights of determination on quality, posing a risk of categorising unsold fruit and vegetables as inadequate quality and returning them to suppliers. In the case of milk, suppliers take back unsold items, but only for waste management. The trend found in this study was that bread had the highest waste, and the most extensive take-back policy. Fresh fruit and vegetables had medium levels of waste, partly due to unverified rejections, while milk had a very low level of waste combined with an even lower level of rejections. It can be concluded that a food supply chain system where the direct costs of waste management or incentives for waste reduction are separated from the organisation responsible for generating the waste poses a significant risk factor in food waste generation and is therefore a potential hotspot for waste-reducing measures. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 155.
    Erlandsson, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    iNOS expression in men with prostate cancer2016Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 156.
    Erlandsson, Fabian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Motivation att utföra skyddsåtgärder: Innan, under och efter översvämning i privata villahushåll2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction & aim: Annual mean precipitation and the number of heavy rainfalls is expected to increase in both the short- and long-term perspective in Sweden. As the number of heavy rainfalls increases, the number of insurance compensation to private homeowners also increase. Experience has shown to make people more aware of the associated risks and influences an individual's motivation to carry out flood protective measures himself but only a third of the people exposed performs measures to decrease the risk of future flooding. Previous studies have also found Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to be a useful tool for explaining what influences the probability of an individual to take protective measures. This study aims to investigate causes of damage, management and damage caused by flooding in private households, and how various factors affect an individual's motivation to perform protective measures, using PMT together with additional literature as an explanatory tool. Method: The study uses a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to examine the occurrence of the different phenomenon’srelated to flooding. Data collection Semi-structural interviews were performed an analysed with thematic analyses and descriptive statistics. Results: The results show that PMT, together with the individual's knowledge on measures and perception of who has the main responsibility for managing flooding, is important in explaining what motivates an individual to perform measures. Threat appraisal and coping appraisal, both included in the PMT, is shown to affect the individual's motivation. Thought coping appraisal seems to have a greater impact on the actions performed. Conclusion: For homeowners to carry out protective measures in addition to those already performed in response to the experienced flooding it’s important that information on measures and how to implement them are provided. The division of responsibility between the private person and the municipality also needs to be clarified to the homeowner as this is identified as a reason why individuals stop implementing measures.

  • 157.
    Erngren, Lisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Sex- och samlevnadsundervisning: En jämförelse mellan två olika skolors sex- och samlevnadsundervisning2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att jämföra två olika skolors sex- och samlevnadsundervisning, ta reda på om man arbetar ämnesövergripande och ta reda på om undervisningen kan anses vara likvärdig. För att få svar på mina frågeställningar, Hur planeras och genomförs undervisningen i sex och samlevnad? samt Vilka hinder och möjligheter finns det för att arbeta ämnesövergripande? har jag använt mig utav muntliga intervjuer med lärare, rektorer och skolhälsovård. Studien utfördes på två högstadieskolor i två medelstora svenska städer under vårterminen 2015. Resultatet visade att undervisningen ser olika ut beroende på vilken skola man går på, men kan även variera beroende på vilken klass man går i. De olika hindren och möjligheterna som finns för att arbeta ämnesövergripande är bland annat tid och forum för att planera arbetet, men även mentaliteten bland personal på skolan och möjligheten att sitta i arbetslagsrum där man kan integrera med andra ämneslärare.

  • 158.
    Eskandari, Samieh
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Mohammadi, Ali
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Sandberg, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Eckstein, Rolf Lutz
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Hedberg, Kjell
    Ulf Ahlden Ingenjörsfirma, Upplands Väsby.
    Granström, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Hydrochar-Amended Substrates for Production of Containerized Pine Tree Seedlings under Different Fertilization Regimes2019In: Agronomy, E-ISSN 2073-4395, Vol. 9, no 7, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing body of research that recognizes the potentials of biochar application in agricultural production systems. However, little is known about the effects of biochar, especially hydrochar, on production of containerized seedlings under nursery conditions. This study aimed to test the effects of hydrochar application on growth, quality, nutrient and heavy metal contents, and mycorrhizal association of containerized pine seedlings. The hydrochar used in this study was produced through hydrothermal carbonization of paper mill biosludge at 200 °C. Two forms of hydrochar (powder and pellet) were mixed with peat at ratios of 10% and 20% (v/v) under three levels of applied commercial fertilizer (nil, half and full rates). Application of hydrochar had positive or neutral effects on shoot biomass and stem diameter compared with control seedlings (without hydrochar) under tested fertilizer levels. Analysis of the natural logarithmic response ratios (LnRR) of quality index and nutrient and heavy metal uptake revealed that application of 20% (v/v) hydrochar powder or pellet with 50% fertilizer resulted in same quality pine seedlings with similar heavy metal (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Cr) and nutrient (P, K, Ca and Mg) contents as untreated seedlings supplied with 100% fertilizer. Colonization percentage by ectomycorrhizae significantly increased when either forms of hydrochar were applied at a rate of 20% under unfertilized condition. The results of this study implied that application of proper rates of hydrochar from biosludge with adjusted levels of liquid fertilizer may reduce fertilizer requirements in pine nurseries.

  • 159.
    Evans, Alexander
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    3D-visualisering av detaljplaner: Standarder och riktlinjer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Användningen och behovet av 3D-modeller inom fysisk planering har ökat, både nationellt och internationellt. I nuläget saknas standarder och riktlinjer kring hur man bör förhålla sig vid 3D-visualisering av detaljplaner, vilket skapar oklarheter kring hur de skall visualiseras. De flesta av Sveriges kommuner ser positivt på ett införande av en gemensam nationell standard för 3D-visualiseringar inom planprocessen, då detta troligtvis skulle underlätta och förbättra arbetsprocessen vid 3D-detaljplanering.Syftet med arbetet var att undersöka vilka riktlinjer och förhållningssätt man kan utgå från för att 3D-modeller i planprocesser skall öka förståelsen och engagemanget vid exempelvis samråd och medborgardialog.Förslag på riktlinjeroch förhållningssättvid 3D-visualiseringar av detaljplanertogs fram, där fokus låg kring begreppen detaljeringsnivå, ändamål, höjd och utnyttjandegrad. En undersökning gjordes även om någon av standarderna SOSI eller CityGML är lämpliga att använda för 3D-detaljplanering i Sverige utifrån de krav som ställs i plan-och bygglagen.Metoden bestod övervägande av en litteraturstudie där både nationell och internationell forskning studerades. Det samlades även in kompletterande information genom personlig kommunikation med tjänstemän från Karlstad-och Falu kommun. En fallstudie gjordes över detaljplanerna Sundsta torg och Hyttan 16 och 18 där en diskussion fördes kring hur dessa skulle kunna visualiseras i 3D.Utifrån resultatet drogs slutsatsen att det idag finns för lite forskning kring ämnet för att ta fram riktlinjer för en fullskalig 3D-Modell. Resultatet visade även att den nuvarande versionen av SOSI inte är lämplig för 3D-visualisering av detaljplaner, men att det material som beskriver den kommande versionen ser lovande ut och att CityGML har potential att användas inom detaljplanering, men förslagsvis borde den innefatta fler detaljeringsnivåer.

