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  • 1251.
    Westerberg Olsson, Mia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Journalistrollens rivaler: Om public service-reportrars syn på sin roll i relation till användarskapat innehåll och medborgarjournalistik2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Journalists´ role in society has traditionally been of representative nature with a task to distribute news and scrutinize those in power. But technological changes have created a new publishing world outside the traditional media institutions. In today’s redactional society anyone can become a publisher in a blog or through other channels on online. This process can be seen as contributing to increased democratization giving everyone the opportunity to publish. However for those used to having monopoly on distributing news and scrutinizing society these changes are forcing journalists to adapt to a new competitive environment.

     

    There have been several previous studies of how this new digital milieu is affecting journalism from societal, organizational and news room perspectives. Little or no focus has been on how journalists themselves experience their changing professional status as a result of this new media world. Journalists employed by the public service broadcasters have got the most specified and explicitly expressed task with their responsibilities for contributing to a democratic society and an active citizenship, as stipulated by the government. How do these journalists deal with citizens now challenging the journalists´ previous well-guarded access to publishing?

     

    This essay examines the affect of these changes on journalists within two public service organizations in Sweden, asking journalists to reflect on the impact on their professional roles. The study is based on ten interviews with regional journalists employed by the Swedish public service radio and television corporations: Sveriges Radio and Sveriges Television. The analyze is based on theories on public service, professionalism and boundary maintenance.

    The study shows that the interviewed journalists identify more strongly with being a part of a public service ethos than being a journalist as such. They value the relationship with the audience and express a wish for even more contact with listeners and viewers. At the same time they want to continue to keep the in-house control over the journalistic process where they are the producers of the content. It is clear that the journalists appreciate publishing initiative allowing the general public to ‘be journalists’ but they warn against mixing the citizen reports with journalism. Citizen contribution in terms of user generated content or citizen journalism, is considered as something to satisfy people’s “creativity and wish to express themselves” – not a valuable contribution to journalism.

    Boundary maintenance mechanisms can be clearly observed among the journalists in an attempt to keep their journalistic authority and the arguments used refer to the “other´s” lack of credibility, accountability and impartiality. A similar role hierarchy can also be identified within the occupational group, where some characteristics and qualities are considered to contribute to a more “genuine” journalism than other. Nevertheless, a journalistic “us” always appears when boundaries are marked against what is looked on as non-journalism, for example user generated content and grass root journalism.

  • 1252.
    Westerlund, Richard
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management. Richard.Westerlund@hotmail.com.
    Utvärdering av PoP -- Ett prototypverktyg för mobila enheter2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstract Försäljningen av smartphones nådde nya höjder 2013 och förväntas fortsätta stiga de närmsta åren. Försäljningsökningen visar sig tydligt i svenskarnas internetanvändning. Över 80% av svenskar mellan åldrarna 16-44 år kopplade upp sig till internet genom mobiltelefon under första kvartalet 2013. Internetanvändningen genom smartphones ställer nya krav på interaktions- och informationsdesigners då de behöver designa webbplatser och appar utefter smartphones fysiska förutsättningar. De fysiska förutsättningarna skiljer sig markant från en dator i bland annat skärmstorlek. De första stegen vid utveckling av webbplatser präglas av prototypskapande för att evaluera tidiga designförslag. Prototyperna används i syfte att utföra användartester för att få synpunkter på de tidiga designförslagen från potentiella användare. De här prototyperna består ofta av sketcher gjorda med papper och penna vilket skapar ett problem när användartester utförs för mobila enheter. De små skärmytorna smartphones erbjuder försvårar testarbetet genom att de gör prototyperna svårhanterliga för testledaren. Syftet med denna studie är att evaluera idén bakom de digitala verktyg som finns tillgängliga för att underlätta prototyparbetet för mobila enheter och undersöka vilka potentiella för- respektive nackdelar de tillför användartestning. Prototypverktyg som med hjälp av mobilkamera fotograferar sketcher som ritas på papper kan underlätta flera aspekter av användartestning för mobila enheter. Verktygen skapar en klickbar prototyp genom att sammanlänka uppritade sketcher till förutbestämda element inom sketcherna. Undersökningen är utformad som en studie av prototypverktyget ”PoP – Prototyping on Paper” som trots sitt namn är ett mobilbaserat testverktyg. PoP utvärderades huvudsakligen genom ett användartest som genomfördes i sex sessioner. Genom detta test observerades hur testledare och testpersoner agerade mot prototypverktyget och jämfördes med hur de agerade vid användning av en traditionell pappersprototyp. Prototypverktyget som evaluerats under studien visade sig bidra till en rad fördelar jämfört med traditionella pappersprototyper. Bland andra upplevdes testerna som mer verklighetstrogna när testpersonen agerat mot prototypverktyget vilket höjde deras engagemangsnivå. En rad fördelar upptäcktes även för testledaren vilket underlättat testningen. Många fördelar var resultat av att interaktionen mellan testperson och prototyp automatiserats av prototypverktyget. Detta möjliggjorde att testledaren kunde lägga större fokus på testpersonen än på sitt eget agerande. Prototypverktyget hade även vissa nackdelar jämfört med den traditionella pappersprototypen. Exempelvis var återhämtning från felnavigering av testpersoner problematiskt, samt att testledaren är relativt låst i testutförandet när prototypverktyget används.

