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  • 1151.
    Tanner, Marie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    "They want to show that they are topnotch": Students enactments of policy in interaction2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation focuses on recent reforms in Swedish education concerning new grades and extended use of national tests in grade six, and how this extensive reform comes to play in everyday practices in schools. Schools today have to be able to handle a multitude of policy initiatives that get introduced with increasing pace in the new education economy. Not least has several studies on the effects of schools marketization showed how this results in higher demands for schools to produce information about themselves and the students to inform and guide families school choices as well as governments control and inspection  (Ball, 2006; Löfdahl &Pérez Prieto, 2009; Löfgren, 2012).The new national tests and grades in year 6 are examples of policymaking that has the capacity of producing high stake information about the actors in schools (teachers, school leaders and students) as well as information about schools in terms of competitiveness and results in relation to given standards. Here we take an interest in the consequences this could have from the students’ perspective.

    Policy reforms are often studied in terms of implementation, i.e. measuring schools’ responses to different specific policy initiatives. As an alternative approach, in recent years the concept of enactment has been used within policy research as an analytical tool for the understanding of how policy gets translated into practice by actors on different levels (Ball, Maguire & Braun, 2012; Singh, Heimans & Glasswell, 2014; Tanner & Pérez Prieto, 2014). The concept of policy enactment is used to address the complexities in institutional policymaking not only referring to policy as top-down steering from governments through organizational structures, but as something that is interpreted on all levels by different actors in the school system (Ball et al., 2012).

    Most studies on a school level focus on school leaders and teachers, whereas the students often remain unnoticed as actors in policy practice. We have in previous studies argued for the importance of including students’ perspectives in studies of policy enactment, and have suggested new methods for how this could be explored (Pérez Prieto & Tanner, 2013; Tanner & Pérez Prieto, 2014). In this presentation we continue to develop this line of work in relation to the new reforms on grades and national tests in year six. Using conversation analysis (CA) as a methodological approach we explore how these policies are interpreted and realized in student interactions within the school context, and how this helps to produce and re-produce policy discourses in schools today. The aim is to describe how the reform is being made in interaction from the students’ perspective. We depart from the following research questions:

    • How are national tests and grades oriented to in students’ interaction?

    • How do students position themselves in relation to these changed assessment practices in different situations?

    This study is part of a larger project about students’ experiences of doing national tests and getting grades in sixth grade, where in total more than 150 students in 7 schools have been interviewed. Within the larger project, this presentation builds on a complementary video-ethnographic substudy where three groups from two different schools have been followed during preparation and realization of national tests in the subjects of social sciences and natural sciences. The data material in the substudy consists of more than 30 hours of video recordings from classroom interaction in three different groups in two schools, 7 video recorded group interviews with students focusing on their experiences of getting grades and 7 video recorded group interviews with students about doing national tests. From this data different examples where students position themselves to these assessment practices are selected for further analysis on how this policy reform gets interpreted. The selected data consists of different kinds of interactions; between students, between teacher and students or interactions within an interview setting.

    To visualize new aspects of how policy is constituted in the interaction between different actors in school, we make a somewhat unusual methodological combination of policy studies and interactional analysis, where we use the inductive approach of conversation analysis (CA) focusing on the institutionally framed interaction within the school context (Drew & Heritage 1992; Heritage, 1997). CA aims at studying human sociality as it is organized in people’s talk-in-interaction and how they together create shared meanings in relation to context (c.f. Hutchby &Wooffitt, 2008). Whereas early CA studies mainly focused on verbal talk in everyday situations, there is now within CA an increasing interest in to how verbal and non-verbal resources such as gesture, gaze and material artefacts are coordinated in human interaction (Goodwin, 2000; 2007). In this study the use of video recordings makes these kinds of multimodal analysis possible. Here we view the participants’ interpretations of policy as social actions, and explore how these kinds of policy practices is being made in student interaction through the use of different kinds of available semiotic resources. 

    Even though the combination of CA and the theoretical concept of policy enactment require careful methodological considerations, we find a substantial gain in the way it makes possible new understandings of how students position themselves in relation to educational policy. Preliminary results show how students position themselves as competent actors in relation to peers, teachers and family as they talk about tests and grades. In the interactions they negotiate strategies for coping with expectations and increasing pressure, while at the same time playing down the importance of tests and grades in for example comparisons with friends or in relation to final grades in year nine. To a large extend they position themselves as being responsible for making changes and increasing their efforts to achieve good results. But in the empirical data are also examples of how students’ position themselves in relation to increased demands on teachers and schools, and expectations to produce good results in competition with other schools in a marketized education system.

    References 

    Ball, S. J. (2006). Performativities and fabrications in the education economy: Towards the performative society. In H. Lauder, P. Brown, J-A. Dillabough & A. H. Halsey (Eds.), Education, globalization & social change (pp. 692-701). New York: Oxford University Press.

    Ball, S. J., Maguire, M. & Braun, A. (2012). How schools do policy: Policy enactment in secondary schools. London: Routledge.

    Drew, P., & Heritage, J. (1992). Talk at work: Interaction in institutional settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Goodwin, C. (2000a). Action and embodiment within situated human interaction. Journal of Pragmatics, 32(10), 1489-1522. doi: 10.1016/S0378-2166(99)00096-X

    Goodwin, C. (2007). Participation, stance and affect in the organization of activities. Discourse & Society, 18(1), 53-73. doi:10.1177/0957926507069457

    Heritage, J. (1997). Conversational analysis and institutional talk. I D. Silverman (Red.), Qualitative research: Theory, method and practice (ss. 161-182). London: Sage.

    Hutchby, I., & Wooffitt, R. (2008). Conversation analysis (2. uppl.). Cambridge: Polity

    Löfdahl, A. & Pérez Prieto, H. (2009). Between control and resistance: Planning and evaluation texts in the Swedish preschool. Journal of Education Policy 4(24), 293-408. 

    Löfgren, H. (2012). Det sitter inte i väggarna: Identiteter i lärares berättelser om skola och arbete [It is not in the walls – Professional identities in teachers’ stories about school and work). Doctoral dissertation, Karlstad: Karlstad University Studies. 

    Pérez Prieto, H. & Tanner, M. (2014): Fabricando buenos alumnos: autoevaluación y negociación en la escuela sueca. I C. Peláez-Paz & M.I. Jociles (Eds) Estudios etnográficos de las políticas públicas en contextos educativos. Madrid: Traficantes de Sueños

    Singh, P.,  Heimans, S.  & Glasswell, K. (2014) Policy enactment,context and performativity: ontological politics and researching Australian National Partnership policies, Journal of Education Policy, 29:6, 826-844 

    Tanner, Marie; Pérez Prieto, Héctor (2014) In between self-knowledge and school demands: Policy enacted in the Swedish middle year classroom. Discourse. Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 2014, volym 35 (5)

  • 1152.
    Tanner, Marie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Roos, Carin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies. Högskolan i Kristianstad.
    Video - ett forskningsfält i utveckling: Videografiska utgångspunkter i forskning om social interaktion2017In: Nordicom Information, ISSN 0349-5949, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 8-14Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [vi]

    Videobaserade forskningsmetoder utvecklas i snabb takt, inte minst beroende på den tekniska utvecklingen inom videoområdet som medger nya och lättillggängliga lösning- ar för att i för forskningsändamål dokumentera olika visuella aspekter av människors sociala interaktion. I takt med samhällets digitalisering har dock formerna för social interaktion förändrats till att allt mer sker genom olika slags digitala medier – män- niskors socialitet blir i allt högre grad uppkopplad. Här presenteras först en bakgrund till videogra som metod och teori, följt av två exempel på hur video används i ett par aktuella studier idag samt en avslutande diskussion kring några utvecklingsområden. 

