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  • 1151. Witell, L.
    et al.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson, A.
    The effects of different market research techniques on the generation of new product ideas and discovery of expressed and latent needs2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1152.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Brax, S
    The Future of Service Infusion in Manufacturing Firms2010In: International Journal of Service Industry Management, ISSN 0956-4233, E-ISSN 1758-6704, Vol. 21, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1153.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Brown, Stephen
    Service Logic: Transforming Product-Focused Businesses2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1154.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Managerial recommendations for service innovations in different product-service systems2010In: Introduction to Product-Service Systems design / [ed] Sakao, T.; M. Lindahl, London: Springer , 2010, p. 237-259Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to meet the increasingly complex needs of customers and to respond to decreasing product margins, typical product manufacturers have developed a growing interest in extending their service business. The extension of the service business requires a systematic development of innovative services. Unfortunately, in business practice it has been observed historically that manufacturing companies often fail to develop services systematically. Some customers asked for services and these desires were often fulfilled. Thus, the extension of the service business reflects a rather unstructured service innovation approach, which has not been consciously pursued. Rather than developing more formal structures to elicit ideas for new services, it is mostly performed ad hoc. Only a limited number of firms use formal approaches to service innovation and have implemented necessary determinants to success. Furthermore, the innovation of services in manufacturing companies captures two specific idiosyncrasies. First, manufacturing companies have to balance product and service innovations. Second, services can be either developed during the product development process or during the product usage. The major challenge to success in innovating services is to combine specific product-service systems with the right service strategy and way to develop service innovations.

  • 1155.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Löfberg, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Service Strategies in a Supply Chain2010In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 427-440Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1156.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Collaboration with customers - Understanding the effect of customer-company interaction in new product development2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1157.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    The Effects of Customer Involvement on New Product Ideas in Comparison to Traditional Market Research Techniques2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1158.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Idea Generation: Customer Co-creation versus Traditional Market Research Techniques2011In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 140-159Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1159.
    Wold, Caroliine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Det stressar mig att hjälpa dig!: En kvantitativ studie om organisatoriskt medborgarskapsbeteende och arbetsrelaterad stress bland industri- respektive omsorgsanställda.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Women are more sick from work than men, which according to new research may depends on that men and women typically work under different working conditions. More women than men work in caring professions, which may require a different type of loyalty than work in technical professions. Loyalty can be linked to organizational citizenship behavior (OCB).

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if OCB correlated with work-related stress, and if there were differences in the OCB and work-related stress among industrial workers and social care workers and also between men and women. The study had a between individual design and data were collected through questionnaires consisting of two already validated instrument; OCB-C, which measured the organizational citizenship behavior and WSQ which measured work-related stress.

    The result was a slightly positive significant correlation between OCB and work-related stress. Higher levels of OCB correlated with increased stress. Differences between gender and occupation for OCB and work-related stress were analyzed through independent two-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis test. According to the results men showed slightly higher levels of OCB than women, especially among care workers. Higher levels of OCB means employees more often voluntarily embrace additional tasks at work. All tests indicated that care workers have higher levels of both OCB and work-related stress than industrial workers. For most test women showed more work-related stress than men.

    The results from the two different tests differed for both OCB and work-related stress for both men and women, which makes it difficult to make conclusions about which result that best represents the reality. To be able to make conclusions about how OCB in addition to gender and working conditions can cause work-related stress, further research is needed.

  • 1160.
    Wurm, Matilda
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Anniko, Malin
    Örebro universitet.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Flink, Ida
    Örebro universitet.
    Boersma, Katja
    Örebro universitet.
    Musculoskeletal pain in early adolescence: A longitudinal examination of pain prevalence and the role of peer-related stress, worry, and gender2018In: Journal of Psychosomatic Research, ISSN 0022-3999, E-ISSN 1879-1360, Vol. 111, p. 76-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Adolescence is a time of change during which several health problems, such as pain problems, increase. Psychosocial mechanisms involved in this development, such as interpersonal stressors and worry, are still understudied, especially longitudinally. The first aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in Swedish adolescents between the ages 13 and 15 using pain grades. The second aim was to study the role of peer-related stress, worry, and gender in the development of musculoskeletal pain problems over time. Methods: Adolescents in 18 public schools were followed from 7th to 9th grade (N = 1181) and answered self-report questionnaires at three time points. Prevalence was assessed at all three time points and a moderated mediation analysis investigated if peer-related stress in 7th grade predicted musculoskeletal pain two years later and if this relationship was mediated by worry in 8th grade. Gender was entered as a moderator. Results: In 7th grade, 8.4% of adolescents reported musculoskeletal pain with some functional impairment. In 8th and 9th grade around 10% of adolescents reported musculoskeletal pain problems, with girls reporting a higher prevalence than boys. Peer-related stress in 7th grade predicted musculoskeletal pain problems in 9th grade, mediated by worry in 8th grade. The mediation was moderated by gender: peer-related stress predicted worry for girls, but not for boys. Conclusion: Peer-related stress and worry seem to be involved in the development of pain over time. These factors should therefore be targeted in preventative interventions and during treatment.