  • 160.
    Evers, Mariele
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Transnational education for integrated flood risk management - the master course IFRM: [Transnationale bildung für integriertes hochwasserrisikomanagement - Der masterkurs "integrated flood risk management"]2013In: Hydrologie und Wasserbewirtschaftung, ISSN 1439-1783, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 100-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flood Risk Management (FRM) is a topic of growing importance. This is signiicantly illustrated by the European Directive on Flood Risk Management, which entered into force in 2007. FRM in general but also the Directive require integrated and interdisciplinary approaches and skills. Against this background the International Master Course "Integrated lood risk management" was developed and implemented under the EU project "Strategic Alliance for Water Management Actions" (SAWA). Six universities and 12 non-academic partners from ive European countries participated in the course. The paper describes the background and requirements of such an education ofer as well as its content and its pedagogical and organizational format. Furthermore, the implementation of the course and evaluation results are presented.

  • 161.
    Faleij, LOUISE
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Faror på förskolan: En studie om förskolepersonalens kunskaper och arbete gällande miljögifter inom förskolan2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In todays world we’re exposed daily to a large amount of chemicals, some of which are harmful to man and the environment. To reach to objective of a toxic free environment it is of uttermost importance that our preschools become free from toxins, especially since there today exist several products and toys that contain hazardous substances. Kids are more sensitive to these compared to adults which is why the importance of clearing them out from the preschools are even more important, especially since the kids spend several hours a day there. Several municipalities has begun this task though it is also important for a behavioral change to happen if the result is to be sustainable.

    The purpose of the study was to examine if information to the stuff of the preschools has contributed to an increased knowledge about hazardous substances in preschools.  The surveys purpose is also to examine if an increased knowledge has led to an improvement as well as which obstacles and possibilities exist for the usage of this knowledge in working for a toxin-free preschool. This will be done through a survey and interviews with preschool staff who are active within Karlstad municipality.

    The survey showed of a positive attitude in the preschool staff concerning continuing the work to phase out hazardous substances from their preschools. Their awareness and knowledge are at a good level since they have knowledge about what products and substances to avoid in preschools. Several obstacles that hinder the staff from working effectively at decreasing the amount of hazardous substances at preschools. Things which limits the staff are economics, lack of knowledge, time, anxiety, procurement terms and range among others. For the objective of a toxic free environment to be reached the support of the preschool staff needs to be improved. This can be accomplish through  tougher terms of procurement, more support and education of the staff among other things to help them make better choices of products which in turn will make a toxic free preschool a possibility.

  • 162.
    Filipsson, Karl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Erlandsson, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Manuscript: Temperature and predator-mediated regulation of cortisol and brain gene expression in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 163.
    Filipsson, Karl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Erlandsson, Ann
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Effects of temperature and a piscivorous fish on diel winter behaviour of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta)2019In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 64, no 1+, p. 1797-1805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low winter temperatures constrain predator-detection and escape capabilities, making poikilotherms vulnerable to predation. Investigations of temperature effects on predator-prey interactions can therefore be of special importance in light of ongoing climate change, where winter temperatures are predicted to increase substantially at northern latitudes. Behavioral responses of stream fishes to terrestrial predators in winter are well recognised, whereas responses to predatory fish have received little attention. Using stream flumes, we examined the anti-predator behaviour of one-summer-old brown trout (Salmo trutta) at 3 and 8 degrees C in the presence and absence of burbot (Lota lota) under night, dawn, and daylight conditions. Burbot was placed upstream of the trout, separated by net screens. Lower temperature and the presence of burbot reduced trout activity. Light increased trout shelter use, and trout sheltered more in the presence of burbot. An interaction between the presence of burbot and light conditions affected trout position in the flumes: at night and dawn, trout positioned themselves further downstream when burbot were present than when absent, whereas during the day, trout maintained the same position in the presence or absence of the predator. Our results suggest that piscivorous fish, in addition to terrestrial predators, shape the behaviour of prey fishes in streams during winter. We show how predator avoidance results in altered diel patterns of juvenile brown trout under winter conditions, and that temperature has additional effects on trout behaviour.

  • 164.
    Filipsson, Karl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Brijs, Jeroen
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Näslund, Joacim
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Wengström, Niklas
    Gothenburg University, Sweden; Swedish Anglers Association, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Adamsson, Marie
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Závorka, Libor
    Gothenburg University, Sweden; Toulouse University, France.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Höjesjö, Johan
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Encystment of parasitic freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) larvae coincides with increased metabolic rate and haematocrit in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta)2017In: Parasitology Research, ISSN 0932-0113, E-ISSN 1432-1955, Vol. 116, p. 1353-1360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gill parasites on fish are likely to negatively influence their host by inhibiting respiration, oxygen transport capacity and overall fitness. The glochidia larvae of the endangered freshwater pearl mussel (FPM, Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758)) are obligate parasites on the gills of juvenile salmonid fish. We investigated the effects of FPM glochidia encystment on the metabolism and haematology of brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus,1758). Specifically, we measured whole-animal oxygen uptake rates at rest and following an exhaustive exercise protocol using intermittent flow-through respirometry, as well as haematocrit, in infested and uninfested trout. Glochidia encystment significantly affected whole-animal metabolic rate, as infested trout exhibited higher standard and maximum metabolic rates. Furthermore, glochidia-infested trout also had elevated levels of haematocrit.The combination of an increased metabolism and haematocrit in infested fish indicates that glochidia encystment has a physiological effect on the trout, perhaps as a compensatory response to the potential respiratory stress caused by the glochidia. When relating glochidia load to metabolism and haematocrit, fish with low numbers of encysted glochidia were the ones with particularly elevated metabolism and haematocrit. Standard metabolic rate decreased with substantial glochidia loads towards levels similar to those of uninfested fish. This suggests that initial effects visible at low levels of encystment may be countered by additional physiological effects at high loads, e.g. potential changes in energy utilization, and also that high numbers of glochidia may restrict oxygen uptake by the gills.