  • 1153.
    Tanner, Marie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education.
    Sahlström, Fritjof
    Helsingfors universitet.
    Same and different.: Epistemic topicalizations as resources for cohesion and change.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this presentation, we take an interest in how teaching and learning as social actions have to be actively accomplished in interactions between teachers and students in the institutional setting of the classroom. More precisely, we focus on the practices relied upon by teachers and students for coming to situated agreement of the level of student learning, and for adjusting teaching and instruction in individual deskwork to these changing understandings, both within teaching instances and in subsequent situations occurring over longer periods of time.

    Within CA, there is a growing interest in the ubiquitous role that issues related to knowledge have in the interactive organization of human sociality. This interest has brought new insights about the diverse ways in which epistemic stance is utilized as a resource in interaction  (c.f. Stivers, Mondada, & Steensig, 2011; Heritage, 2012b; 2012a; Goodwin, 2013; Koole, 2012). The focus on epistemics is at the core of a growing body of research on learning that within a CA framing explores new ways of conceptualizing learning as changed participation in interaction (Martin, 2004; Melander, 2009; Lee, 2010; Sahlström, 2011; Seedhouse, Walsh, & Jenks, 2010). Drawing on these and other studies on learning from a participationist perspective (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Sfard, 1998), the paper takes a view on learning as a social action; as something people are literally doing, accomplished in part through changes in epistemic stance. The issue of cross-situational relevance has proved to be a challenge for CA studies. Here, we explore how participants orient to learning processes across situations, by relying on epistemic topicalizations as resources for the shaping of cohesive learning trajectories.

    The analyzed material consists of data from a larger classroom video-ethnography on learning in literacy practices during the middle years, i.e. students aged 10 to 12 year in two Swedish schools.  Within this material, trajectories of learning in desk-interactions between teachers and students when students work individually while the teacher moves around in the classroom to supervise and support their work have been traced. We analyze how the verbal and non-verbal resources (Goodwin 2007; 2013) for epistemic topicalizations used by teachers and students come to construct the interaction as oriented to learning and change.

    In the analysis we contrast two different examples where teachers in two or more desk-interactions subsequently meet the same student in interactions about the same learning content in a school assignment. In the first case, we show how the teacher’s epistemic stance changes through and between the desk-interactions in relation to how the studentbecomes more and more certain of how to make use of a map in a geography assignment. The teacher and the student use epistemic topicalizations to explicate the changed epistemic status of the students, and to remind each other of previous experiences, which thus become available to them in the learning activity. By making the previous learning experiences available, the teacher does not have to be as thorough in her explanations in the second interaction compared to the first. This makes it possible to redefine the learning content with more complexity. In the second example, the student shows that despite the teacher’s previous support in a writing activity during a series of Swedish lessons, he still cannot fulfill an assignment. Also in this case, epistemic topicalizations are used to position the student’s epistemic status, and to remind each other of previous experiences. However, in this second instance, this results in more thorough explanations from the teacher using similar semiotic resources as before but with a higher degree of scaffolding, rather than the progressivity of the first instance.

    In conclusion, we show how epistemic topicalizations play an important role in the learning trajectories as means to maintain, in different ways, the “sameness” in a certain constituted content through several learning situations, while at the same time making it possible for the teacher and the student to continuously change and differentiate their epistemic stance to this content in relation to successive changes in the student’s epistemic status. Hence, epistemic topicalization is demonstrated to be a primary resource in establishing a shared understanding of the evolving epistemic status of the students, and consequently, as a primary resource for adapting and changing teaching and instruction. Epistemic topicalizations represent crucial resources both for the contingent organization of learning as social action within and beyond situated interactions, and for the situated construction of differentiation and mutual adaption of teaching and learning in relation to displayed needs and requests from various students.

     

    References

    Goodwin, C. (2007). Participation, stance and affect in the organization of activities. Discourse & Society, 18(1), 53-73. doi:10.1177/0957926507069457

    Goodwin, C. (2013). The co-operative, transformative organization of human action and knowledge. Journal of Pragmatics, 46(1), 8-23. doi:10.1016/j.pragma.2012.09.003

    Heritage, J. (2012a). The epistemic engine: Sequence organization and territories of knowledge. Research on Language & Social Interaction, 45(1), 30-52. doi:10.1080/08351813.2012.646685

    Heritage, J. (2012b). Epistemics in action: Action formation and territories of knowledge. Research on Language & Social Interaction, 45(1), 1-29. doi:10.1080/08351813.2012.646684

    Koole, T. (2012). The epistemics of student problems: Explaining mathematics in a multi-lingual class. Journal of Pragmatics, 44(13), 1902-1916. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2012.08.006

    Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning : Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Lee, Y. (2010). Learning in the contingency of talk-in-interaction. Text & Talk, 30(4), 403-422. doi:10.1515/TEXT.2010.020

    Martin, C. (2004). From other to self : Learning as interactional change. Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis : Universitetsbiblioteket [distributör].

    Melander, H. (2009). Trajectories of learning : Embodied interaction in change. Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis : Uppsala University Library [distributör].

    Sahlström, F. (2011). Learning as social action. In J. K. Hall, J. Hellermann & S. P. Doehler (Eds.), L2 interactional competence and development (). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

    Seedhouse, P., Walsh, S., & Jenks, C. (2010). Conceptualising "learning" in applied linguistics. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire ; New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Sfard, A. (1998). On two metaphors for learning and the dangers of choosing just one. Educational Researcher, 27(2), 4-13. doi:10.3102/0013189X027002004

    Stivers, T., Mondada, L., & Steensig, J. (Eds.). (2011). The morality of knowledge in conversation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • 1154.
    Tanner, Marie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013). Åbo Akademi University, Vasa, Finland.
    Sahlström, Fritjof
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013). Åbo Akademi University, Vasa, Finland.
    Same and Different: Epistemic Topicalizations as Resources for Cohesion and Change in Classroom Learning Trajectories2018In: Discourse processes, ISSN 0163-853X, E-ISSN 1532-6950, Vol. 55, no 8, p. 704-725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a seemingly fragmented interactional context, teachers and students in classrooms routinely manage to co-construct coherent, inter-related, and individually adapted learning trajectories distributed over days and weeks. The aim of this article is to explore with what interactional resources progressivity is accomplished in learning trajectories by focusing on how participants establish relations of cohesion and change between current and previous occasions that constitute a learning trajectory. Analysis of empirical data shows how participants frequently topicalize aspects of epistemic stance toward a co-constructed learning content. Such epistemic topicalizations play an important role in maintaining cohesion in a learning trajectory, while making it possible for teachers and students to progressively change and differentiate their epistemic stance. Epistemic topicalizations are suggested as a useful analytic concept, grounded in conversation analysis, to describe how cohesion and change are emically managed in interaction to accomplish progressivity in learning trajectories.