  • 1253.
    Wettergren, Åsa
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Emotions, Power and Space in the Discourse of ’People of the Real World’2013In: Journal of Political Power, ISSN 2158-379X, E-ISSN 2158-3803, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 419-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article investigates the discursive trope of ‘People of the Real World’ (PRW) as it was launched by the leader of the Swedish Christian Democrats, Göran Hägglund, during a political campaign week on the Island of Gotland in 2009. Sociological and cultural theories of local vs. cosmopolitan identity, of emotions, and of space, are used to analyse the speech and a selection of newspaper articles from 2009. The PRW discourse defends local, sedentary communities against globalization and cosmopolitanization. It draws on the collective emotional resources of ‘normals’ as they feel threatened by the social and political advancement of previously marginalized groups, undermining the former group’s power to define social space. It thus contributes to the social and political cultivation of resentment among those who identify with conservative, anti-cosmopolitan values.

  • 1254.
    Widå, Camilla
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Miras Wardell, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    ”Vem sjutton vill ’gå på’ en reklam?”: En studie om avkodningens betydelse ur ett mottagarperspektiv inom marknadsföringsmetoden celebrity endorsement2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Celebrities used in advertising has recently been something that consumers have come in contact with on a daily basis. Corporations use celebrities and their attributes as positive reinforcement and association towards the company or their marketed product.

    Through increased usage of media, the consumers to this advertising technique have been given an opportunity towards better insight into celebrities’ daily life. People are not only receivers of advertising, they are also media producers for the medias agenda. This makes everyone significant in the distribution of advertising. The area of research is called Celebrity Endorsement. All theories within the area presume that all receivers interpret the message in the same manner.

    In classic communication research there are theories like habitus, encoding and decoding that are the basis for a receiver perspective. These theories are aimed inter alia at people’s past experience influences how people act in a social structure and the receiver thus detects the communication in different ways. In this study, we have therefore created a deeper understanding of consumer’s perspective in celebrity endorsement for further find links to the theories of classical communication research.

    In this study we want to create a deeper understanding from the perspective of the receiver of celebrity endorsement. This study is also to find connections to theories within classical communications research. The study will also investigate deeper to understand how people within the same target audience are decoding celebrity and advertising activities. To reach a result we have used a qualitative reception analysis, where focus groups from different target audiences has been used. Within the focus groups discussions of current TV-commercials and fictitious cooperation between celebrities and corporations were used for the participants to express their opinion of celebrities in advertising.

    The study’s result is summarized in four different perspectives, which emerged from the empirical material. The first perspective has been analyzed from the participants’ earlier experiences. The second perspective deals with the participants’ self-knowledge and differences in their capability to objectively being able to analyze their own, as well as the others capability of decoding the messages. The studies third perspective affects the participants’ confessions. This includes further differences in the participants reasoning and confessing or not confessing to celebrity endorsements impact on them. In the last perspective it is described how participants used irony to make a difficult topic easier to talk about.

    The result of our study shows that advertising with celebrities are decoded in more ways than are described in the models within celebrity endorsement and that classical communication research should be implemented

    Keywords: Celebrity endorsement, celebrity, encoding, decoding, habitus, Stuart Hall, Pierre Bourdieu, trademarks, brand 

  • 1255.
    Wigertoft, Joakim
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Identitet och kommunikativt ledarskap i en fragmenterad organisation: En studie av Karlstads kommun och dess chefsbrev2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay was to study how the managers of Karlstad municipality views the managerial letter, a monthly newsletter which is sent to them. The letter contains information that will facilitate for the municipal managers to engage in communicative leadership with a focus on sensemaking and participation. The questions of the study are based partly on whether there is a consensus between the managers of the various parts of the municipality regarding the organization's identity and partly on how they describe their leadership. The managerial letter related to these two phenomena are also worked into the questions. A framwork was brought together based on the study's purpose where the core consisted of theories of sensemaking, organizational identity and communicative leadership. Collective sensemaking is a central part of both the study of organizational identity and communicative leadership.