  • 165.
    Filipsson, Karl
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Göteborgs universitet.
    Petersson, Tina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Hojesjo, Johan
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Naslund, Joacim
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Wengstrom, Niklas
    Göteborgs universitet; Swedish Anglers Assoc, Gothenburg,.
    Österling, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Heavy loads of parasitic freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera L.) larvae impair foraging, activity and dominance performance in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta L.)2018In: Ecology of Freshwater Fish, ISSN 0906-6691, E-ISSN 1600-0633, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 70-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The life cycle of the endangered freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) includes a parasitic larval phase (glochidia) on the gills of a salmonid host. Glochidia encystment has been shown to affect both swimming ability and prey capture success of brown trout (Salmo trutta), which suggests possible fitness consequences for host fish. To further investigate the relationship between glochidia encystment and behavioural parameters in brown trout, pairs (n = 14) of wild-caught trout (infested vs. uninfested) were allowed to drift feed in large stream aquaria and foraging success, activity, agonistic behaviour and fish coloration were observed. No differences were found between infested and uninfested fish except for in coloration, where infested fish were significantly darker than uninfested fish. Glochidia load per fish varied from one to several hundred glochidia, however, and high loads had significant effects on foraging, activity and behaviour. Trout with high glochidia loads captured less prey, were less active and showed more subordinate behaviour than did fish with lower loads. Heavy glochidia loads therefore may negatively influence host fitness due to reduced competitive ability. These findings have implications not only for management of mussel populations in the streams, but also for captive breeding programmes which perhaps should avoid high infestation rates. Thus, low levels of infestation on host fish which do not affect trout behaviour but maintains mussel populations may be optimal in these cases.

  • 166.
    Fjellström, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Effekten av abiotiska och biotiska faktorer på förekomst och stickprovsframgång: Användandet av Artificial Cover Objects (ACOs) vid inventering av kräldjur2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT – The use of Artificial Cover Objects (ACOs) for inventorying and monitoring of reptile diversity has become increasingly common, though few studies have investigated how occurrence and sampling success (encounters per ACO per day) varies with environmental factors when using ACOs. This study is based on data from Sandsjöbacka ecoduct and its surroundings in southwestern Sweden, where there is an ongoing monitoring program. Sixty-five plywood coverboards the first year and 15 more the next year were placed in a system of points along transects and checked 22 times (1595 shelter checks) between the year 2017 and 2018. These counts were combined with vegetation analyses and complemented with data of ambient temperature from SMHI, the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. A total of 129 reptiles belonging to six species was found: grass snake (Natrix natrix), smooth snake (Coronella austriaca), sand lizard (Lacerta agilis), viviparous lizard (Zootoca vivipara), slowworm (Anguis fragilis) and adder (Vipera berus). There was no correlation between temperature and sampling success. DFA revealed a significant discrimination between ACOs with and without reptiles, and two of eight vegetation variables, proportion of shrubs and proportion of bare ground, were best at separating the two groups. Bare ground tended to have a negative effect on reptile occurrence, while the tendency for shrubs was the opposite. Most observations (81% of all reptiles) and encounter rates (0.065 counts per ACO per day versus 0.081 totally) were associated with slow worm (European glass lizard), and therefore the data mainly reflect activity of this species.

  • 167.
    Fokkema, Maaike
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Spårämnestillsatsers påverkan på biogasproduktionen vid anaerob rötning av avloppsslam: Behovet av spårämnen vid slamrötning på Karlstads reningsverk2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish government has set a national goal to have no vehicles running on fossil fuels in year 2030. One of the fuels that can replace the fossil fuels of today is biogas. The biggest wastewater treatment plant in Karlstad, called Sjöstadsverket, is already producing biogas and is expanding to receive more sludge in the future. Because of this, Sjöstadsverket wants to investigate the possibility of a more effective biogas production. A common way to improve biogas production is trace element additives. Therefor the addition of cobalt, nickel, iron and magnesium has been investigated through small scale thermophilic anaerobic digestion trials in batch reactors. The trace elements have also been added in combination with EDTA to investigate the bioavailability of the trace elements. In addition to these experiments a correlation analysis was performed where different factors that might influence the biogas production were investigated for year 2017.

    The results from the digestion trials prove that no addition of iron, magnesium, cobalt or nickel will increase the biogas production. Instead, the biogas production was inhibited during two out of three experiments. These results indicate that the organisms in the digester at Sjöstadsverket already have a sufficient amount of trace elements. The addition of EDTA did not increase the biogas production either which indicates that the trace elements also are bioavailable to a sufficient extent. The results from the digestion trials are validated by the correlation analysis because no correlation could be found between the biogas production and the investigated trace elements.

    The results from the correlation analysis show that the pH-level affects the biogas production negatively. The results indicate that the pH-level is to high, something that was also observed during the digestion trials. A higher flow rate into the digesters could lower the pH-levels according to further correlation studies. This has also been observed during the digestion trials where a shorter retention time lowered the pH-levels. Because Sjöstadsverket bases their retention time on a stable volume in the digesters, it could be possible for them to increase the biogas production by increasing the flow rates, which will happen when they start receiving more sludge. Because these conclusions are mainly based on correlations, further studies of the influence of pH-levels and retention times on the biogas production at Sjöstadsverket are recommended.