  • 1155.
    Tanner, Marie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Samuelsson, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for the Studies of Social Sciences Didactics (from 2013).
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Skolan, marknaden och ämnet.: Kommersiella aktörer på internet i undervisningen2017In: Kapet (elektronisk), E-ISSN 2002-3979, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 3-26Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här artikeln uppmärksammar vi förekomsten av olika privata och kommersiella webbsajter som specifikt riktar sig mot undervisning och lärande i skolan. Syftet är att beskriva och diskutera hur några olika kommersiella aktörer på internet tar plats som policyaktörer i ett utbildningssammanhang, och vad det kan betyda i relation till undervisningens ämnesinnehåll. Med ett särskilt fokus på historieämnet, analyserar vi med inspiration från metoden network ethnograpy två olika exempel på sådana webbsajter, SO-rummet samt studi.se. Vi undersöker det nätverk av aktörer som ligger bakom webbsajten, hur syftet med sajten framställs samt hur historieämnet konstrueras på dessa sajter. Resultatet visar hur den politiska styrningen av skolan har fått konkurrens av nya aktörer, vilket leder till att de förstnämndas inflytande minskar till förmån för det komplexa nätverk av aktörer som istället tar plats. På så vis skapas ett marknadens ämne, som visserligen i de två studerade exemplen visar sig ligga nära det konventionella skolämnet historia, men som också visar på ett starkt behov av ytterligare forskning som kan synliggöra hur olika och vitt skilda ideologiska intressen tar plats och skapar politiska kluster som kommer att påverka undervisningens innehåll.

  • 1156.
    Tengberg, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Att bedöma läsförmåga: teoretiska utgångspunkter2015In: Bedömning i svenskämnet: Årskurs 7-9 / [ed] Gustaf Skar & Michael Tengberg, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2015, p. 87-108Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1157.
    Tengberg, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Att pröva elevers läsförmåga i årskurs nio.: En analys av uppgiftskonstruktioner i det nationella provet i svenska, delprov A Att läsa och förstå.2014In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, ISSN 1102-6472, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 109-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade, national tests have become increasinglyimportant to define educational quality. Testing procedures are moretime consuming and take a prominent role as instruments for control andgovernance. This development necessitates critical analyses of prevalenttest constructions and of test validity. The article reports from an analysisof test items and scoring guidelines in the national test of Swedish in 9th grade, focusing specifically on the measurement of literary comprehension.The analysis is based on tests used 2005–2012. Drawing on test theoryand reading process theory, findings indicate that the construct definitionof reading comprehension in these tests is deeply problematic and thatalternative test constructions should be considered.

  • 1158.
    Tengberg, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Förhandlingar om genus i skolans litteratursamtal: En interaktionsanalys.2009In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 169-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how gender is constructed in a student group discussion of a literary text. The paper aims to show how the students negotiate gender identities and the ways in which this negotiation is related to their stance toward the literary text. I also demonstrate how the text’s representations of masculinity and femininity are used by the students to position both themselves and each other. The study is based on the video recording of a short sequence in which eight students in eighth grade and their teacher discuss Mats Wahl’s novel Vinterviken. Their discussion raises the issue of masculinity and femininity, which leads to a tension between different gender positions in the group. The analysis highlights the interactional means by which the speakers attempt to authenticate their respective positions in relation to the norms of both gender and literature.

  • 1159.
    Tengberg, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Konsten att mäta konsten att läsa: Domänbeskrivningar och uppgiftsformat i det nationella provets läsförståelsedel2015In: Litteratur och läsning: Litteraturdidaktikens nya möjligheter / [ed] Maria Jönsson & Anders Öhman, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, p. 107-127Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1160.
    Tengberg, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Konstruktion och bedömning av förmågan att läsa (och förstå) skönlitterär text.: Två nedslag i det nationella provets läsförståelsedel, åk 9.2014In: Educare - Vetenskapliga skrifter, ISSN 1653-1868, ISSN 1653-1868, no 1, p. 79-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This  article  discusses  the  validity  of  reading  comprehension  measurements  in  the  9th grade  national  assessments  of  Swedish.  It  argues  for  the  necessity  of  establishing  suitable   construct   definitions   of  reading   comprehension   before  any   valid   inferences   are  to   be   made   from  students’  test  results.   Theory   of  assessment  and  theory  of  literary  response  are  drawn  upon  in  order  to  analyze,  on  item  level,  the  way  in  which  good  reading   comprehension  is  repre-­‐sented  in  the  test.  The  results  demonstrate  two  different  types  of  shortcomings  related  first  of  all  to  inadequate  construct  definitions.  The  first  problem  is  the  narrow  perspective  from  which  acceptable  interpretations  in  student’s  literary  responses   are   defined.   The  second   problem   is  the   priority   given  to  quantitative   over   qualitative   facets   when   assessing   students’   constructed  responses.

  • 1161.
    Tengberg, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Läsarens känslor inte enbart privata.2012In: Svenskläraren, ISSN 0346-2412, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 32-37Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1162.
    Tengberg, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies. Research group on subject-specific education (ROSE).
    National reading tests in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden: A comparison of construct definitions, cognitive targets, and response formats2017In: Language Testing, ISSN 0265-5322, E-ISSN 1477-0946, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 83-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reading comprehension tests are often assumed to measure the same, or at least similar, constructs. Yet, reading is not a single but a multidimensional form of processing, which means that variations in terms of reading material and item design may emphasize one aspect of the construct at the cost of another. The educational systems in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden share a number of traits, and in the recent decade, the development of national test instruments, especially for reading, has been highly influenced by international surveys of student achievement. In this study, national tests of L1 reading comprehension in secondary school in the three Scandinavian countries are compared in order to reveal the present range of diversity/commonality within the three test domains. The analysis employs both qualitative and quantitative aspects of data, including frameworks, text samples, task samples, and scoring guidelines from 2011 to 2014. Findings indicate that the three tests differ substantially from each other, not only in terms of the intentional and operative constructs of reading to be measured, but also in terms of testing methods and stability over time. Implications for the future development of reading comprehension assessment are discussed.

  • 1163.
    Tengberg, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Rätt mätt?2016In: Kapet (avslutad tryckt version), ISSN 1653-4743, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 21-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under det senaste decenniet har kunskapstest av olika slag fått en ökad betydelse i skolan och testresultat inverkar i allt högre grad på såväl pedagogiskt som ekonomiskt och politiskt beslutsfattande. Men tester, vars resultat får stora konsekvenser för elever och skolor, måste underställas höga krav på reliabilitet och validitet och bli föremål för kritiskt prövning både av vetenskapssamhället och av dem som använder testet. I den här artikeln diskuteras aspekter av reliabilitet och validitet i det svenska nationella läsprovet i årskurs nio. Till grund för diskussionen ligger analyser av provinnehåll, elevresultat och experimentella data där lärare fått klassificera provuppgifter utifrån innehållsliga kategorier. En slutsats från dessa analyser är att det nationella läsprovet dras med flera kvalitetsproblem som omfattar aspekter av både mätsäkerhet och innehållsvaliditet. Några förslag till utveckling av provsystemet diskuteras i slutet av artikeln.