  • 1161.
    Wurm, Matilda
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Edlund, Sara
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Boersma, Katja
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Comorbi social anxiety and pain: Relationship with transdiagnostic psychological processes2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1162.
    Wurm, Matilda
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Edlund, Sara
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Boersma, Katja
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Characteristics and consequences of the co-occurence between social anxiety and pain-related fear in chronic pain patients receiving multimodal pain rehabilitation treatment2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 12, p. 45-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Chronic pain problems are related to specific pain related fears and maladaptive pain-coping but also commonly co-occur with other anxiety problems. Shared emotional vulnerabil-ity factors may explain this comorbidity and may influence treatment outcome. Indeed, pain patients going through multimodal pain treatment are a heterogeneous group and treatment results vary. One understudied anxiety disorder co-occurring with pain is social anxiety. This may be relevant as many pain-related challenges are situated in social contexts. The aim of this study is to investigate the occur-rence of subgroups with differential patterns of social anxiety and pain related fear in a sample of chronic pain patients who receive multimodal pain treatment. The aim is also to study the characteristics of these potential subgroups and the consequences of different patterns of social anxiety and pain related fear.

    Methods: 180 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain answered questionnaires before and after a multimodal pain treatment in a hospital rehabilitation setting in middle Sweden. A cluster analysis using pre-treatment scores on the Social Phobia Screening Questionnaire and the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia was performed. Subgroups were thereafter validated and compared on impairment due to social anxi-ety, pain catastrophizing, anxiety, and depression. Moreover, subgroups were described and compared on vulnerability factors (anxiety sensitivity, negative affect) and outcome factors (pain intensity, pain interference, and return to work self-efficacy).

    Results: Four distinct clusters emerged: (1) low scores, (2) pain-related fear only, (3) social concern only, and (4) high social anxiety and pain-related fear. Patients high on social anxiety and pain-related fear had significantly higher levels of anxiety sensitivity, negative affect, and higher general emotional symptomatology. They also had remaining problems posttreatment.

    Conclusions: A subgroup of patients with clinical levels of social anxiety has suboptimal rehabilitation results, with residual emotional problems and high levels of emotional vulnerability.

    Implications: These patients may be in need of additional treatment efforts that are not being met today. To prevent insufficient treatment results and prolonged work disability, these patients need to be detected during screening and may benefit from pain treatment that takes their emotional problems into account.

  • 1163.
    Wurm, Matilda
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Klein Strandberg, Ester
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Lorenz, Caroline
    Buhrman, Monica
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Holländare, Fredrik
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Boersma, Katja
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Chronic pain and emotional problems: A replicated single case study of an internet based therapist guided treatment based on CBT principles and the Unified Protocol of transdiagnostic treatments2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1164.
    Wänerstam, Magdalena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Friidrottare kontra fotbollsspelare: En studie om attityder, optimism och mål.2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien har varit att undersöka lagidrottare och idrottsutövare som utför sin idrott individuellt och deras attityder gentemot olika typer av mål, samt att undersöka om det fanns något samband mellan attityden till målen och optimism. Som avgränsning valdes friidrottare och fotbollsspelare på elitnivå, och sex olika typer av mål. Studien som gjordes var en enkätstudie som analyserades med hjälp av SPSS 15.0. Resultatet visade att det fanns skillnader mellan fotbollsspelarna och friidrottarnas attityder gentemot målen, men att det inte gick att urskilja några mönster som att fotbollspelarna skulle vara mer resultatinriktade. Studien visade även att friidrottarna var mer optimistiska än fotbollsspelarna i avseende på LOT, men att både grupperna hade ett högt medelvärde på testet. Det visade sig även att det inte fanns något samband mellan idrotterna, attityden till målen och optimism.

  • 1165.
    Wärme, Jesper
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Vuxen anknytning som prediktion av copingstrategier: En enkätstudie om vuxen anknytning och copingstrategier2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A quantitative survey study has been carried out to investigate possible correlations and predictions between adult attachment and coping strategies. The sample for the study was 133 students from various Universities and colleges in Sweden who answered a questionnaire. . To measure adult attachment this study used Experience in close relationship (ECR-R), and copingstrategies was measured by Brief COPE. Data collected were analyzed in SPSS using the Pearson correlationcoefficient test and multiple regression analysis.