  • 168.
    Fossmo, Kristian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Lax (Salmon salar) i Klarälven – Betydelsen av smolt, lekfisk och kelt för populationsutvecklingen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The modeling of populations can be a great help for conservation biology in terms of

    helping to evaluate a potential response in populations to different hypothetical

    conservation measures. A more effective conservation approach can thus be attained

    with help from the results shown in the models. This study presents the results of

    modelling for hypothetically reduced mortalities at different life stages for the lake

    migrating population salmon in Klarälven. The models were developed in the

    program Vortex. The different scenarios that have been simulated differ in the

    mortality rates for different age classes within the salmon population. A simulation

    on the importance of kelt was also done, because the kelt can have a potentially big

    impact on population growth. This study shows that reduced mortalities during smolt

    migration in combination with an increase in habitat quality and quantity, had a

    significant effect on the population size compared with the scenario with relatively

    high mortality rates. Even though the population size was considerably higher for this

    scenario, the probability for the population to go extinct in the next 50 years was still

    relatively high at 37 %. Today the salmon only spawn once in their lifetime in the

    River Klarälven. When the salmon were given the opportunity to spawn one extra

    time, by prolonging their lifespan by one year, the probability of extinction in the next

    50 years was reduced to only 2 %.

  • 169.
    Frank, Beatrice M.
    et al.
    Belgium.
    Piccolo, John J.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Baret, Philippe V.
    Belgium.
    A review of ecological models for brown trout: towards a new demogenetic model2011In: Ecology of Freshwater Fish, ISSN 0906-6691, E-ISSN 1600-0633, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 167-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological models for stream fish range in scale from individual fish to entire populations. They have been used to assess habitat quality and to predict the demographic and genetic responses to management or disturbance. In this paper, we conduct the first comprehensive review and synthesis of the vast body of modelling literature on the brown trout, Salmo trutta L., with the aim of developing the framework for a demogenetic model, i.e., a model integrating both population dynamics and genetics. We use a bibliometric literature review to identify two main categories of models: population ecology (including population dynamics and population genetics) and population distribution (including habitat–hydraulic and spatial distribution). We assess how these models have previously been applied to stream fish, particularly brown trout, and how recent models have begun to integrate them to address two key management and conservation questions: (i) How can we predict fish population responses to management intervention? and (ii) How is the genetic structure of fish populations influenced by landscape characteristics? Because salmonid populations tend to show watershed scale variation in both demographic and genetic traits, we propose that models combining demographic, genetic and spatial data are promising tools for improving their management and conservation. We conclude with a framework for an individual-based, spatially explicit demogenetic model that we will apply to stream-dwelling brown trout populations in the near future.

  • 170.
    Gattringer, Johannes P.
    et al.
    Justus Liebig Univ Giessen, Res Ctr Biosyst Land Use & Nutr IFZ, Div Landscape Ecol & Landscape Planning, Giessen, Germany..
    Donath, Tobias W.
    Univ Kiel, Inst Nat Resource Conservat, Dept Landscape Ecol, Kiel, Germany..
    Eckstein, Rolf Lutz
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Ludewig, Kristin
    Justus Liebig Univ Giessen, Res Ctr Biosyst Land Use & Nutr IFZ, Div Landscape Ecol & Landscape Planning, Giessen, Germany..
    Otte, Annette
    Justus Liebig Univ Giessen, Res Ctr Biosyst Land Use & Nutr IFZ, Div Landscape Ecol & Landscape Planning, Giessen, Germany..
    Harvolk-Schoening, Sarah
    Justus Liebig Univ Giessen, Res Ctr Biosyst Land Use & Nutr IFZ, Div Landscape Ecol & Landscape Planning, Giessen, Germany..
    Flooding tolerance of four floodplain meadow species depends on age2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 5, article id e0176869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous restoration campaigns focused on re-establishing species-rich floodplain meadows of Central Europe, whose species composition is essentially controlled by regular flooding. Climate change predictions expect strong alterations on the discharge regime of Europe's large rivers with little-known consequences on floodplain meadow plants. In this study, we aim to determine the effects of flooding on seedlings of different ages of four typical flood meadow species. To this end, we flooded seedlings of two familial pairs of flood meadow species of wetter and dryer microhabitats for 2 weeks each, starting 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after seedling germination, respectively. We show that a 2-week-flooding treatment had a negative effect on performance of seedlings younger than 6 weeks. Summer floods with high floodwater temperatures may have especially detrimental effects on seedlings, which is corroborated by previous findings. As expected, the plants from wet floodplain meadow microhabitats coped better with the flooding treatment than those from dryer microhabitats. In conclusion, our results suggest that restoration measures may perform more successfully if seedlings of restored species are older than the critical age of about 6 weeks before a spring flooding begins. Seasonal flow patterns may influence vegetation dynamics of floodplain meadows and should, therefore, be taken into account when timing future restoration campaigns.

  • 171.
    Gebrehiwot, Solomon Gebreyohannis
    et al.
    Justus Liebig University Giessen, Germany; Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano
    Uppsala University; Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science, Uppsala.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala,.
    Halldin, Sven
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Breuer, Lutz
    Justus Liebig University Giessen, Germany.
    Is observation uncertainty masking the signal of land use change impacts on hydrology?2019In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 570, p. 393-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of hydrological impacts of land use change raises questions about whether, and how much, such impacts are misrepresented because of errors in river flow observations. In this paper, land use change impacts (represented by changes in watershed storage) and different ranges of discharge measurement error are compared to assess how errors in discharge measurement can potentially mask a land use change impact. Using a watershed from the Ethiopian highlands to exemplify this, we simulated five different levels of land use change impacts with five levels of watershed storage reductions (from 10% to 50% change) and the associated time series of runoff. Different levels of observation error were then introduced into these artificial time series. Comparison was made between every pair, i.e. a time series derived from a certain level of land use change (storage reduction) versus a time series corresponding to a given level of observation error, using a step-change t-test. Significant step-changes between pairs define the detectability of land use change impact. The analysis was made for the entire 30-year time series as well as for the most extreme annual weather conditions. The results showed that for the average year and wettest year, 75% or more error in observed discharge masks the maximum simulated land use change impact on hydrology. In dry years, a 50% error in discharge is enough to mask the same impact. Knowing (and improving) the level of data quality contributes to a better understanding of hydrological uncertainties and improves the precision in assessing land use change impacts. Both of these are essential elements in water resources development planning.