  • 1164.
    Tengberg, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Vad är väl en genrepedagogik?2012In: Svenskläraren, ISSN 0346-2412, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 5-5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1165.
    Tengberg, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Validation of sub-constructs in reading comprehension tests using teachers’ classification of cognitive targets2018In: Language Assessment Quarterly, ISSN 1543-4303, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 169-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reading comprehension is often treated as a multidimensional construct. In many reading tests, items are distributed over reading process categories to represent the subskills expected to constitute comprehension. This study explores (a) the extent to which specified subskills of reading comprehension tests are conceptually conceivable to teachers, who score and use national reading test results and (b) the extent to which teachers agree on how to locate and define item difficulty in terms of expected text comprehension. Eleven teachers of Swedish were asked to classify items from a national reading test in Sweden by process categories similar to the categories used in the PIRLS reading test. They were also asked to describe the type of comprehension necessary for solving the items. Findings of the study suggest that the reliability of item classification is limited and that teachers’ perception of item difficulty is diverse. Although the data set in the study is limited, the findings indicate, in line with recent validity theory, that the division of reading comprehension into subskills by cognitive process level will require further validity evidence and should be treated with caution. Implications for the interpretation of test scores and for test development are discussed.

  • 1166.
    Tengberg, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education.
    Borgström, Eric
    Lötmarker, Lena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education.
    Skar, Gustaf B.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Walkert, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Wikberg, Kristina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Likvärdig bedömning av elevers språkförmågor: Preliminära resultat från ett ämnesdidaktiskt forskningsprojekt2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1167.
    Tengberg, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Olin-Scheller, Christina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    Developing critical reading of argumentative text: Effects of a comprehension strategy intervention2016In: Journal of Language Teaching and Learning (JLTR), ISSN 2146-1732, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 635-645Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1168.
    Tengberg, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Olin-Scheller, Christina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    Improving Reading and Interpretation in Seventh Grade: A Comparative Study of the Effects of Two Different Models for Reading Instruction2013In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 4, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the potentials for developing advanced reading and interpretative skills in Swedish secondary school. During six weeks four separate study groups in seventh grade participated in an intervention study. The purpose was to gather more knowledge of how different teaching strategies affect students’ development of advanced reading skills. Data was collected from written assignments and from an experiential questionnaire. The study attempts to provide an empirical corroboration of previously theoretically founded propositions. Findings indicate that the choice of teaching strategy plays a significant role to students’ learning. However, in order to make normative judgments on one teaching model’s advantage over the other, further evidence is necessary. Moreover, to study the implementation and the effects of instructional change is a challenging field of research, which requires an array of sophisticated methods that combine qualitative and quantitative analyses.

  • 1169.
    Tengberg, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education.
    Olin-Scheller, Christina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Interventionsforskning om läsning och läsundervisning.2013In: Tionde nationella konferensen i svenska med didaktisk inriktning.: Genre / [ed] Chrystal, J-A & Lim Falk, M., Stockholm: Stockholms universitet. , 2013, p. 159-168Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1170.
    Tengberg, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Olin-Scheller, ChristinaKarlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    Svensk forskning om läsning och läsundervisning2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 1171.
    Tengberg, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Olin-Scheller, Christina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Lindholm, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Improving Students’ Narrative Comprehension through a Multiple Strategy Approach: Effects of Dialogic Strategy Instruction in Secondary School2015In: L1-Educational Studies in Language and Literature, ISSN 1567-6617, E-ISSN 1573-1731, Vol. 15, article id 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on an intervention study using a multiple strategy approach – called Dialogic Strategy Instruction (DSI) – to improve seventh grade students’ narrative comprehension in terms of students’ ability to generate inferences and develop interpretations of characters and events. DSI combines strat-egy instruction with dialogical principles for classroom discussion and response writing. After a 13-week intervention period, students in the intervention condition demonstrated significant improvement in generating inferences and interpretations compared to pre-test results. However, the average effect was small and the improvement was not significantly different relative to controls. An analysis of stu-dents with low pre-test scores showed that the intervention group had made significant and strong improvement relative to controls. Results for middle and high achievers were non-significant in this respect. Therefore, although DSI appears valuable for low achievers, results indicate that the instruc-tional principles implemented may not offer instructional support for all children. Possible reasons for the absence of a general effect are discussed and directions for future research are suggested.

  • 1172.
    Tengberg, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Roe, A.
    Oslo universitet.
    Skar, G. B.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    Interrater reliability of constructed response items in standardized tests of reading2018In: Nordic Studies in Education, ISSN 1891-5914, E-ISSN 1891-5949, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 118-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports from a study of interrater reliability of constructed response items in standardized tests of reading. Two panels of raters (lower secondary teachers and test developers) were asked to rate student responses on 11 different items taken from the Norwegian national reading test in eighth grade. Consensus estimates and measurement estimates were combined with a qualitative analysis of difficult-to-score student responses. Based on findings about rater agreement, distribution of severity, and troublesome response characteristics, the article provides knowledge about both actual and possible levels of interrater reliability and discusses the use and development of open-ended reading test items.

  • 1173.
    Tengberg, Michael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Skar, Gustaf B
    Skrivesenteret och Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet i Trondheim, Norge.
    Hur tillförlitligt är det nationella provet i läsning i åk 9?2017In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 113-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports from a study of reliability in the Swedish national reading test in ninth grade. Based on a representative sample of 500 students, the study investigates internal consistency and power to discriminate between different levels of reading ability. Data was analyzed using both classical test theory and Rasch modelling. Results from the study suggest that neither the subscales nor the whole scale of items included in the test reach desirable levels of internal consistency. Three out of four subscales include items with strikingly low degree of internal correlation (.23–.46). Furthermore, results from the Rasch analysis suggest that the test is capable of reliable separation between two groups of test-takers only: lower performing students and higher performing students. The empirical support for categorizing student performances into six separate grade levels is therefore questionable. Implications for future development of the national test of reading are discussed.

  • 1174.
    Tenggren Natt och Dag, Catarina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Kollegailt lärande - Bara snack eller framgångsfaktor för skolutveckling: Det kollegiala lärandets betydelse för lärares utvecklande av undervisningen2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to examine whether there is a relationship between teacher learning and collaboration in professional learning communities and how they develop their teaching with claims to improve student achievement. The survey also contains an explorative part in order to investigate which factors contribute to the professional learning communities and whether there are any factors that prevent teachers' improvement of their teaching. The survey was conducted as a survey-study and has been distributed to three schools in three western Swedish municipalities. The schools are a F-6 school, a 7-9 school and a secondary school. The primary schools are municipal schools and the secondary school has an independent trust. The survey is based on theories, literature and relevant research on peer learning. Used analytical tools are Timperley's (2013) model of teacher inquiry and knowledge creation cycle, and Wenger's (1998) theory of social professional practice.