    The results from the present study showed significant negative correlation between anxiety loaded attachment and problem focused coping. The results also showed a significant negative correlation between avoidance attachment and problem focused coping. The results from the present study showed a significant correlation between anxiety loaded attachment and dysfunctional coping. The results also showed a significant correlation between avoidance attachment and dysfunctional coping. The study results showed that there was no correlation between anxiety loaded attachment and emotion focused coping. The results also showed that there was no correlation between avoidance attachment and emotion focused coping. The result from the present study showed that anxiety loaded extension was a significant predictor of problem-focused coping where 15% of the variance of problem-focused was explained. Anxiety loaded attachment was a significant predictor of dysfunctional coping where 22% of the variance was explained.

    The conclusions are that students with anxiety loaded and avoidance attachment use lower grade of problem-focused coping. Students with anxiety and avoidance attachment uses increasingly dysfunctional coping strategies. It is concluded that variables other than adult attachment affects using various coping strategies.

  • 1166.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Credential Selection2009Report (Refereed)
  • 1167.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Göteborgs universitet, Samhällvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska Institutionen.
    Experimental studies of human-computer interaction - working memory and mental workload in complex cognition2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex cognition is readily described as cognitive tasks requiring the coordination of multiple steps of processing or tasks exceeding short term memory capacity. Similarly, mental workload may be described as the use and temporary expenditure of a finite amount of information processing capacity. In the current study, the mental workload of complex cognition was manipulated through variations in the mode of presentation (Study I) with the information being presented either printed on paper or displayed on a computer screen as well as through variations in page layout (Study II) with the information being presented, either using a page layout designed to fit the computer screen or on a long page of scroll type. In Study III, the short-term memory demands of the complex cognitive tasks themselves were explored. The principal findings of the three studies may be summarized by the following points: Consumption of information is more effective when information is presented on paper rather than displayed on a computer screen (Study I: Experiment 1). Similarly, Production of information is more effective when information is presented on paper (Study I: Experiment 2) rather than on a computer screen. Consumption of information generates less mental workload when the page layout is adapted to fit the computer screen (Study II: Experiments 1 & 2). Problem solving processes, including both Consumption and Production of information, may be described both in terms of their reliance on either ST-WM or LT-WM (Study III: Experiments 1, 2 & 3) and in terms of their reliance on specific 'slave systems' of the tripartite model (Study III: Experiments 1 & 3). Taken together, Studies I and II show that the presentation of information on screen, versus in printed form, exerts detrimental effects on human information processing and that some of those effects may be attributed to differences in the navigational properties of the two media. In addition, Study II demonstrated that an adaptation of the page layout of the presented material so that it fitted its intended media, mental workload may be alleviated. Finally, the results of Study III showed that, in order to understand the memory demands of complex cognition, it is necessary to include elements of both the ST- and LT-WM paradigm of Ericsson & Kintsch and the tripartite model of Baddeley & Hitch.

  • 1168.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Experimental studies of human-computer interaction: working memory and mental workload in complex cognition2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex cognition is readily described as cognitive tasks requiring the coordination of multiple steps of processing or tasks exceeding short term memory capacity. Similarly, mental workload may be described as the use and temporary expenditure of a finite amount of information processing capacity. In the current study, the mental workload of complex cognition was manipulated through variations in the mode of presentation (Study I) with the information being presented either printed on paper or displayed on a computer screen as well as through variations in page layout (Study II) with the information being presented, either using a page layout designed to fit the computer screen or on a long page of scroll type. In Study III, the short-term memory demands of the complex cognitive tasks themselves were explored.



    The principal findings of the three studies may be summarized by the following points:



    Consumption of information is more effective when information is presented on paper rather than displayed on a computer screen (Study I: Experiment 1).



    Similarly, Production of information is more effective when information is presented on paper (Study I: Experiment 2) rather than on a computer screen.



    Consumption of information generates less mental workload when the page layout is adapted to fit the computer screen (Study II: Experiments 1 & 2).



    Problem solving processes, including both Consumption and Production of information, may be described both in terms of their reliance on either ST-WM or LT-WM (Study III: Experiments 1, 2 & 3) and in terms of their reliance on specific 'slave systems' of the tripartite model (Study III: Experiments 1 & 3).