  • 172.
    Geidne, Susanna
    et al.
    Örebro Universitet.
    Beckman, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Edvardsson, Ingrid
    Örebro universitet.
    Hulldin, Johanna
    Örebro universitet.
    Prevalence and Risk factors of Electronic Cigarette Use among Adolescents: Data from Four Swedish Municipalities Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs2016In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 225-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims

    To assess the prevalence rates and risk factors of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, with special focus on e-cigarettes containing nicotine, among grade 9 students (aged 15–16 years) in four different municipalities in Sweden.

    Methods

    A cross-sectional sample of 665 adolescents was collected in April 2014. The data was analysed using binary logistic regression analysis.

    Results

    The results show that 26% of adolescents in this study have smoked e-cigarettes (have ever used), while 19% have smoked e-cigarettes with nicotine or do not know whether or not they contained nicotine. The strongest risk factor for ever having used e-cigarettes (any type or with nicotine) was smoking conventional cigarettes. Having tried cigarettes and having tried snus, as well as using or having used alcohol and having smoked a water pipe were also statistically significant risk factors for ever use of any type of e-cigarettes but not for use of e-cigarettes with nicotine. There was no gender difference.

    Conclusions

    Our result show that the use of e-cigarettes tends to cluster with the use of other substances, such as other tobacco products and alcohol. As a relatively large share of the participating adolescents, more than a fourth, had smoked e-cigarettes, this rather new phenomenon requires monitoring as a part of the tobacco control.

  • 173.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    A Critical Review of HPS Scholarship in Science Education2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 174.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Begreppsvariation - Ett sätt att förstå modeller2013In: Modeller, analogier och metaforer i naturvetenskapsundervisning / [ed] Jeppsson, F. och Haglund, J., Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 1, p. 91-118Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 175.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Deepening Students' Understanding of Modern Genetics: Four Approaches that Link Molecular Genetics with Mendelian Genetics2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 176.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    G is for Genes: The Impact of Genetics on Education and Achievement2016In: Science & Education, ISSN 0926-7220, E-ISSN 1573-1901, Vol. 25, no 5-6, p. 697-703Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 177.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Naturvetenskap som allmänbildning inom molekylärvetenskaperna – Betydelsen av språk, diskurs och identitet2014In: Språk, diskurs och identitet: Ämnesdidaktisk forskning inommolekylärvetenskaperna / [ed] Niklas Gericke, Karlstad: Karlstads universitet , 2014, 1, p. 7-20Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 178.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Språk, diskurs och identitet  : Ämnesdidaktisk forskning inom molekylärvetenskaperna2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 179.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Språk, diskurs och identitet: Ämnesdidaktisk forskning inom molekylärvetenskaperna2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna bok är en sammanfattning av den forskning som blev resultatet av Erna och Victor Hasselblads stiftelses satsning på en forskarskola inom molekylärveten­skapernas didaktik. Forskarskolan inrättades år 2007 som ett konsortium bestående av Chalmers tekniska högskola, Göteborgs universitet och Karlstads universitet och avslutades 2012. I denna antologi presenteras fyra studier inom forskarskolan skrivna av Birgitta Frändberg, Miranda Rocksén, Anne Solli och Karin Thörne, samt ett sammanfattande kapitel skrivet av forskarskolans koordinator, Niklas Gericke.

    Inom forskarskolans verksamhet med workshops, seminarier och skrivinternat uppkom vad som nästan skulle kunna beskrivas som ett gemensamt forskningsprogram med i stora stycken gemensam teoribildning och liknande metodval. Alla fyra studier grundar sig på en sociokulturell idétradition där deltagande i olika praktiker eller diskurser undersöks. Lärande ses som situerat och sker genom deltagande i olika aktiviteter. Den största gemensamma nämnaren för dessa fyra projekt är språkets betydelse för lärande. Språket ses inte endast som bärare av naturvetenskaplig mening, utan naturvetenskapligt ämnesinnehåll skapas i språkanvändningen.

    Birgitta Frändberg har studerat högstadieelevers skriftliga provsvar om materia och ämnesomvandlingar, Karin Thörne har undersökt högstadielärares muntliga kommunikation om genetik, Anne Solli har följt ingenjörsstudenters muntliga och skriftliga argumentering om bioteknik och Miranda Rocksén har undersökt olika former av kommunikation på bloggar och i grupparbeten i skolan om genetik och evolution.

    Antologin vänder sig till alla som har intresse för ämnesdidaktisk forskning, undervisning, utbildning och kommunikation inom molekylärvetenskaperna.

  • 180.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Students’ comprehension of multiple models in school textbooks2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 181.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    The Missing Link in Genetics Education: A Historical Perspective2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 182.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Berglund, Teresa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    The effect of ESD implementation in the Swedish school system on students’ sustainability consciousness2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    he UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) draws to an end. During this decade, numerous schools in Sweden have implemented Education for Sustainable Development(ESD) as an explicit guiding approach in teaching. In this study, we investigate what impact this teaching approach has had on pupils’ holistic viewpoint of sustainability in comparison with pupils ́ taught in regularschools. In order to accomplish theinvestigation we introduce the concept of sustainability consciousnessto represent the holistic viewpoint of sustainability.

  • 183.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Berglund, Teresa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). University of Antwerp.
    Assessing The Effect Of Education For Sustainable Development In The Swedish School System2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 184.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Berglund, Teresa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). University of Antwerp.
    The effect of education for sustainable development in Swedish schools2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perhaps the most important issue in our time is how to sustain our planet’s resources, while developing wealth and well-being for a growing population. This monumental task has been defined in the concept of sustainable development (SD). During the last few decades the world communities have agreed upon addressing SD through international treaties. As a response Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) has been launched as an answer to cope with sustainability. In the past it has been suggested that education through improved knowledge levels and/or changed values would change people’s behavior in a more environmental friendly way. These suggestions have been criticized since sustainable problems often are ‘wicked’, i.e. problems that are difficult or solve because of incomplete, contradictory, and changing requirements based on what perspectives you prioritize. Instead transformative perspectives on ESD has been propagated the last decades suggesting that education should foster ‘critical thinkers’ and ‘action competence’ so that the future generation can decided upon and take action in an insightful way to these wicked problems. However, empirical studies are a missing link in the discourse around transformative ESD approaches, where decisions and implementation strategies are heavily based on policy recommendations and gut feelings by practitioners. We used data from 2413 students in grades 6, 9, and 12 from 51 schools across Sweden to study the effectiveness of ESD. In line with the current debate on the definition of ESD, we quantified the extent to which teaching can be labeled as holistic and/or pluralistic. Through a series of descriptive analyses and the estimation of structural equation models, our results indicate that ESD can indeed impact on student outcomes in terms of their sustainability consciousness. The results of this study reveal the key role ESD plays in addressing SD, paving the way for a more sustainable future.  