    In summary, the study shows that teachers participating in the survey indicates the high degree of learning in professional communities has great or very great importance to their professional development, and to a somewhat lesser extent how they change and improve teaching. The survey shows that teachers who have been practicing less time valuates the learning in professional communities as very large both for their professional development and their improvement work. The study emerges analysis of student performance or student feedback on teaching as vague. There also seems to be a difference between the importance of the teachers in the survey attributes to peer learning for their development of teaching and how peer learning actually affects their actions particularly with regard to follow up the teaching and analysis of student performance. The factor that the teachers in the survey ascribes the greatest importance for the quality of peer learning is time together, but factors such as trust in each other and good relationships say they are also as important. School management's importance or the need for other external support such as mentoring, coaching, action research seems not as important for the quality of the collegial learning.

  • 1175.
    Ternström, Emma
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    "Likväl som du kan leka med Lego, kan du ha en surfplatta": Förskollärares syn på surfplattans roll i arbetet med naturvetenskap och teknik.2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine preschool teachers attitude how a tablet can be used to arouse children's interests and curiosity when it comes to science and technology. To examine this, interviews with six preschool teachers from five different preschools in three municipalities implemented. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were chosen to find out their personal views and thereby increase the possibilities to get as detailed and complete answers as possible. The results of this study show that preschool teachers have a positive attitude about the tablet in preschool. According to all interviewed preschool teachers, the tablet device is used to search for information and documentation within subjects such as science and technology. The result of this study also shows that the preschool teacher’s competence has been a significant factor in how the tablet is used in preschool. Preschool teacher who have worked the shortest time in preschool and have a further education sees more opportunities and have a higher competence around how the tablet can be used as an educational tool in their education.

  • 1176.
    Thelander, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Abraham, Getahun Yacob
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Teaching children’s rights – what can we learn from Paulo Freire?2014In: Teaching children’s rights – what can we learn from Paulo Freire?, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract ECER 2014                                                                           

    Nina Thelander

    Getahun Yacob Abraham

    Karlstad University, Sweden

    Network 25

    Teaching children’s rights – what can we learn from Paulo Freire?

     

    Today, the importance of school results is stressed in political discussions as well as in public debates in many countries around the world. As school results are linked to economic growth international tests, as e.g. TIMMS and PISA, have become important tools in these debates as well as indicators for change in school systems. In our presentation we will use Sweden as an example where school results in international tests have led to changes in the national school system which, we will argue, has impact on children’s rights in education in different ways.  One illustration of changes outlined in the new steering documents is a stronger focus on “subject matter” emphasizing and requiring more and deeper knowledge in each subject in school where e.g. knowledge about children’s rights is more explicitly stressed. In this presentation we want to highlight some of these changes and discuss what they might mean from a child rights perspective?  In order to do so we will use ideas and concepts from Paulo Freire which, for instance, presents an alternative idea to “subject matter” teaching and discuss education from a somewhat different angel than expressed in today’s national curricula and syllabuses. This example will be the starting point to a broader discussion about Paulo Freire’s theoretical ideas and concepts in relation to children’s rights in education.

    To a large extent, researchers within the field of children’s rights in education are anchored in theories, which in different ways are, linked to ideas and concepts outlined within the sociology of childhood, which this presentation is an example of. Even though sociology of childhood has been and still is a fruitful way to study children’s rights in education specific educational theories and perspectives are claimed to be more highlighted and discussed (Quennerstedt & Quennerstedt, 2013)

    In order to contribute to the theorizing of children’s rights in education we will in this presentation elaborate the theoretical ideas and concepts of Paulo Freire and discuss his thoughts in relation to children’s rights in education, with examples from Sweden. Apart from Freire’s ideas about “subject matter” mentioned above his thoughts about the importance of good relationship between teachers and students, giving an opportunity for students to express themselves, and creating an open climate for conversation in the classroom is applicable with the intentions in the UN Convention on the rights of the child. The concepts such as oppression, banking verses problem posing education, dialogue versus antidialogue, generative themes, etc (Ferire, 1970) are also relevant for this work.

    In their everyday work teachers, instead of just trying to feed children with knowledge as expressed in the banking concept, it is preferable to involve children to come up with their thoughts and wonderings to generate themes that they can assess together with other children and their teacher. The dialogue with each other and their teacher could give children more opportunities to learn, than the anti-dialogic method where they are passive recipient of what comes from their teacher.  These thoughts of respect for children’s self-expression, working method that invites for participation and enquiry are in line with the convention for the rights of the child. Taken together these ideas and concepts form our aim for this presentation: what can we learn about teaching children’s rights from the theoretical perspectives and concepts of Paulo Freire?

     

    The theoretical framework is drawn from Paulo Freires ideas and concepts ( Freire, 1970, 1974, 1987, 1998) as well as from the sociology of childhood (James & James, 2004). These theoretical frameworks help us to analyze and cast light on further understanding of children’s rights in education. It will also help us to look closely to the Swedish primary school’s curriculum (Lgr.11) and other policy guidelines. Here the focus will be on the impact of the curriculum and policy guidelines on teaching children’s rights.   

     

    The study uses text analyses as a method. Convention on the rights of the child (UNICEF, 1989) and the Swedish primary school curriculum (Skolverket, 2011) are used to scrutinize what they provide on teaching children’s right. The provisions in the texts are viewed and analyzed in relation to Paulo Freire´s concepts on education.   

     

    The expected outcomes of the presentation are to elaborate children’s rights in education from Paulo Freire’s theoretical perspectives. The presentation will also contribute to the ongoing discussion of theorizing children’s rights in education. Our intention is to publish an article from this presentation.

     

     

     

     

     

    References

    Freire, P. (1970/2012). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group.

    Freire, P. (1974). Education for critical consciousness. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group.

    Freire, P. (1998). Pedagogy of Freedom: Ethics, Democracy, and Civic Courage. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.

     

    Freire, Paulo and Shor, I. (1987) A Pedagogy For Liberation: Dialogues on Transforming

    Education.Westport: Bergin &Garvey.

    James, A. & James, A,L. (2004) Constructing childhood: Theory, policy, and social practice. New York: Palgrave Macmillian

    Quennerstedt A, & Qunnerstedt, M, (2013) Researching children’s rights in

    education: sociology of childhood encountering educational theory. In British Journal of Sociology of Education, 2014 Vol. 35, No. 1, 115–132, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01425692.2013.783962

     

    Skolverket (2011). Curriculum for the primary school, Lgr 11. Stockholm: Skolverket.

    UNICEF (1989). Convention on the rights of the child. New York: UNICEF.

     

     

  • 1177.
    Thelin, Katina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Mellan varumärke och gemensamt raster: Skilda sätt att se verksamhetsidéer för pedagogisk verksamhet2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore the ways in which verksamhetsidé is seen within the Swedish educational context.

    In Sweden, the concept verksamhetsidé is used for an idea or a set of ideas related to the practice of an organization, for instance a school or a school district. Although the importance of such shared ideas is often pointed out by practitioners as well as researchers within the field of school development, there is little consensus about their meaning. When it comes to questions about the actual function and character of such an idea, or set of ideas, little guidance is found in the literature. This thesis seeks to contribute to such knowledge.