    Taken together, Studies I and II show that the presentation of information on screen, versus in printed form, exerts detrimental effects on human information processing and that some of those effects may be attributed to differences in the navigational properties of the two media. In addition, Study II demonstrated that an adaptation of the page layout of the presented material so that it fitted its intended media, mental workload may be alleviated. Finally, the results of Study III showed that, in order to understand the memory demands of complex cognition, it is necessary to include elements of both the ST- and LT-WM paradigm of Ericsson & Kintsch and the tripartite model of Baddeley & Hitch.

  • 1169.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Göteborgs universitet, Samhällvetenskapliga Fakulteten , Psykologiska institutionen.
    Manipulation and Measurement of Mental Workload - An experimental investigation in human computer interaction2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 1170.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Manipulation and Measurement of Mental Workload: An experimental investigation in human computer interaction2005Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 1171.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Angulo, Julio
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Evoking Comprehensive Mental Models of Anonymous Credentials2012In: Proceedings of the 2011 IFIP WG 11.4 international conference on Open Problems in Network Security / [ed] Camenisch J., Kesdogan, D., Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, Vol. 7039, p. 1-14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anonymous credentials are a fundamental technology for preserving end users' privacy by enforcing data minimization for online applications. However, the design of user-friendly interfaces that convey their privacy benefits to users is still a major challenge. Users are still unfamiliar with the new and rather complex concept of anonymous credentials, since no obvious real-world analogies exists that can help them create the correct mental models. In this paper we explore different ways in which suitable mental models of the data minimization property of anonymous credentials can be evoked on end users. To achieve this, we investigate three different approaches in the context of an e-shopping scenario: a card-based approach, an attribute-based approach and an adapted card-based approach. Results show that the adapted card-based approach is a good approach towards evoking the right mental models for anonymous credential applications. However, better design paradigms are still needed to make users understand that attributes can be used to satisfy conditions without revealing the value of the attributes themselves.

  • 1172.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Graf, Conny
    Hochleitner, Christina
    Wolkerstorfer, Peter
    Angulo, Julio
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Final HCI Research Report: Deliverable D4.1.52011Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This deliverable provides an overview of recent research results of Activity 4 ‘Usability’ of PrimeLife, where an emphasis is put on those results, which have not been reported in the same detail in other HCI-related PrimeLife deliverables yet. The first part reports about our results in the area of User Interface (UI) Representation of Privacyenhancing Identity Management Concepts and presents research on PET methodologies, mental models for anonymous credentials and the results from the final round of end-user evaluations of the UI prototypes developed during the PrimeLife project. The second part reports about our work in the area of usable privacy policies and presents the final results of Activity 4’s research on policy icons and on a user-friendly management and display of PPL (PrimeLife Policy Language) policies.

  • 1173.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Graf, Cornelia
    Hochleitner, Christina
    Wolkerstorfer, Peter
    Angulo, Julio
    Towards Usable Privacy Enhancing Technologies: Lessons Learned from the PrimeLife Project2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this deliverable, we present lessons learnt from the PrimeLife HCI (Human Computer Interaction) Activity by discussing typical HCI challenges and fallacies that we experienced during the PrimeLife project. We also provide guidance on how these issues can be addressed in order to develop usable privacy-enhancing technology solutions.

  • 1174.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fischer Hübner, SimoneKarlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.Köffel, CWolkerstorfer, Peter
    HCI Research Report: Version 12009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the core activities in the PrimeLife  project is the design and implementation of privacy aware applications that are usable. Therefore it is the main objective of Activity 4 to assure the usability of those applications and advance the research in this area. The First HCI Research Report presents the main research results of the HCI activity within the first year of PrimeLife. The HCI Research Report V1 presents work in progress and will be updated and complemented by a second version, the Final HCI Research Report (D4.1.5), which will be published at the end of the PrimeLife project.

  • 1175.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Wolkerstorfer, Peter
    Usability Challenges of Privacy Technologies2011Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1176.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Zwingelberg, Harald
    UI prototypes: Policy administration and presentation (version 1)2009Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Privacy Policies are an important prerequisite for user control in privacy-enhancing identity management. The transparency of privacy policies can be enhanced if users are informed about mismatches of a site’s policy with the user’s preferences. Investigating understandable and transparent privacy policies as well as simplified and usable privacy preference (data release policy) management "on the fly" are the objectives of the deliverable. For this, it is discussing icons presenting the content of policies and different User Interface (UI) prototypes for policy display and preference administration, which have been partly compared and tested in an Online user study. Finally, legal requirements for policy display in social network sites and how they translate to Human Computer Interaction (HCI) requirements are investigated.