  • 185.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Berglund, Teresa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Rundgren, Shu-Nu Chang
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Sustainability Consciousness as a way to evaluate ESD-implementation in Sweden2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 186.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). University of Antwerp, Faculty of Social Sciences, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Berglund, Teresa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    The Sustainability Consciousness Questionnaire: The theoretical development and empirical validation of an evaluation instrument for stakeholders working with sustainable development2018In: Sustainable Development, ISSN 0968-0802, E-ISSN 1099-1719, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 35-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the concept of sustainability consciousness, an individual's experience and awareness of sustainable development, is introduced. Based on UNESCO's definition of sustainable development, a sustainability consciousness questionnaire (SCQ) is theoretically and empirically developed. Using the data of 638 respondents from Sweden aged 18-19 years old, the scale is developed in two versions. The long version (SCQ-L) can be used to measure individuals' environmental, social and economic knowingness, attitudes and behaviour (nine valid and reliable subscales), in addition to the second order constructs of sustainability knowingness, sustainability attitudes and sustainability behaviour, as well as the third order construct, sustainability consciousness. For the short version (SCQ-S) 27 items were identified that can be used to measure the second and third order constructs. Both versions of the scale present excellent psychometric quality. Possible applications of the questionnaire instruments in the context of evaluation of sustainability policies, practices and stakeholder engagement are discussed.

  • 187.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Carver, Rebecca
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Commun, Oslo, Norway.
    Castera, Jeremy
    Aix Marseille Univ, ENS Lyon, Marseille, France.
    Menezes Evangelista, Neima Alice
    Univ Fed Bahia, Hist Philosophy & Biol Teaching Lab, Inst Biol, Salvador, BA, Brazil.
    Marre, Claire Coiffard
    Aix Marseille Univ, ENS Lyon, Marseille, France.
    El-Hani, Charbel N.
    Univ Fed Bahia, Hist Philosophy & Biol Teaching Lab, Inst Biol, Salvador, BA, Brazil.
    Exploring Relationships Among Belief in Genetic Determinism, Genetics Knowledge, and Social Factors2017In: Science & Education, ISSN 0926-7220, E-ISSN 1573-1901, Vol. 26, no 10, p. 1223-1259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic determinism can be described as the attribution of the formation of traits to genes, where genes are ascribed more causal power than what scientific consensus suggests. Belief in genetic determinism is an educational problem because it contradicts scientific knowledge, and is a societal problem because it has the potential to foster intolerant attitudes such as racism and prejudice against sexual orientation. In this article, we begin by investigating the very nature of belief in genetic determinism. Then, we investigate whether knowledge of genetics and genomics is associated with beliefs in genetic determinism. Finally, we explore the extent to which social factors such as gender, education, and religiosity are associated with genetic determinism. Methodologically, we gathered and analyzed data on beliefs in genetic determinism, knowledge of genetics and genomics, and social variables using the "Public Understanding and Attitudes towards Genetics and Genomics" (PUGGS) instrument. Our analyses of PUGGS responses from a sample of Brazilian university freshmen undergraduates indicated that (1) belief in genetic determinism was best characterized as a construct built up by two dimensions or belief systems: beliefs concerning social traits and beliefs concerning biological traits; (2) levels of belief in genetic determination of social traits were low, which contradicts prior work; (3) associations between knowledge of genetics and genomics and levels of belief in genetic determinism were low; and (4) social factors such as age and religiosity had stronger associations with beliefs in genetic determinism than knowledge. Although our study design precludes causal inferences, our results raise questions about whether enhancing genetic literacy will decrease or prevent beliefs in genetic determinism.

  • 188.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Carver, Rebecca
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway..
    Castéra, Jérémy
    Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France.
    Menezes Evangelista, Neima Alice
    Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Brazil.
    Coiffard Marrec, Claire
    Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France.
    El-Hani, Charbel
    Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Brazil.
    Investigating the relationship between beliefs in genetic determinism as related to knowledge in genetics and genomics2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic determinism can be described as the attribution of the formation of traits to genes, where genes are ascribed more causal power than what scientific consensus suggests. This belief is especially problematic when it engenders intolerant attitudes such as racism and prejudice against sexual orientation. The rationale for this is a naturalistic fallacy in genetic deterministic discourse, assuming that what is natural (in this case genetically predetermined) is inherently good or right.

    In this study we investigate the relationship between belief in genetic determinism and knowledge of genetics and genomics. The aim is to examine whether knowledge in genetics and genomics can counteract the development of beliefs in genetic determinism. From a scientific point of view there has long been awareness that the description of the gene as an active agent determining phenotypic traits by itself is a ‘strawman model’ used in genetic studies as an instrumental model focusing on the genetic factor ignoring environmental factors. Moreover, in the last decades the development of genomics and epigenetics has reinforced the notion of gene action as probabilistic and mutually interdependent with the environment through gene activity regulatory processes, further reducing the understanding of genes as sole active agents in the construction of phenotypes. Hence, one can conjecture that knowledge in modern genetics and genomics counteracts beliefs in the excessive power of genes and, thus, beliefs in genetic determinism.

    We gathered and analyzed statistically data by means of a newly developed questionnaire instrument, “Public Understanding and Attitudes towards Genetics and Genomics” (PUGGS), applied to a group of 427 Brazilian freshmen university students. The results shows no correlations between belief in genetic determinism and knowledge in genetics and genomics. Hence, this study does not give empirical support for the argument that enhancing genetic literacy can prevent genetic deterministic beliefs. There were however indications that social factors (age and religiousness) may have importance for the formation of genetic deterministic beliefs.