    In order to describe variations in the ways such ideas are seen as well as in the ways working with such ideas are seen, a phenomenographic study was carried out. The empirical data consist of deep interviews with 14 school directors of education in one larger city in Sweden; each responsible for several schools and preschools in one district. As directors they were all involved in the process of developing a verksamhetsidé, to guide all educational activities in the area.

    Results suggest that verksamhetsidé can be seen as a trademark, as putty, as a compass, as a map, or as a shared perspective. Each of these conceptions is used as a label for a category of description, and together they constitute one of the study’s outcome spaces. When it comes to working with such ideas, another variation is found. This variation is described through the concepts of top-down implementation and bottom-up sensemaking. Moreover, the data suggest no correlation between a certain way of seeing a verksamhetsidé and a certain way of seeing how to work with it.

  • 1178.
    Thorell, Gabriella
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; .
    Hedenborg, Susanna
    Malmö university, Sweden.
    Strahlman, Owe
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Morgan, Karin
    Swedish Equestrian Center of Sport, Education and Research, Sweden.
    From giving orders to engaging in dialogue: Military norms being challenged at the Swedish riding school2018In: International Review for the Sociology of Sport, ISSN 1012-6902, E-ISSN 1461-7218, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 451-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Equestrian sport is one of the largest sports among young girls in Sweden. A majority of these girls get their riding education at riding schools that provide horses and instructors. Previous research has pointed out that the Swedish riding school is characterised by a traditional stable culture that originated in army practices. Presently Swedish children and youth sport at large are undergoing a change driven by increased commercialisation and individualisation. The aim of this article is therefore to explore and analyse how Swedish riding instructors perceive and experience their professional role in regards to these changes. Interviews with 10 riding instructors have been analysed using a constructivist approach of Grounded theory, as well as institutional theory and institutional economic theory. It was discovered that the riding instructors, due to an economic recession, feel that the institutional arrangements of the riding schools have become governed by the economy. The riding instructors thus feel impelled to change and adapt to new teaching styles - from instruction characterised by giving orders to teaching characterised by dialogue. This study illustrates how economic challenges require continuous development of the riding instructors' pedagogical ability, and have made them more aware of their profession, its historical heritage and norms.

  • 1179.
    Thornberg, Jennie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Läxors betydelse för elevers lärande: Ur några pedagogers perspektiv2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with this study is to, from educators' perspective, contribute with knowledge about the significance of homework for pupils' learning. This aim has been broken down into the following issues:

    • How do educators' work with homework?
    • How do they consider the homeworks' purpose?
    • How to they percieve that homework affect the pupils' learning?
    • Do the educators' see any challanges with homework?

    The method used to seek answers to the issues is qualitative interviews with four educators. All are active teachers in primary and middle school, and they have diffrent long experience of working with homework. What emerged from the interviews was that the homework was for rehearsal and to consolidate knowledge but also so the parents would get an insight into their child's work at school. The homework was also seen as a challange by the educators'. They argue that pupils receive diffrent amount of help at home, and that it may be perceived as unfair, because everyone learns at diffrent rates.

    One conclusion drawn was that the pedagogues' had similar ways of looking at the homework and why the homework exists in school. To consolidate knowledge was the main reason that pupuils' were given homework and the pedagogues' perceived homework as negative in some respects with the regard to the unfair part of homework.

  • 1180.
    Thorstensson, Anna-Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Högläsning och berättande i förskolan: En studie om förskollärarnas ändamål och tillvägagångssätt runt högläsning och berättande2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to gain more knowledge about the preschool teachers own descriptions of how and why they are working with reading aloud and storytelling and if it is different depending on the age groups in the preschool.

    The study's methodology is qualitative and consists of four semi-structured interviews of preschool teachers at two different preschools. The result shows that the preschool teachers converses with the younger children, talking and asking questions about the pictures in the literature and lets them retell what was read for them with the help of for example story bags and with the older children also converses about the text in the literature. Reading aloud is something that all preschool teachers do for children in all ages and it occurs primarily spontaneously throughout the day. The preschool teachers say that they use reading aloud, storytelling and conversation because they believe it promotes children's language development and build a foundation for their future learning of reading and writing. The results also show that the literature is available to all children in the preschool regardless of age and that all preschool teachers, in some way, are working with literature together with the children in the different ages.

  • 1181.
    Thorstensson, Madelene
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Pedagogernas roll i förskolebarnens läs- och skrivutveckling.: En studie om hur förskolepedagogerna arbetar med skriftspråk i förskolan, samt hur de ser på sin roll i att främja barnens lärande inom detta område.2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of my survey has been to find out how pre-school teachers work with the development of children's reading and writing learning. I wanted to find out how educators promote this learning and how they see their own role in this learning. I had the following questions as a starting point: How do educators work to promote children's written awareness? How do educators see their own importance in children's writing and reading development? In order to answer my questions, I did six qualitative interviews to find out about the teaching methods and approaches. I then compared my result with previous research, literature and curriculum intentions on the subject. I found that those children who showed interest had good conditions for learning to read and write while the children who did not show the same interest were considered not to be receptive to this type of learning. Educators did not think it is the pre-school responsibility to teach the children to read and write, but rather something that is supposed to happen at school. This is something that I can see differs from the view in both literature and previous research, where the children are considered both competent and receptive to this type of learning. However, the educators nevertheless considered that they had an important role in the children's reading and writing learning.

  • 1182.
    Thorén, Camilla
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    "Böckerna är levande på avdelningen": Barnboken som Genuspedagogiskt verktyg2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    My study and my purpose is focused on teachers' use of children's literature in the daily activities in preschool. Based on the use of the children's book, I have chosen to aim my focus towards a gender perspective. My purpose is also to look into whether/how teachers use children's literature as a means to problematize gender.

    My questions are: How, according to themselves, do educators use children's literature during daily activities in preschool? And what are the attitudes of these educators to the use of children's literature as an educational tool when it comes to problematizing gender in preschool? I chose to work with interviews in my study to get teachers answers based on my questions. I have made an investigative study where I have chosen to interview two teachers from a public preschool and two teachers from an independent preschool. I have compiled the preschools and then looked at and compared the answers from my chosen theoretical perspective. The final result shows that children's literature is used daily in both of the preschools and that gender is something that educators always keep at the back of their minds.

  • 1183.
    Thulin, Amanda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Djur i förskolan: En studie kring hur djur kan användas i förskoleverksamheten2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to clarify how animals can be used in preschool and what effects it can have on children´s learning and development. The study was based on interviews from eight different preschool teachers from three different preschools in the southern part of Sweden. The preschools that the teachers are working at are using animals for an educational purposes. The results in the study showed that animals can have a positive influence on the kids for instance on their empathy, understanding and being able to empathize with other people’s situation. Animals can also stimulate children´s language development and their social ability as the children have conversations with animals and socialize with them. The study showed that multiple challenges could exist in working with animals in preschool. This challenges include that kids can develop fears for the animals as well allergies. Animal welfare regulations of how animals should be taken care of, including non-working days, may also be a challenge.