  • 1177.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    End User Transparency Tools: UI Prototypes2010Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Data Track is a user-side transparency-enhancing tool developed in PrimeLife, which provides the users with a history function documenting what personal data the user has revealed to whom under which conditions. Besides, it provides online functions to access the user’s personal data at the remote services side. This deliverable documents PrimeLife work package 4.2’s work on a usable Data Track. After introducing into the Data Track functionalities and the technical background, we will present the results of five iterations of user interface developments and usability testing, which we performed at Karlstad University and at CURE. We also present our initial work on a Data Track for social communities as well as on a Data Track for lifelong privacy.

  • 1178.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    The Users' Mental Models' Effect on their Comprehension of Anonymous Credentials2011In: Privacy and Identity Management for Life / [ed] Camenisch, J.; Fischer-Hübner, S.; Rannenberg, K., Heidelberg: Springer , 2011, p. 233-244Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Anonymous Credentials are a key technology for enforcing data minimisation for online applications. The design of easily understandable user interfaces for the use of anonymous credentials is however a major challenge, as end users are not yet familiar with this rather new and complex technology and no obvious real-world analogies exist for them. In this chapter, we analyse what effects the users’ mental models have on their understanding of the data minimization property of anonymous credentials in the context of an e-Shopping application scenario. In particular, we have investigated the effects of the mental models of a card-based user interface approach and an attribute-based user interface approach and compared these in terms of errors of omission and addition. The results show that the card-based approach leads to significantly more errors of addition (i.e., users believe that they have disclosed more information than they actually have) whereas the attribute-based approach leads to more errors of omission (i.e., users underestimate the amount of data that they have disclosed).

  • 1179.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Graf, C
    Wolkerstorfer, P
    Hochleitner, C
    Tscheligi, M
    HCI for PrimLIfe Prototypes2011In: Primelife - Privacy and Identity Management for Life / [ed] J. Camenisch, S. Fischer-Hübner & K. Rannenberg, Heidelberg: Springer , 2011, p. 217-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1180.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Khandelwal, Nikunj
    Köffel, Christina
    Access Control in Social Networks2009Report (Refereed)
  • 1181.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences.
    Archer, Trevor
    Göteborg University.
    Exploring Cross-Cultural Differences in Self-Concept: A Meta-Analysis of SDQ2001In: Cross Cultural Studies, ISSN 1069-3971, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 280-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This meta-analytic approach, designed to explore the cross-cultural differences in levels of self-concept as measured by the Self-Description Questionnaire, yielded two main results. (a) There seems to be a general pattern in self-concept amongst schoolchildren from the three cultural groups included in this investigation (i.e., Asia, Africa, and Australia/United States). Girls have higher or equal means in most academic areas and boys are higher in nonacademic and total self-concept. Furthermore, (b) in the comparison between these cultural groups a pattern emerged whereby the children from Africa, generally, had the most positive self-concept, the children from Asia had the least positive self-concept in the nonacademic subareas, and the children from Australia/United States had the least positive self-concept in the academic subareas. Because these differences are difficult to explain solely with the concepts of individualism and collectivism, a tentative explanation incorporating the concept of optimism is suggested.

  • 1182.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences.
    Archer, Trevor
    Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Internet Blues Revisited: A Replication and Extension of Kraut et al (1998) Internet Paradox Study2001In: CyberPsychology and Behavior, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 385-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a replication of the Kraut et al. Internet paradox study designed to set guidelines for harmless Internet usage, without any potential for personal damage. The present study produced two main results: The first is a partial confirmation of the general response pattern found by Kraut et al. (i.e., that younger individuals tend to use the Internet to a higher degree and that they experience a lesser degree of psychological well-being). The second main result, however, contradicts the interpretation by Kraut et al. of the causal relationship between Internet usage and psychological well-being.

  • 1183.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Archer, Trevor
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg.
    The effect of page layout on mental workload: A dual-task experiment2008In: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 1229-1245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In two dual-task experiments, the effects of page layout on mental workload were explored. Previous studies indicate that it is preferable to present a text document on paper than to display it on a computer screen (e.g. Mayes, D. K., Sims, V. K., & Koonce, J. M. (2001). Comprehension and workload differences for VDT and paper-based reading. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 28(6), 367–378; Wastlund, E., Reinikka, H., Norlander, T., & Archer, T. (2005). Effects of VDT and paper presentation on consumption and production of information: Psychological and physiological factors. Computers in Human Behavior, 21, 377–394). However, critics have advocated improper matching of the materials between the two media as a confounding variable e.g. (Noyes, J. M., & Garland, K. J. (2003). VDT versus paper-based text: reply to Mayes, Sims and Koonce. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 31(6), 411–423). The focus of the present study has been to take one such variable, page layout, and then isolate and replicate it onscreen in order to assess its affect on user performance. The results of the present experiments showed that optimizing the page layout for onscreen viewing decreased mental workload. This not only confirms the importance of matching all aspects of the presentational modes in doing paper vs. computer comparisons, but also shows that reading from a computer screen can be facilitated by creating documents with a page layout that is adapted to the screen which they are intended to be presented on.