    The method selected for the study was qualitative interviews. Because of the fact that the questions required deeper and more detailed answers. An interview guide was developed based on the theoretical framework and the people to interview were contacted. A total of nine interviews were conducted with recipients of the managerial letter. The results of the interviews were compiled and then analyzed on the basis of the previously established theories. The results showed that the respondents shared a consensus regarding the characteristics they viewed as central and distinctive of the municipality of Karlstad. Worth noting was that the findings shared similar charachteristics to those of the municipality's brand promise. One of the municipal companies however proved to have a strong identity of its own, distinct from the rest of the municipality. The findings also indicated that the interviewees in several ways worked under the criteria of the communicative leadership.

    A conclusion was presented based on the results and it was possible to deduce that the forums for collective senemaking within the municipality were highlighted as particularly important in relation to create a unified organizational identity and cohesion. The role of the managerial letter however has to be seen as quite limited in that sense although it has some function in contributing to that the managers of the municipality all receive the same information. The managerial letter helps to some extent in regards to the communicative leadership with the task sort out important information, but the communicative challenge to frame and contextualize the messages is still up to the managers.

  • 1256.
    Wik, Malin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad Univ, Ctr Climate & Safety, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden.;Karlstad Univ, CNDS, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    Magnusson, Monika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Behov av datorbaserade metoder och verktyg för krisövning: Intervjustudie i Inre Skandinavien2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom ramen för projektet CriseIT (www.criseit.org) har en intervjustudie genomförts med norska och svenska krisberedskapsaktörer. 19 respondenter från totalt 16 aktörer intervjuades om deras syn på behovet av krisövning, vad som fungerar bra och dåligt med de övningsmetoder som vanligtvis används, och vilken nytta de kunde se med datorbaserade övningsverktyg. Svaren visar på ett stort behov av att öva mer, gärna i form av mindre och kortare övningar. Det finns en rörelse bort från scenariobaserade övningar till övningar där olika förmågor står i centrum. Flertalet aktörer anser att de planerar och genomför övningar med gott resultat men att det saknas en systematik i hur utvärderingar leds vidare i ett förbättringsarbete. Det finns intresse men också tveksamhet inför att involvera allmänheten i krisövning, men ett sätt att hantera bland annat säkerhetsaspekter vore att gå via frivilligorganisationer som kan bistå med organisering och viss utbildning.

    Respondenterna visar stort intresse för datorbaserade övningsverktyg som ett medel för att öka krismedvetenheten och kunskapen som stödjer den egna rollen. De kan också se potentiella problem, t ex att vissa personer har svårt att ta till sig ny teknik och att det kan finnas risk att resurser till andra övningsformer minskas. Bland de fördelar som nämndes var möjlighet att öva oftare, med fler aktörer, och att öva på olika platser vid olika tidpunkter. Man ser också förbättrade möjligheter att öva utdragna kriser. Den målgrupp som lyfts fram som särskild intressant fördatorbaserade övningsverktyg är krisledningsorganisationen, dvs. den strategiskan ivån. Flera nämner också behovet av bättre planeringsstöd för säkerhets-/beredskapssamordnarna.

    En slutsats vi dragit är att det är viktigt att digitala krisövningsverktyg är webbaserade och bygger på standarder. Detta för att möjliggöra att verktygen kan användas distribuerat, i samarbete mellan olika organisationer och inte kräver lokala installationer i de olika hårt styrda IT-miljöerna. Det bör också vara verktyg som fungerar på såväl smartphone som surfplatta och PC. I stort bör de system som används under verkliga kriser användas även under övning.