  • 1184.
    Thuresson, Hanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Att läsa bilder med kroppen: En studie om yngre förskolebarns kommunicerande2013Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine young pre-school children´s literacy with a focus on their communication about pictures.  Based on the ethnographic method and video-recorded observations, this study demonstrates how young children communicate about pictures in various media.

    The results show that the body language used by young children in combination with various media pictures has a complex structure involving facial expressions, physical gestures and postures, which all contribute to making meaning.  The study also focuses on pictures common in the pre-school environment. The results in this area show that the majority of such pictures feature animals, a circumstance that restricts the children’s meaning-making potential.  Furthermore, the study pays attention to the variations in the balance of power among the children when they communicate about pictures in a book placed on the floor.

    The study concludes with a pedagogical discussion of teachers’ use of various media and language stimulation methods to promote literacy in the light of the finding that children use a more bodily-based method of communication.

  • 1185.
    Thyberg, Linnéa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Högläsningens tillämpning ochförutsättningar i förskolan: En studie om högläsningens roll i förskolan2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether teachers in the preschool felt that they had theprereqiusites they thought they needed in order to implement reading aloud in such a way that theywanted. And if the conditions could be linked to how the reading aloud occasions were created.Since the study aimed to describe a general situation, a quantitative method was used. The studywas carried out, using a web survey, in which randomly selected teachers in a medium-sizedmunicipality in Sweden were given the opportunity to participate.The result shows that reading aloud is part of the daily routine in preschool, usually occurring atthe same time in the day, for example when the children are resting or when the teachers want togather the children. A clear majority of teachers feel that they have the necessary conditions toimplement reading aloud in the way they wish. Even so, only a few do not feel that there issomething in the preschool everyday that complicates reading aloud. The size of the childgroup is by far the biggest contributor to the teachers feeling that reading aloud is complicated.Lack of time and the environment are two further major factors that most likely are side effects ofthe size of the child group.

  • 1186.
    Thyberg, Louise
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    "Hur lever djuren på vintern?": En studie om förskolebarns tankar om djurens levnadsvanor på vintern2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1187.
    Thörnberg, Sabina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Hållbar utveckling: -En kvantitativ enkätundersökning om natur och miljöarbete i förskolan2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to write a continuation of previous thesis that was based on qualitative interviews of how to work with environment and nature in preschool. I want to examine to what degree the teachers work with the different parts that was presented in the previous study. My method was to make a quantitative web based survey that all the staff that works with the children in the selected preschools could answer. Throughout my study I found that preschools around Sweden are working with different methods when they work with environment and nature. All the methods presented in the survey had been used by almost all the respondents. The survey showed that it was an advantage to be able to work practically with the children. Most respondents had a personal interest in the subject, but the level of education that the respondents had did not seem to influence their interest. Experience did not influence the extent of work with environment and nature, however, the study shows that it was easier to work with the subject with children in groups aged 3-5, compared to other age groups. The biggest obstacles in working with environment and nature were too big groups and too little time.   

  • 1188.
    Tillman, Ida
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Barns inflytande och delaktighet i förskolan: Pedagogers uppfattningar om begreppen inflytande, delaktighet och dess tillämpning i förskolan2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to find out about pre-school teachers´ description and work with the concept of "children´s influence" and participation. This is important since this is one of the preschool assignment according to the preschool curriculum Lpfö 98 (Skolverket, 2016).To study preschool teachers' experiences and thoughts about children's influence and partici-pation in preschool, semi-structured interviews were conducted with four preschool teachers. The study results show that the concept of influence is defined as involving the children in the business and that they have the opportunity to decide, but also how the children participate in the activities. The preschool teachers show a variation in experiencing children’s influence the meanings and conception differentiated. Some preschool teachers perceive it as children should decide more in preschool. Others believe children should be more involved in every-day decisions and activities.Children should have the opportunity to influence their everyday lives, as a preschool teacher this is about finding a strategies and opportunities to see each child and its interest. The preschool teachers clarify the importance of how body language and images are useful tools to show clarity and understanding, when younger children don´t have the verbal language. It is important for the preschool teacher to be responsive, listening and enable possibilities for the children to express their needs and desires.These educational strategies make it easier for the children to influence their situation and the ability to influence in preschool.

  • 1189.
    Tillström, Sanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Förskollärare och barnens kamrater som en viktig del i barns språkutveckling: En intervjustudie om utemiljöns möjligheter att locka till lek som främjar den språklig utvecklingen2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to find out how preschool teachers consider to take care of childrens outdoor play in order to achive an increased language development among the children. Focus lays on both the things that happen in the outdoor enviroments as well as on how the preeschool teacher approach childrens play to promote the language development. The study was made through qualitative interviews and I interviewed five preeschool teachers on three different preeschools. The results shows that preeschool teachers sees both them selfs but also childrens peers as important rolemodels when it comes to the childrens language development. To participate in plays as an adult to challenge the children linguistic was not uncommon but also to create new children constellations was a part of the work in the outdoor enviroments. The results also shows that the preeschool teachers saw them selfs as just as important as the material to attract to new plays in the outdoor enviroment. The fact that the children developed their language constantly through play was something all the preeschool teachers agreed on.

  • 1190.
    Tinna, Skördell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Ljuden i lekrummet: Hur barnens ljudskapande påverkar förskolemiljön.2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1191.
    Tiselius, Lisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    ”MEN JAG ÄR VUXEN! säger Leni. Det syns kanske inte, men det känns.”: En litteratursociologisk studie om hur samhälleliga normer och värderingar samt syn på barn och barndom, gestaltas i ett urval av bilderböcker.  2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple researchers argue that many authors of children’s books are influenced by the prevailing view of the child and childhood, in both subject selection and ways of writing. The aim of the study is to investigate how societies norms and values are reflected in picture books, written between 2010-2018. What kind of childhood is portrayed in the chosen literature? How does the illustrations and text interact to reflect the children’s characters and perspective? After an extensive selection process with several criteria, five picture books were finally chosen for analysis. With tools from researches Nikolajeva and Rhedin I’ll be focusing on illustrations, personality and environmental descriptions, as well as narration and point of view. The conclusion shows indications that the child's vision, which is portrayed in the picture books, goes hand in hand with the image of the child as subject and actor, a researching child actively in their own development. It is also possible to see traces of the multi-contextual view of children and the image of the child that is emphasized in the preschool curriculum. Another clear pattern is that the picture books reflect family constellations, gender, culture, diversity and ethnicity in a way that largely extends beyond underlying prejudices and stereotypes.