  • 1184.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Insights in consumer behavior: Eye-tracking studies at the Service Research Center2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1185.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Heuristics and resource depletion: eye-tracking customers’ in situ gaze behavior in the field2014In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, no 1, p. 95-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When we visit a retail outlet, we go there to complete some type of shopping goal. These goals may be very specific and precisely planned prior to entering the store, or more abstract, and something we think of on the spur of the moment. The stores may display tens of thousands of different products, making it difficult to achieve the shopping goal in a rational manner. As a result, we use different types of heuristics to meet our shopping goals. In this study, we investigate how a customer’s visual attention is influenced by their shopping goal, based on the results of three field experiments in three different contexts—a gas station, a sports store, and a grocery store. Firstly we establish that differences do exist in viewing behavior based on whether shopping goals are planned or unplanned. A more complex and unplanned shopping goal leads to increased observations of in-store stimulus. We then study whether or not the complexity of the first shopping goal also influences the viewing behavior of the next shopping goal, independently of the characteristics of the second goal. The findings confirm that complex decision heuristics deplete cognitive recourse. This finding results in diminished visual attention during subsequent choices. In turn, this has implications for a customer’s shopping behavior.

  • 1186.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Reinikka, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Archer, Trevor
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effects of VDT and paper presentation on consumption and production of information: Psychological and physiological factors2005In: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 377-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two experiments were performed to investigate the influence of VDT (video display terminals) and paper presentation of text on consumption of information (Study 1) measured in the form of convergent production and production of information (Study 2) measured in form of divergent production. The READ test of reading comprehension was used as the convergent task whereas the “Headlines” test was used as the divergent task. Several other factors pertaining to performance were also studied including the PANAS test of positive and negative affect, the STH test of stress, tiredness and hunger, the TRI (Technology Readiness Inventory) and the SE test of stress and energy.

    The results show that performance in the VDT presentation condition where inferior to that of the Paper presentation condition for both consumption and production of information. Concomitantly, participants in the VDT presentation condition of the consumption of information study reported higher levels of experienced stress and tiredness whereas the participants in the VDT presentation condition of production of information study reported only slightly higher levels of stress.

    Although the results are discussed in both physiological and psychological terms arguments are made that the incremental effects of VDT text presentation stem mainly from dual-task effects of fulfilling the assignment and working with the computer resulting in a higher cognitive workload.

  • 1187.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Consumer perception at the Point-of-Purchase: Evaluating proposed package designs in the eye-tracking lab2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1188.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Consumer Perception at Point of Purchase: Evaluating Proposed Package Designs in an Eye-tracking Lab2010In: Journal of Business & Retail Management Research, ISSN 1751-8202, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 41-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s retail environment, consumer products are increasingly competing for customers’ attention. Research has shown that 60–80% of purchasing decisions are influenced in-store. Thus, packaging that stands out from competitors gains a competitive advantage. This study investigates the use of eye-tracking as a method to evaluate and design packaging with better Point-of-Purchase qualities. An eye-tracking laboratory was used and shoppers were recruited for three rounds of experiments. In total, 128 participants were recruited in order to assess the potential of eye-tracking. Results show that, when taking some methodological constraints into account, eye-tracking complements traditional methodologies with further insights when investigating the Point-of-Purchase qualities of packaging.

  • 1189.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Consumer perception at the point-of-purchase2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1190.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Peripheral vision and the consumer choice process2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1191.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Unsold is unseen … or is it?: Examining the role of peripheral vision in the consumer choice process using eye-tracking methodology2018In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 120, p. 49-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In visual marketing, the truism that “unseen is unsold” means that products that are not noticed will not be sold. This truism rests on the idea that the consumer choice process is heavily influenced by visual search. However, given that the majority of available products are not seen by consumers, this article examines the role of peripheral vision in guiding attention during the consumer choice process. In two eye-tracking studies, one conducted in a lab facility and the other conducted in a supermarket, the authors investigate the role and limitations of peripheral vision. The results show that peripheral vision is used to direct visual attention when discriminating between target and non-target objects in an eye-tracking laboratory. Target and non-target similarity, as well as visual saliency of non-targets, constitute the boundary conditions for this effect, which generalizes from instruction-based laboratory tasks to preference-based choice tasks in a real supermarket setting. Thus, peripheral vision helps customers to devote a larger share of attention to relevant products during the consumer choice process. Taken together, the results show how the creation of consideration set (sets of possible choice options) relies on both goal-directed attention and peripheral vision. These results could explain how visually similar packaging positively influences market leaders, while making novel brands almost invisible on supermarket shelves. The findings show that even though unsold products might be unseen, in the sense that they have not been directly observed, they might still have been evaluated and excluded by means of peripheral vision. This article is based on controlled lab experiments as well as a field study conducted in a complex retail environment. Thus, the findings are valid both under controlled and ecologically valid conditions.