  • 1257. Wikström, Patrik
    Convergence on the inside2007In: Organizing media / [ed] Leona Achtenhagen, 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1258. Wikström, Patrik
    Convergence on the inside2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1259. Wikström, Patrik
    Fonogram 20072007In: Mediesverige 2007 / [ed] Ulla Carlsson, Göteborg: Nordicom , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1260. Wikström, Patrik
    How new media outlets shape music industry power structures2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1261. Wikström, Patrik
    Industry definitions in the hands of spin-doctors and politicians2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1262. Wikström, Patrik
    Modelling the music industry2003Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1263. Wikström, Patrik
    Musikindustrin idag och i framtiden2004Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1264. Wikström, Patrik
    On the changing music industry structure2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1265. Wikström, Patrik
    Reluctantly virtual2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1266.
    Wikström, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Reluctantly Virtual: Modelling Copyright Industry Dynamics2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    During the evolution of the music industry, developments in the media environment have required music firms to adapt in order to survive. Changes in broadcast radio programming during the 1950s; the Compact Cassette during the 1970s; and the deregulation of media ownership during the 1990s are all examples of changes which have heavily affected the music industry. This study explores similar contemporary dynamics, examines how decision makers in the music industry perceive and make sense of the developments, and reveals how they revise their business strategies, based on their mental models of the media environment.

    A qualitative system dynamics model is developed in order to support the reasoning brought forward by the study. The model is empirically grounded, but is also based on previous music industry research and a theoretical platform constituted by concepts from evolutionary economics and sociology of culture. The empirical data primarily consist of 36 personal interviews with decision makers in the American, British and Swedish music industrial ecosystems. The study argues that the model which is proposed, more effectively explains contemporary music industry dynamics than music industry models presented by previous research initiatives.

    Supported by the model, the study is able to show how “new” media outlets make old music business models obsolete and challenge the industry’s traditional power structures. It is no longer possible to expose music at one outlet (usually broadcast radio) in the hope that it will lead to sales of the same music at another (e.g. a compact disc).

    The study shows that many music industry decision makers still have not embraced the new logic, and have not yet challenged their traditional mental models of the media environment. Rather, they remain focused on preserving the pivotal role held by the CD and other physical distribution technologies.

    Further, the study shows that while many music firms remain attached to the old models, other firms, primarily music publishers, have accepted the transformation, and have reluctantly recognised the realities of a virtualised environment.

  • 1267. Wikström, Patrik
    Strategic Marketing in a Changing Music Business Climate2003Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1268. Wikström, Patrik
    System dynamics modelling for organizational learning1994Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1269. Wikström, Patrik
    The behaviour of a cultural industry in crisis2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1270.
    Wikström, Patrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    The enemy of music: Modelling the behaviour of a cultural industry in crisis2005In: JMM - The International Journal on Media Management, ISSN 1424-1277, E-ISSN 1424-1250, Vol. 7, no 1&2, p. 65-74Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1271. Wikström, Patrik
    The renaissance of the music publisher2005Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1272. Wikström, Patrik
    Transformational leadership in practice: The case of Steve Jobs and Pixar animation studios2006In: Leadership in the media industry - Changing contexts, emerging challenges / [ed] Lucy Küng, Jönköping: Jönköping International Business School , 2006Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1273. Wikström, Patrik
    et al.
    Burnett, Robert
    Same sounds, different wrapping2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1274.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013).
    (en-)acting out: Twitter's affordances for animating reported speechManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 1275.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    I tweet like I talk: Aspects of speech and writing on Twitter2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation investigates linguistic and metalinguistic practices in everyday Twitter discourse in relation to aspects of speech and writing. The overarching aim is to investigate how the spoken–written interface is reconfigured in the digital writing spaces of social media.

    The dissertation comprises four empirical case studies and six chapters. The first study investigates communicative functions of hashtags in a speech act pragmatic framework, focalizing tagging practices that not only mark topics or organize hypertextual interaction, but rather have more specific locally meaningful functions. Two studies investigate reported speech in tweets, focusing on quotatives typically associated with informal conversational interaction (e.g., BE like). The studies identify strategies by which Twitter users animate (Tannen, 2007) speech reports. Further, one of the studies explores how such animating practices are afforded (Hutchby, 2001). Lexically, orthographically, and with images, but primarily through typography, users make voice, gesture, and stance present in their tweets, digitally re-embodying the rich nonverbal expressivity of animation in talk. Finally, a study investigates notions of talk-like tweeting from an emic perspective, showing users' negotiations of how tweets can and should correspond to speech in relation to social identity, linguistic competence, and personal authenticity.

    Six chapters situate and synthesize the case studies in an expanded theoretical framework. Together, the studies show how Twitter's speech–writing hybridity extends beyond a mix of linguistic features, and challenges a traditional idea of writing as a mere representation of speech. Talk-like tweeting remediates (Bolter & Grusin, 2000) presence and embodiment, forgoing the abstraction of phonetic print literacy for nonverbal expressivity and an embodied written surface. Twitter talk is shown not simply to substitute literacy norms for oral norms, but to complicate and reconfigure these norms. Talk-like tweeting makes manifest an ongoing cultural renegotiation of the meanings of speech and writing in the era of digital social media.