  • 1192.
    Tjernberg, Catharina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Balanserad läsundervisning2016In: Läsundervisningens grunder / [ed] Tarja Alatalo, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2016, p. 199-214Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1193.
    Tjernberg, Catharina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Processinriktad läs- och skrivundervisning: En väg till inkludering?2018Book (Other academic)
  • 1194.
    Tjernberg, Catharina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Skrivundervisning: Processinriktat skrivande i klassrummet2016Book (Other academic)
  • 1195.
    Tjernberg, Catharina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Heimdahl Mattson, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013). Stockholms universitet.
    From methods and concepts to triple learning processes in school, teacher education and research2017In: Nordic Studies in Education, ISSN 1891-5914, E-ISSN 1891-5949, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 36-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines and discusses how successful teachers develop professionally and relate this process to theory and practice. It elucidates some further aspects of an earlier longitudinal, praxis-oriented study in excellence that was carried out over a period of seven years in a nine-year Swedish compulsory school (Tjernberg, 2013). That case study was based on classroom observations and follow-up discussions to create consciousness of learning processes among the teachers and the researcher. According to the teachers in this study, the focus of pedagogical research is seldom on pedagogical practices, which means that they are not felt to be important. In contrast, the research is seen to be important if it has an inside perspective, using mutual and continuous communication between the pupils, themselves, and the researcher. One main finding is that a researcher can contribute to theorising and putting into words the teachers' pedagogical practices. At the same time, the researcher is able to deepen her or his research into issues that arise from the teachers' practices and knowledge. These two conditions are in turn necessary for the individual pupil to develop her or his proximal learning, which leads to further research questions. In this article, the term 'triple learning process' is used to describe this interaction.

  • 1196.
    Tjernberg, Emma
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Miljö och natur: En studie om miljö- och naturvårdsfrågor i förskolans verksamhet2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to find out how preschool teachers actively working with environmental and conservation issues in preschool, and if the work could be affected because of the preschool geographic location. In the study, four interviews were made ​​in four preschools, of which all respondents were a preschool teacher. What emerged during the study was that they all worked with environmental and conservation issues, and they all think it is an important work because we only have one environment and we all should take care of it. All the participants believe that it is through outdoors children learn about the environment, it is when they are in harmony with nature and the animals that live there, they can begin to form a respect for the environment, and then begin to understand it.

  • 1197.
    Tolf, Emelie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    En studie om dokumentationsarbetet i förskolan: En studie om dokumentationsarbetet i förskolan med fokus på barns mänskliga rättigheter2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien är att studera den levande dokumentationen som förekommer på förskolor, med fokus på barns mänskliga rättigheter och möjligheter till inflytande i dokumentationsarbetet i verksamheten. Med levande dokumentation menas att dokumentationsarbetet bör vara kontinuerligt, samt någonting som ständigt är framåtsträvande i verksamheten. De frågeställningar som studien utgår ifrån är: Vart riktas dokumentationsmedlet? På vilket sätt är barnen delaktiga i dokumentationen på förskolan? Vilka etiska hänsynstaganden tas från förskollärare utifrån barns bästa i dokumentationsarbetet? För att få svar på dessa frågeställningar intervjuas fem stycken förskollärare vid separata tillfällen, med utgångspunkt att få inblick i deras tankar och funderingar kring dokumentation. Utgångspunkten är även att få veta hur deras inställning är till dokumentation som verktyg i verksamheter, samt deras erfarenheter kring fenomenet. Intervjuerna utgår utifrån en halvstrukturerad intervjuform, med ett antal huvudfrågor som formar intervjun som sedan kompletteras med följdfrågor. Det fenomenografiska perspektivet, som utgår ifrån att forskaren ska förstå hur det är vederbörande förstår fenomenet, är det perspektiv som formar studien.

    Resultatet visar att samtliga respondenter är medvetna om att dokumentation är någonting som ska göras utifrån riktlinjer från förskolans styrdokument. Dokumentation är någonting alla anser är viktigt för att nå en utveckling i verksamheten, både i sin yrkesroll som förskollärare samt på institutionsnivå. Resultatet visar även att respondenterna belyser att dokumentation som fenomen har utvecklats med åren, och att denna utveckling bidrar till någonting positivt där barnen får större delaktighet och inflytande. Det är skeendet som respondenterna vill få med under dokumentationstillfällena, vilket också styr vad det är dokumentationsmedlet riktas mot. De betonar att inget barn som känna sig kränkt eller kränkas vid dokumentationen, och att ansvaret ligger hos dem som förskollärare.

  • 1198.
    Toll, Emma
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Montessorilärares tankar om lek: En kvalitativ studie om utbildade montessorilärares tankar om lekens betydelse och deras roll i barns lek i förskolan2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to contribute with knowledge of how some educated Montessori teachers perceive play in Montessori pedagogy. Through qualitative semi structured interviews the participants have shared their thoughts about the meaning of play and their role in children´s play in Montessori preschool. The results show that the teachers have different views of the role of play in Montessori, and a more unanimous view regarding the role of the Montessori teacher. The roles that the participants raise are observer and passive role, guide, active present and supporter as well as the environment as a regular teacher. To understand my result, I have been inspired by the actor-network theory as a starting point, as it relates to the results of the interviews.

  • 1199.
    Torgin, Victoria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Pedagogers uppmuntran till fysiks aktivitet: En kvalitativ interjuvstudie om hur utemiljön och närmiljön används för att stimulera fysisk aktivitet2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to analyze how pedagogues perceive that they stimulate children´s physical activity at the preschool, focusing on the outside environment. The method used in this study was qualitative interviews, where a total of six pedagogues were interviewed at four different preschools. The theoretical point of departure of the study is Reggio Emilia. Previous research shows that children's physical activity has decreased and sedentary activities have increased and as an pedagogue it is important to stimulate children to physical activity in the outdoor environment.

    The result shows that the pedagogues are aware of the benefits of the physical activity, but that other parts get more focus, such as mathematics. The pedagogues explain that physical activity, as a concept, is movements that involves the body but physical activity is also associated with play and everyday activity. They have visions of visiting different neighborhoods to increase the physical activity, but depending on different periods, the visits are more or less frequent. My conclusion is that preschools lack a forest-like environment near the preschool to make the forest a more natural part of the preschool's everyday life. The result shows that the pedagogues are not active in the children’s outside play and that they want more pedagogues to be active together with the children in the outside environment.

  • 1200.
    Torstensson, Anemone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Får jag vara med?: En studie om pedagogers syn på barns tillträdesstrategier och exkluderingar i leken samt sin egen roll i den fria leken.2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har som syfte att öka kunskapen om pedagogers föreställningar om barns tillträdesstrategier och exkluderingar av varandra i leken samt pedagogernas egen roll i leken. För att undersöka detta har kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer genomförts med tre förskollärare på olika förskolor.

     

    Resultatet visar att pedagogernas föreställningar om barns tillträdesstrategier är att barnen använder följande sätt för att starta upp en lek och ta sig in i en påbörjad lek: producera en liknande handling, observera och leka vid sidan om, fråga om lov att vara med, fråga en pedagog om hjälp samt att förstöra leken.

    Pedagogernas föreställningar om barns exkludering i leken är att de protesterar mot att någon försöker ta sig in genom att förstöra och klagar hos en vuxen, sätter upp ramar och förutsättningar för att hindra andra från att vara med samt verbalt neka tillträde. Att verbalt neka tillträde tar en pedagog upp som ett sätt att neka vuxna att vara med.

    Utifrån pedagogernas berättelser har jag urskilt tre övergripande roller som pedagogerna tar i barnens lekar. Dels att vara med bara för att det är roligt, dels för att styra leken så att den inte går överstyr och något barn far illa samt för att lära barnen sociala färdigheter och sakkunskaper. 

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