  • 1192.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Sponseller, Kay
    Pettersson, Ola
    What You See is Where You Go: Testing a Gaze-Driven Power Wheelchair for Individuals with Severe Multiple Disabilities2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract

    Individuals with severe multiple disabilities have little or no opportunity to express their own wishes, make choices and move independently. Because of this, the objective of this work has been to develop a prototype for a gaze-driven device to maneuver powered wheelchairs or other moving platforms.



    The prototype has the same capabilities as a normal powered wheelchair, with two exceptions. Firstly, the prototype is controlled by eye movements instead of by a normal joystick. Secondly, the prototype is equipped with a sensor that stops all motion when the machine approaches an obstacle.



    The prototype has been evaluated in a preliminary clinical test with two users. Both users clearly communicated that they appreciated and had mastered the ability to control a powered

    wheelchair with their eye movements

  • 1193.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Sponseller, Kay
    Adult Habilitat Ctr, Landstinget i Värmland, Sweden..
    Pettersson, Ola
    Embint Technol, Örebro, Sweden..
    Bared, Anders
    Aurena Labs AB, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Evaluating gaze-driven power wheelchair with navigation support for persons with disabilities2015In: Journal of rehabilitation research and development, ISSN 0748-7711, E-ISSN 1938-1352, Vol. 52, no 7, p. 815-826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes a novel add-on for powered wheelchairs that is composed of a gaze-driven control system and a navigation support system. The add-on was tested by three users. All of the users were individuals with severe disabilities and no possibility of moving independently. The system is an add-on to a standard power wheelchair and can be customized for different levels of support according to the cognitive level, motor control, perceptual skills, and specific needs of the user. The primary aim of this study was to test the functionality and safety of the system in the user's home environment. The secondary aim was to evaluate whether access to a gaze-driven powered wheelchair with navigation support is perceived as meaningful in terms of independence and participation. The results show that the system has the potential to provide safe, independent indoor mobility and that the users perceive doing so as fun, meaningful, and a way to reduce dependency on others. Independent mobility has numerous benefits in addition to psychological and emotional well-being. By observing users' actions, caregivers and healthcare professionals can assess the individual's capabilities, which was not previously possible. Rehabilitation can be better adapted to the individual's specific needs, and driving a wheelchair independently can be a valuable, motivating training tool.

  • 1194.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    A walk on the wild side: Investigating attention during the consumer choice process in a real supermarket setting2013In: Book of Abstracts of the 17th European Conference on Eye Movements / [ed] K. Holmqvist, F. Mulvey & R. Johansson, 2013, p. 168-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have investigated different facets of attention during the consumer choice process. Objectives have included how variation in attention changes throughout the choice process (Russo & Leclerc, 1994), its effect on preference formation (Shimojo et al 2003), the general distribution of attention (Wästlund et al, 2010), the effect of shelf placement (Chandon et al 2009), and the effect of a central placement on attention and choice (Atalay, 2010). The common drawback of these studies is that they are static lab experiments using digital images, which has been shown to influence gaze distribution (Tonkin et al, 2011). Therefore, in this study we use a head mounted eye-tracker to replicate previous research studies in a real retail environment to see if the results hold outside the lab. Data from 63 participants performing choice tasks in a supermarket are analysed. The results show support for a number of findings from previous research such as the initial central fixation bias and subsequent overrepresentation of observations of centrally placed products. Furthermore, the results support earlier findings on the general gaze distribution during the choice process but fail to replicate the strong effect of centrally placed products on choice. Additionally, methodological implications are discussed.

  • 1195.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Wolkerstorfer, Peter
    Austria.
    PET-USES2011In: Privacy and Identity Management for Life / [ed] Camenisch, Fischer-Hübner, Rannenberg, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1196.
    Wäxfeldt, Helene
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Work-life balance inom rättspsykiatrin: En kvalitativ studie av förhållandet mellan   arbete och privatliv hos rättspsykiatrins personal2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att undersöka rättspsykiatrisk personals upplevelse av förmågan att kunna skilja arbete och privatliv utifrån ett work-life balance perspektiv. Denna kvalitativa studie bygger på tolv intervjuer med personer som jobbar inom olika områden inom rättspsykiatrin. Analysen gjordes utifrån Braun och Clarks variant av tematisk analys.