  • 1276.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    & she was like "O_O": Animation of reported speech on Twitter2014In: Nordic Journal of English Studies, ISSN 1654-6970, E-ISSN 1654-6970, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 83-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study relates discourse-pragmatic aspects of the use of the quotatives say, be like, be all, and go to the question of the supposed or actual spoken-likeness of written computer-mediated communication (CMC). 1,800 tokens of reported speech, collected from Twitter, were analyzed in a “constructed dialogue” framework (Tannen, 2007). The results show that users of Twitter employ various CMC devices to animate and modally enrich reported speech, especially in speech reports with be like, be all, and go. They perform a style of communication that is reminiscent of conversational speech, even while having qualities that seem to belong uniquely to CMC.

  • 1277.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    #srynotfunny: Communicative functions of hashtags on Twitter2014In: SKY Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 1456-8438, E-ISSN 1796-279X, Vol. 27, p. 127-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates various communicative functions served by hashtags in written communication on Twitter from a linguistic pragmatic perspective. A tweet containing a hashtag links to, and is integrated into, a timeline of other tweets containing the same hashtag. Thus, hashtags are by default categorizing or organizing; a user of Twitter may add the tag #food to their tweet to integrate it into a general conversation about this topic. However, this study demonstrates that hashtags are also used creatively to perform other communicative functions. In the data presented, hashtags are employed as complexly multifunctional linguistic devices for, among other things, structuring information, playing games, and engaging in reflexive meta-commentary. Notably, while pragmatic methodology is typically applied to speech, this study indicates that a traditional speech acts framework may be profitably applied to written communication in new media.

  • 1278.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Twitter's affordances for animation of reported speech2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1279.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    When I need/want to: Normativity, identity, and form in user construals of 'talk-like' tweeting2016In: Discourse, Context & Media, ISSN 2211-6958, E-ISSN 2211-6966, Vol. 14, p. 54-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this study is on how Twitter users construe talk-like tweeting in metalinguistic utterances. In a material of tweets containing or responding to explicit comparisons of tweeting to talking (N=520), a broad range of construals are identified, showing Twitter users associating talk-likeness with, e.g., notions of the textual representation of voice, of grammatical (in-)correctness, of accurately reflecting one׳s ‘real-life’ identity, and of regional or social variation in language use. These associations frequently serve normative functions, enforcing or contesting linguistic and discursive norms in both serious and playful ways. The findings offer a novel perspective on the oft-debated orality of computer-mediated discourse, providing a window on how a process of enregisterment (Agha, 2007) is instantiated and how language norms are actively negotiated by participants in everyday online language use on Twitter.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-12-01 09:00
  • 1280.
    Wildt, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Lindborg, Nelly
    Karlstad University.
    Står monstret bakom mig?: En kvalitativ undersökning av skräck i Virtual Reality2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual Reality has existed in different forms since around 80 years ago, but in its current form it has a more significant place on the current market. With this change, more research on how VR works and how humans are affected by it is needed to be able to develop products for this growing medium. The research today is lacking, so to expand the understanding of VR and specifically VR as a console for games, this qualitative study has researched how elements of fear are experienced in a VR-environment. The study also studied what can affect “immersion”, depth in the environment, as well as if previous experience can affect experiences in a VR-environment. These questions were analyzed based on two game tests that were made on the VR-console HTC Vive. The first test focused on controls and “immersion” to see how intuitive and easily understood the console is. The second test examined horror elements in VR and what kinds of elements could contribute to a more effective and intense horror experience.

    A total of 16 people between the ages of 19-26 participated in the game tests. The participants were students at Karlstad University, or had previously been so. The participants were divided in different kinds of groups depending on previous experiences in digital games (the first test) and horror (the second test).

    With the help of observation of the video recordings and the interviews the collected data could be divided into themes. The themes used to analyze the data were controls, disorientation/discomfort, “immersion” and horror elements. The results showed that HTC Vive have good qualifications for “immersion”. Though with a few problematic factors, the equipment for example, which disturbed the experience. Despite this, the console created a strong feeling of “immersion” as the participants experienced themselves to be present in the VR-environment because of factors such as background noise and a natural point-of-view of the VR-environment through the headset. The biggest contributor for “immersion” was that the environment needed to have a natural and believable behavior, acting the way the user expects it to. This kind of presence contributed positively to the horror experience as the participants seemed to believe themselves to be threatened by the horror elements as if it was directed at them personally and not just a character in a game.  