    The result also shows that belief in genetic determinism is a complex construct that seems to differentiate into two constructs or belief systems: a belief in social traits and a belief in biological traits. The study did not give any support for the existence of widespread beliefs in genetic determination of social traits. This is an unexpected result, which contradicts much of what has been suggested in the literature.

     

  • 189.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Dostal, O.
    Radick, G.
    Roque, R.
    Jiang, L.
    Biology Textbooks Between Science and the State: The Case of Mendelism in Sweden2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 190.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Drechsler, Michal
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Teachers' use of textbooks – A comparative study of discipline bound differences2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 191.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    El-Hani, Charbel
    UFBA - Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Brasilien.
    Genetics2018In: Teaching Biology in Schools: Global Research,Issues and Trends / [ed] Kostas Kampourakis och Michael Reiss, New York: Routledge, 2018, 1, p. 111-123Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 192.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Grace, MarcusSouthampton University, UK.
    Challenges in Biology Education Research: A selection of papers presented at the XIth conference ofEuropean Researchers in Didactics of Biology (ERIDOB)2018Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 193.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Grace, Marcus
    University of Southampton, Southampton.
    Introduction – challenges, trajectories and opportunities for biology education research2018In: Challenges in biology education research: A selection of papers presented at the XIth conference of European researchers in didactics of biology (ERIDOB) / [ed] Niklas Gericke & Marcus Grace, Karlstad: Karlstad University Press, 2018, 1, p. 11-16Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 194.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Hagberg, Mariana
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Carvalho dos Santos, Vanessa
    State University of Paraiba, Joao Pessoa Brazil.
    Joaquim, Leyla Mariane
    Federal University of Bahia, Salvador Brazil.
    El-Hani, Charbel, N.
    Federal University of Bahia, Salvador Brazil.
    Conceptual Variation or Incoherence? Textbook Discourse on Genes in Six Countries2014In: Science & Education, ISSN 0926-7220, E-ISSN 1573-1901, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 381-416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate in a systematic and comparative way the results of independent studies on the treatment of genes and gene function in high school textbooks from six different countries. We analyze how the conceptual variation within the scientific domain of Genetics regarding gene function models and gene concepts is transformed via the didactic transposition into school science textbooks. The findings indicate that a common textbook discourse on genes and their function exists in textbooks from the different countries. The structure of science as represented by conceptual variation and the use of multiple models was present in all the textbooks. However, the phenomenon of conceptual variation and multiple models is implicit in these textbooks and this brings, as a consequence, the introduction of conceptual incoherence about the gene concept and gene function models within these resources. We conclude that within the textbook discourse on genes found in our study ontological aspects of the academic disciplines of Genetics and Molecular Biology were retained, but without their epistemological underpinnings; these are lost in the didactic transposition. Also within the textbooks explanatory models and concepts that promote a deterministic notion of the gene were found to be most frequent. These results are of interest since students might have problems reconstructing the correct scientific understanding from the transformed school science knowledge as depicted within the high school textbooks. Implications for textbook writing as well as science teaching are discussed in the paper.

  • 195.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Hagberg, Mariana
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Jorde, Doris
    University of Oslo, Faculty of Education, Norway.
    Upper secondary students’ understanding of the use of multiple models in biology textbooks: The importance of conceptual variation and incommensurability2013In: Research in science education, ISSN 0157-244X, E-ISSN 1573-1898, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 755-780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigate students' ability to discern conceptual variation and the use of multiple models in genetics when reading content-specific excerpts from biology textbooks. Using the history and philosophy of science as our reference, we were able to develop a research instrument allowing students themselves to investigate the occurrence of multiple models and conceptual variation in Swedish uppersecondary textbooks. Two excerpts using different models of gene function were selected from authentic textbooks. Students were given the same questionnaire-instrument after reading the two texts, and the results were compared. In this way the students themselves made a classification of the texts which could then be compared with the researchers' classification of the texts. Forty-one upper secondary students aged 18-19 participated in the study. Nine of the students also participated in semi-structured interviews. Students recognized the existence of multiple models in a general way, but had difficulty discerning the different models and the conceptual variation that occurs between them in the texts. Further they did not recognize the occurrence of incommensurability between multiple models. Students had difficulty in transforming their general knowledge of multiple models into an understanding of content specific models of gene function in the textbooks. These findings may have implications for students'understanding of conceptual knowledge because research has established textbooks as one of the most influential aspects in the planning and execution of biology lessons, and teachers commonly assign reading passages to their students without further explanation.

  • 196.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Hudson, Brian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013). University of Sussex, UK.
    Olin-Scheller, Christina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Powerful knowledge and transformation processes across school subjects2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 197.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Hudson, Brian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013). University of Sussex, UK.
    Olin-Scheller, Christina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Stolare, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013). CSD, ROSE.
    Powerful knowledge and transformations processes across school subjects: interdisciplinary perspectives from the field of subject didactics2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we outline an empirical research framework building on the concepts of powerful knowledge and transformation. Powerful knowledge as an idea was coined by Michael Young (2009) to re-establish the importance of knowledge in teaching and curriculum development. Powerful knowledge is defined by Young as a subject specific coherent conceptual disciplinary knowledge that when learnt will empower students to make decisions, and become action-competent in a way that influence their lives in a positive way. 

    We develop the concept of powerful knowledge in two important ways. First, instead of only discussing powerful knowledge as an idea related to educational practices, we take a research position suggesting that powerful knowledge could be used as a tool in educational research related to subject specific education. In doing so we, in line with Deng (2015), propose to align the curricular concept of powerful knowledge to the European research tradition of didactics in general, and subject didactics in particular. Second, we develop the concept of powerful knowledge by refuting the dichotomization suggested by Young (2015) that curriculum (‘what to teach’) can be separated from pedagogy (‘how to teach’). Instead we view these two questions as interrelated in didactical research.