    De flesta personerna som deltog i studien upplevde att de kunde separera arbete och privatliv på ett tillfredställande sätt, vilket visar att de även uppnått work-life balance utifrån egna förmågor och behov. De arbetsrelaterade situationer som visade sig vara det som påverkade personalen mest under fritiden var konflikter eller problem i arbetsgruppen. Tankar och oro kring personalkonflikterna var det som upplevdes svårast att koppla bort under fritiden. Även viss emotionell påverkan kopplad till patienterna beskrevs men upplevdes inte lika påfrestande som konflikter i personalgruppen. Handledning, stöd från kollegor och ett stabilt och tryggt privatliv var saker som hjälpte personalen att inte känna negativ inverkan från arbetet på privatlivet.

  • 1197.
    Ylén, Johanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Kvinnliga hundägares erfarenheter av att äga en hund: En kvalitativ studie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine dogowners’ experiences of the relation to their dog. Fifteen individual interviews were conducted and all respondents were dog owners as well as members of a Swedish brukshundklubb. The collected data was analyzed by a so called thematic analysis. What the paper generally comes down to is the different experiences dog owners have experienced in owning a dog, and how this can be linked to previous research in health. Experience as contributing to better health, love the dog, joy and companionship raised on several occasions in the essay. After the analysis was made, four final themes were found: better health, never lonely, interest, and relationship and emotion. The results of this study showed that a dog can give a good health to the owners, for an example by getting out for a walk. It also shows that the dog is spreading love, joy, and not least the owners never have to feel alone. The conclusion of this study was that the dog contributes to better health, both mentally, physically and socially.Keywords: dog, dogownership, health, emotions, interests

  • 1198.
    Äleklint, Sara
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences.
    Uggla, Elizabet
    Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences.
    Flow & Konstskapande: "Balansgång mellan kreativt flöde & presationsångest"2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1199.
    Åkerman, Björn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Om lycka och tro: Religiös orientering och subjektivt välmående i Sverige2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An electronic survey was performed to conduct a regression study. The study was conducted with the specific goal to find the explanatory value in religious orientation for subjective well-being for religious Swedes. Samples were drawn from internet based clusters. The survey was made available on five different closed groups for religiously active members on social media. I/E-R was translated and used to measure religious orientation on three dimensions. Subjective well-being was measured using SWLS. Two single items measured regular religious activity. A forced-entry multiple regression analysis showed an explanatory value of 12 percent for the predictors intrinsic and extrinsic belief. Regular religious activity was measured to be uniformly high. Subjective well-being was found to be in the upper levels of normal well-being. The conclusion drawn was that religious activity inhibited dysfunctional behavior and thus brought about a healthy well-being. In addition it was concluded that the cultural sensitivity in the religious orientation scale made measurements unreliable in the Swedish society. Future research is encouraged to control for social recourses when testing for effects on well-being as well as to control for what specific religion is practiced.

  • 1200.
    Ånesjö, Karin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Dagliganvändares upplevelser av Facebook och Instagram2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande kvalitativa studie var att undersöka dagliganvändares erfarenheter av Facebook och Instagram vilka båda går under betäckningen sociala medier. Sociala medier växer explosionsartat och Internetstiftelsen i Sverige (2018) menar att 53% av alla internetanvändare i Sverige använder Instagram och 74% använder Facebook. Fem respondenter intervjuades och en tematisk analys utfördes av insamlade data som resulterade i fyra teman som speglar användarnas upplevelser social integration, inspiration, en vana som underhållning vid tristess och genererar behov av likes, jämförelse och förväntan på dem. Respondenterna upplever social integration då de är inloggade. De känner tillhörighet till andra, både till vänner, släkt och personer de inte känner. De söker inspiration för att själva motiveras till att exempelvis träna eller bli bättre fotografer. Det är en vana för dem som de använder vid tristess för att underhålla sig. Vanan är så stark att de inte ens reflekterar över sitt frekventa användande. De känner att Instagram och Facebook gör så att de känner behovet av att få likes, de jämför sig med andra och känner en förväntan på sig från sina följare som de känner tvång till att behaga. Samtliga respondenter skulle dock inte bry sig om Facebook försvann, men vill att Instagram ska försvinna. Ändå är detta dagliganvändare av båda plattformarna. Anledningen tros vara det beroende som respondenterna fastnat i. Beroende av kickarna som utformningen av båda plattformarna ger.

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