    In the subject of differences between the groups in experience there not a lot of substantial differences. A small difference could be found regarding how the controls were handled between the different groups of game experience. The participants with previous experience seemed to bring expectations about how the controls should work.

    The study had, because of its qualitative nature, no possibility to receive generalizable results. But the study did open up for questions for future research related to VR-games and their users, as well as VR-consoles.

  • 1281.
    Wilkins, Karin
    et al.
    University of Texas at Austin.
    Enghel, Florencia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    The privatization of development through global communication industries:Living Proof?2013In: Media Culture and Society, ISSN 0163-4437, E-ISSN 1460-3675, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 165-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development is meant to alleviate problems in the interests of the public good, yet thegrowing dominance of private donors problematizes this conceptualization. Workingthrough a political-economic analysis of development, we see global communications asan industry that channels wealth from citizens into the hands of few corporate moguls,who then have the resources to assert their agendas in a global development context.We begin by conceptualizing development and social change within communicationstudies, paying attention to the privatization of aid within global capitalism. Next,we contextualize our case study, describing the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundationand ONE, promoted by Bono, as the funding and management settings of the LivingProof campaign. We analyze the initiative’s construction of development problems,its articulation of how communication is expected to work toward social change, andits conceptualizations of success. The dominant theme of Living Proof program is that“real people” have achieved development success, which can be shared as “proof” withwebsite consumers. We conclude by considering how such a framing serves the agenda of privatized development within a neoliberal project.

  • 1282. Williams, Kelsey
    The Role of Social Media & The Egyptian Uprisings2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1283.
    Winter, Niclas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Klasson, Ida
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Sjukvårdens kommunikativa kulturkrock: En kvantitativ studie om uppfattad organisationskultur inom slutenvården i Värmlands läns landsting2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational culture is somewhat hard to define and a complex matter that nevertheless has an important role. The current healthcare is challenged by a tug of war between different cultures for its hierarchical structure, which today needs an external and economic turn of mind and still work for a worthy meeting with the patient. Simultaneously it exists a stressful situation for the health professionals in terms of staff shortage while the management has a constraint from politicians and tight budgets. The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate whether the perception of an organizational culture within Värmlands Council may differ depending on individual’s hierarchical positions. The purpose also includes identifying and analysing the communicative factors that contribute to the different perceptions. The main question of the study is “To what extent does an employee’s hierarchical position affect the perception of an organizational culture?” followed by “What is the relationship between the internal communication and the current perceptions?”

    The analytical framework of the study is based on previous research and within the industry well-established theories, including the Competing Values Framework, which the study uses to define the different cultures within the organization through its dimensions and clusters. To answer the study’s questions a survey has been applied that was sent to the whole population, which however, received a lack of response rate. The results indicate that a distinct hierarchical culture is perceived within the organization, alongside desires to direct it towards a more family-oriented culture while maintaining the hierarchical structures. The managers considered their leadership to be characterized by helpfulness and encouragement for participation, however it was not perceived in such way by anyone else within the organization. This is most likely due to the one-way communication that goes through a hierarchical communication model within the organization.

  • 1284.
    Wivhammar, Helen
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Nilsson, Jimmie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Objektivitet i politisk journalistik: En studie i mediekommunikation2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    Mona Sahlin's dishwasher decides the election!

     

    Maybe. How journalism portraits politics is at least not fully objective with focus on societal matters. There is also a change over time indicating an up-going trend of less objective journalism. Other results of this case study indicates that politicians are more inclined to participate in journalism than before and that politics presented as scandal is increasing.

    The aim of this study is to investigate objectivity in political journalism over time. Using the quantitative content-analyses the study encoded 600 journalistic articles subjecting politics in the Swedish society. These articles were chosen from Swedish newspapers, Dagens Nyheter and Aftonbladet, both paper editions only excluding web editions. Theories supporting the study are the framing-theory, the knowledge-theory and other theories describing how objectivity changes over time.

    Objectivity has been debated in journalism and has founded different perspectives on how professional journalism can be obtained. This has historically changed the practice of journalism and the study assumes from this phenomenon. Citizens are dependent on journalism for information on things that does not belong in their everyday life. Politics is such a subject that needs to be reported on and that's why this study investigates objectivity in political journalism. 