    We suggest an expansion of the concept of powerful knowledge by using the analytical concept of transformation as a key concept in describing powerful knowledge in different disciplines, institutions and school subjects. The reason for this is that the concept of transformation is a central issue for didactical research from different European research traditions. Transformation as we understand it can be described as an integrative process in which the content knowledge is transformed into knowledge that is taught and learned through various transformation processes outside and within the educational system in relation to individual, institutional and societal level. Such processes of transformation are apparent in concepts related to a number of different frameworks including: ‘transposition’ (Chevallard 2007), ‘omstilling’ (Ongstad 2006) and ‘reconstruction’ (Duit et al. 2012), and are also reflected in the work of Bernstein (1971) in relation to the concept of ‘re-contextualisation’ within the curriculum tradition. The school subject is never a simple reduction of the discipline. The content knowledge is always transformed to fit the educational purpose of teaching. Hence, to study the concept of powerful knowledge within school subjects we need to study its transformation processes, and address the ‘why’ question in addition to the ‘what’ and ‘how’ questions.

    Moreover, the concept of powerful knowledge and the transformation processes the content of powerful knowledge undergo, must be placed in a wider context, where questions addressing societal challenges are raised. In a changing society the argument is being made that it is not obvious that powerful knowledge only stems from academic disciplines. For example, how does the emerging and rapidly changing media landscape affect powerful knowledge and how could powerful knowledge be understood in a connected classroom? How should interdisciplinary topics such as sustainability and migration be taught? What is powerful knowledge in such topics then emerges as a relevant question.

  • 198.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Hudson, Brian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013). University of Sussex, UK.
    Olin-Scheller, Christina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Stolare, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for the Studies of Social Sciences Didactics (from 2013).
    Powerful knowledge, transformations and the need for empirical studies across school subjects2018In: London Review of Education, ISSN 1474-8460, E-ISSN 1474-8479, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 428-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we explore the concept of 'powerful knowledge' which, from a curriculum studies perspective, refers to the aspects of content knowledge towards which teaching should be oriented. We then consider how the concept of 'powerful knowledge' can be developed and operationalized as a research framework within studies in subject-specific didactics across the curriculum by relating it to the analytical concept of 'transformation'. Transformation is perceived in this case as an integrative process in which content knowledge is transformed into knowledge that is taught and learned through various transformation processes both outside and within the educational system. We argue that powerful knowledge cannot be identified based on the discipline alone, but needs to consider transformation processes and be empirically explored. A variety of theories and frameworks developed within the European research tradition of didactics are described as ways to study transformation processes related to powerful knowledge at different institutional levels as well as between different subjects and disciplines. A comparative research framework related to subject-specific education is proposed around three research questions.

  • 199.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Mc Ewen, Birgitta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Vad är epigenetisk allmänbildning? – En Delfistudie2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epigenetics has revolutionized biological theory since it explains how our life style, including factors such as exercise, stress and nutrition, influences our genes. Epigenetics is the understanding of how the environment interplays with genes, and thus how the environment can affect human characteristics and behaviour. Hence, everyday lifestyle decisions can materialistically explain cell changes and give information about the future health of, for example, students. However, epigenetics is not yet included in the biology curricula in Sweden or many other countries. Therefore, this study aims through a Delphi-study to identify what should be considered as epigenetic literacy and therefore be taught in school. In the Delphi-study a panel of experts related to different fields of epigenetics answers questions about what a citizen needs to know about epigenetics. In the Delphi study we identified three main areas of epigenetic literacy regarding: 1) Epigenetic content knowledge, including core ideas of mechanisms, chromatin, cell differentiation, cell memory, enzymatic control, life history, reversibility and risk. 2) Epigenetic and society, including core ideas of epigenetics related to its influence on lifestyle, diseases, pregnancy, ethics, manipulation of organisms, policy, forensics, policy and crimes. 3) Organization of teaching epigenetics, an area in which most experts recommend that epigenetics should mainly be integrated with the genetic units, but also with other biology topics such as evolution, ecology and health education. Moreover, the Delphi study show that epigenetics is considered a controversial topic from a scientific perspective because the view of epigenetics as a paradigm shift or not differs among the experts. Therefore, many experts recommended that epigenetics should be taught from a nature of science perspective.

  • 200.
    Gericke, Niklas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Mc Ewen, Birgitta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Thörne, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Epigenetic literacy and the implementation of epigenetics in school biology2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we aim to define what epigenetic literacy should be, and further investigate how it can be implemented in school biology. Epigenetics is the understanding of how the environment interplays with genes, and thus how the environment can affect human characteristics and behaviour. ‘Epi’ derives from the Greek word for ‘over’ and ‘above’ and the word ‘epigenetics’ refers to the mechanisms acting ‘above’ the sequence of the DNA base-pairs. Epigenetics has revolutionized biological theory since it explains how our life style, including factors such as exercise, stress and nutrition, influences our genes. Hence, everyday lifestyle decisions can materialistically explain cell changes and give information about the future health of, for example, students. Health issues are highly profiled in media and society today. However, epigenetics is not yet included in the biology curricula in Sweden or many other countries. Therefore, this study aims to identify what should be taught in school biology about epigenetics, and investigate how it can be integrated in genetics education.

    The study includes two ongoing sub-studies: a Delphi study and a Design study we investigate what epigenetic processes and conceptions a citizen needs to know to be able to make relevant decisions concerning both personal and social issues related to epigenetics. In the design study we develop, implement and evaluate a teaching module based on the findings from the Delphi study. Twelve in-service biology teachers at lower and upper secondary schools will take part in this study.

    In the Delphi study we identified three main areas of epigenetic literacy regarding 1) Epigenetic content knowledge, including core ideas of mechanisms, chromatin, cell differentiation, cell memory, enzymatic control, life history, reversibility and risk; 2) Epigenetic and society, including core ideas of epigenetics related to its influence on lifestyle, diseases, pregnancy, ethics, manipulation of organisms, policy, forensics, policy and crimes; 3) Organization of teaching epigenetics, an area in which most experts recommend that epigenetics should mainly be integrated with the genetic units, but also with other biology topics such as evolution, ecology and health education. The Delphi study show that epigenetics is considered a controversial topic from a scientific perspective because the view of epigenetics as a paradigm shift or not differs among the experts. Therefore, many experts recommended that epigenetics should be taught from a nature of science perspective. At the ERIDOB conference results relating to the design study will also be presented.

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