    The result concludes extreme choices of subject in political journalism, where about 50 % of the articles encoded portrayed the everyday chores or statements of politicians. This is indicating an up-going trend of less objective journalism and is supported by other less extreme results of the study.

  • 1285. Wåger, Jonny
    Syns man inte - finns man inte: En kvalitativ studie om självpresentation på Facebook2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1286.
    Zacarias, Orlando P.
    et al.
    Eduardo Mondlane University, Mozambique.
    Wamala Larsson, CarolineKarlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centrum för genusforskning.
    Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on M4D Mobile Communication Technology for Development: M4D 2016, General Tracks2016Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 1287. Zandbergs, Simon
    Surfing the Shortwaves: A rhetorical comparison of articles of the Syrian Civil War from Voice of America and Sputnik News, May 20172017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to compare content on the websites of Voice of America and Sputnik News. This includes comparing the website content in general, including categories and non-news content available on the websites apart from articles. A selected number of articles were also analysed for an in-depth study and comparison between the two websites. The differences between the websites was studied by examining differences in how the same topic was treated differently on each website. In addition, the strategies used by both websites to attract visitors were identified. This was then compared with historical research done on the shortwave radio stations that are the precursors to these websites.

                          The study is a rhetorical analysis of five articles from Voice of America, and five articles from Sputnik News. All articles analysed are about the Syrian Civil War. This, together with the non-news content is then compared, both between the two websites, but also with earlier research in order to see if the strategy has changed through history. The propaganda models of Persuasion, Information and Goodwill are key to these studies.

                          The analysis revealed that the difference in usage of rhetoric and “propaganda models” were fairly similar between the two websites. There were however certain differences, such as Sputnik News had more Entertainment, while Voice of America contained more educational content. There were also differences in which languages, and thus, what parts of the world the websites has as their target audiences. One big difference was in the length of the articles.

     

    Keywords: Propaganda, Shortwave Radio, Voice of America, Sputnik News, Rhetorical analysis

  • 1288. Zandbergs, Simon
    SVT:s nya digitala äventyr: En studie om digitaliseringens och kommersialiseringens påverkan på PublicService med innehållet på SVT Nyheters Facebook-sida som exempel2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay’s aim is to investigate how the news reporting of Swedish Public Service broadcaster SVT looks on Facebook and to see if the use of it has led to a commercialisation, as well as to give an example on how SVT have acted against two challenges, the commercialisation and digitalisation of media. By highlighting the differences and similarities between the Facebook pages of SVT Nyheter and TV4 Nyheterna, you should be able to see if SVT is fulfilling the promises of Public Service. The essay is based on a hypothesis that a commercialisation have happened of Public Service, with a sub-hypothesis that SVT have been forced to adapt to the new commercial and digitalised market.This will be done through a usage of a quantitative content analysis where a number of posts on the Facebook pages of SVT Nyheter and TV4 Nyheterna are analysed. Three synthetic weeks from every year between 2013 and 2015 will be present. The essay is based on theories around Public Service, digitalisation, commercialisation (including tabloidisation), Soft News and personalisation. These theories and the previous research are important to be able to understand the final result in the best way possible. This will be the reference point for this essay, and it is through comparison to earlier research and theories you should be able to see if a commercialisation has happened or not.After the analysis of the posts you could see that SVT Nyheter focused more on investigating news, and less on Soft News and celebrities than TV4 Nyheterna did, while personification was exactly the same on both pages. Some smaller differences in the news categories existed, where SVT Nyheter focused more on local news and science, while TV4 Nyheterna focused more on entertainment, foreign events and maybe somewhat surprising, politics. Despite this the differences were not radical in any category. TV4 Nyheterna seems somewhat less serious, while a commercialisation does not seem to have happened of SVT.

  • 1289.
    Äleklint, Therése
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Wenngren, Petronella
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Tidskriften och bloggen: En kvalitativ studie om bloggens funktion för tidskriften Elle 2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1290.
    Åkerlund, Dan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    7B har ingen webbtidning2005Book (Refereed)
  • 1291.
    Åkerlund, Dan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    7B har ingen webbtidning: Möjligheter och problem med att använda Internet för publicistiska arbetssätt i grundskola och gymnasium2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     Åkerlund, Dan (2005) Class 7B has no Web-magazine - possibilities and problems in allowing school children to publish school-related materials on the Internet, in terms of a practical, communicative and educational approach.

    The primary purpose of this study, is to shed light on the reasons why so few primary and secondary schools take advantage of the possibilities in using the Internet to publish pupils own texts, photos, films, radio programs et. al. Today, there are only around 50 active Swedish public school magazines on the Internet, produced by students in Swedish schools. By contrast, 80% of all Swedish young people between the ages of 12 and 24 have their own login on LunarStorm, an Internet community where mainly young people publish texts and images and communicate with one other in a variety of ways, ie. mail, chat rooms and guestbook's. The paradox is obvious; young people are highly motivated to publish and communicate in this way, yet the school system does not seem to take advantage of this opportunity toward pedagogical ends. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to map out the advantages and disadvantages for a single class, an entire school, or the learning process as a whole, of using a publishing approach in education, in debate and theory, law and regulations and trough interviews.

    One of the hypotheses was that the causal connection behind the lack of publishing approach in the school system, probably have many different reasons. Therefore a method named EPISTLE, was used. The method is developed to look at a phenomenon from different angles to find not only one, but many different explanations, advantages and disadvantages, when studying technical implementations in a modern society. This leads to discussions of many theories, including theories about motivation, the public space and the public sphere, how innovations are spread and different pedagogical theories. Included in this study, there is also a section containing facts about laws and regulations according to publishing and the school system in Sweden.

    The study results in a long list of possibilities and problems. On the positive side, we already have good general computer skills among the teachers and an Internet connection in nearly every Swedish (or Scandinavian) school. Those teachers, who have tried a publishing approach, always seem to be highly motivated and enthusiastic and do not see any backsides of the concept. On the more negative side, we can find lack of technical support, fear of breaking the law, fear of conflict with parents and school staff and a wide-spread lack of knowledge in how to publish; booth in terms of content and technique.

  • 1292.
    Åkerlund, Dan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Den vidgade yttrandefriheten1989Report (Other academic)
  • 1293.
    Åkerlund, Dan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Eleven som journalist - Publicistiskt arbetssätt2006Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1294.
    Åkerlund, Dan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Internet publishing as a didactic method2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1295.
    Åkerlund, Dan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Publicistiska arbetssätt i skolan2008Book (Refereed)
  • 1296.
    Åkerlund, Dan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Pupils motivation to net publishing2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1297.
    Åkerlund, Dan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Texter från klassrummet och ut på nätet2008In: Svenskläraren nr 2 - 2008Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1298.
    Åkerlund, Dan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Wiping out the White board in China2010In: Abstracts: Active Citizenship : NERA's 38th Congress, Malmö: Malmö Högskola , 2010, p. 68-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To have class room lessons in mathematics over the Internet in Göteborg and Shanghai at the same time.Online classrooms and distance education have been developed and discussed a lot during the last ten years; i.e. online lectures from one teacher to a group of distance students. But connecting two classrooms with each other on a regular basis through video conferencing and programs like Skype, are more of an exception. The question is why. After all, this technique has been around for a while; it is easy and works rather well even over rather poor conditions.A teacher in mathematics in Göteborg and her high school class has on a monthly basis a couple of lessons together with a high school class on the same level in Shanghai in China and she has taken the Skype technique a bit further. Today she works with a SmartBoard solution, where these electronic whiteboards are simultaneously updated, in China and in Sweden, together with sound and video connection with Skype and text messages on MSN. Between the lessons the students keep in touch with each other through MSN and e-mail.This poster will describe one of these events with photos together with interviews with students and teachers; hopefully on both ends. One part of the poster will conclude pros and cons, possibilities and problems and ask questions about what other advantages such a cooperation between class rooms can have apart from a deeper mathematical knowledge.

  • 1299.
    Åkerlund, Dan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Yttrandefrihet - för alla?1993In: Om medieverkstäder, lokal-TV och annat / [ed] K. Stigbrand, 1993Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1300.
    Åkerlund, Dan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Buskqvist, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Enochsson, Ann-Britt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    Learning design when the classroom goes online2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract

    The Internet is increasingly being used by educators and educational institutions not only for information seeking, but also for communication and publishing students work. This paper explores how this can affect the learning situation and how we can understand the difference between an assignment carried out by a student and which is handed over directly, and only, to the teacher, compared to something that will be published and public on the net.

    The Learning Design Sequence developed by Selander (2008) has been used as an analytical tool when analyzing 5 examples from schools using web 2.0. Not having the teacher as the only addressee for a school assignment changes the value of the work and opens up for further development of knowledge, and we argue that the Selander model in some cases can be extended, when the classroom goes on line.

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