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  • 1051.
    Staf, Anna Georgsson
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    How children with experiences of intimate partner violence towards the mother understand and relate to their father2015In: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, ISSN 1359-1045, E-ISSN 1461-7021, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 148-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe how, in the aftermath of intimate partner violence against the mother, children understand and relate to their father. Face-to-face interviews with four girls and four boys, aged between eight and twelve, were analysed using an interpretative phenomenological approach. All of the children had been exposed to the father's violence towards the mother. Two super ordinate themes were identified in the analysis: the disjunctive image of the father and being entangled in a conflict. The children's understanding of the father and their relationship with him was built on different versions of the father and his actions; those experienced by the child and those recounted to them. The situational context surrounding the described experience pervaded the image of the father. An ambiguity appeared to exist in the sense of different versions of the father and children described different emotions that could both hinder and elicit other feelings connected to the father. Children also conveyed the sense of being trapped or entangled in a conflict where their own needs and desires could be deemed as unsafe to express, and that they felt responsibility for dealing with the father's influence.

  • 1052.
    Stark, Victoria
    Karlstad University.
    Affekt vid faser av kognitiv beteendeterapi som indikator på terapieffekt: En utvärdering av psykoterapimottagning bedriven av terapeutkandidater2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1053.
    Stark, Victoria
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Hiltunen, Arto J
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Affect at the different phases of cognitive behavioral therapy: An evaluation of psychotherapy provided by candidates2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 36-41Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1054.
    Starrin, Bengt
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Bergh, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Social Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Arbetsförhållanden, ekonomi och hälsa2005In: I KalanderBlomqvist, M & Janson, S (red), Värmlänningarnas liv och hälsa 2004, Karlstad, 2005Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1055. Stattin, Håkan
    et al.
    Kim, Yunhwan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Both parents and adolescents project their own values when perceiving each other’s values2018In: International Journal of Behavioral Development, ISSN 0165-0254, E-ISSN 1464-0651, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 106-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How parents and adolescents perceive each other’s life values is a key to understanding successful value transmission. In the value socializations literature, it has been proposed that parents’ values become internalized when children correctly perceive their parents’ values and decide to adopt them as their own. In the current study, we propose that interpersonal value perception of broader life values is characterized by a perceptual bias—projection—which propels adolescents to perceive their parents’ values to be similar to their own, and propels parents to perceive their adolescents’ values to be similar to theirs. This cross-sectional study examined 518 dyads of adolescents and their parents. Adolescents rated how important different humanistic, environmental, and achievement values were to them, and how important these values were to their parents. Parents similarly rated how important these values were to them and to their adolescents. Using structural equation modeling, an interpersonal value perception model was constructed that estimated how much parents and adolescents projected their own values when perceiving each other’s values. The results supported the idea that both parents and adolescents substantially project their own values when perceiving the others’ values, and that they perceive the others’ values with low accuracy. We discuss our findings in light of value socialization in both research and practice.

  • 1056.
    Stenberg Østli, Kristin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Om ADHD hos kvinner: En enkätstudie om självkänsla, stigma og subjektivt velbefinnende2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to investigate possible correlations and predictions between self-esteem, stigma and well-being among women with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The sample consisted of 141 women between the ages of 18 and 71, who had answered an anonymous electronical survey listed on various internet forums. The dependent/independent variable self-esteem was measured by the Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), the independent variable/predictor stigma was measured by the stigma-section of the Consumer Experience of Stigma Questionnaire (CESQ) and the dependent variable well-being was measured by the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Data was analysed by Pearson’s correlation test and by multiple regression test. The analysis of correlation showed a negative correlation between stigma and well-being, a negative correlation between stigma and self-esteem, a positive correlation between self-esteem and well-being and a non-existing correlation between number of years since receiving the diagnosis and well-being. The analysis of regression showed that 19% of the variance in well-being could be explained by the variance in marital status and experienced stigma. The result showed that experienced stigma is an extensive issue among women with ADHD. Possible causes for experienced stigma have been discussed and possible interventions have also been discussed.

  • 1057.
    Stenborg, Olov
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    "Schizofren eller inte, spelar det någon roll?": En studie om hur studenters attityder till en specifik individ påverkas av vad de vet om personen2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1058.
    Stenström, Terese
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    "Som en pusselbit som passar överallt": En kvalitativ studie om hur gymnasieelever upplever kreativitet på psykologilektionerna2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the nineties, policy makers highlighted the importance of creativity in education in order to nurture entrepreneurs in our society, thus the purpose of this study is to investigate high school students´ experience of creativity in psychology classes. The results are based on qualitative data from four semi-structured interviews with Swedish high school students who study psychology. The conclusions are that the respondents perceive psychology as a very creative school subject in which they can give personal experience as examples, they can give alternative explanations and solutions to problems, and that there are no right or wrong answers which means that they feel encouraged to self-reflect. The teacher is important as the respondents experience her as open, tolerant, and moreover, that she varies the classes, which contributes to a good classroom climate. The respondents also experience a certain degree of freedom when they feel involved and are allowed to influence their education. However, they feel inhibited with their creativity, for example, because of lack of time. They feel that they sacrifice creativity and adapt their behavior and performance to achieve the desired grades, rather than learn for the sake of enjoyment. Lack of perceived creativity can also be explained by the fact that there are few roles for students to fill other than student, except for group projects and presentations where they can assume other roles such as teachers or alpha male. Nevertheless, creativity is a concept that is desirable in the school documents. The three main themes that have been defined is Freedom, Variation in Education and Framework That Inhibits Creativity.  

  • 1059. Stewart, Robert A. C.
    et al.
    Skinner, Nicholas F.
    Canadian Psychol Assoc, Sect Teaching Psychol, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Gil-Lacruz, Marta
    Univ Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza, Spain..
    Gil-Lacruz, Ana
    Autonomous Univ Madrid, Madrid, Spain..
    Malinauskas, Romualdas
    Lithuania State Univ Phys Educ, Kaunas, Lithuania..
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Deniz, M. Engin
    Selcuk Univ, Konya, Turkey..
    Looking forward to our 40th year of publication2012In: Social behavior and personality, ISSN 0301-2212, E-ISSN 1179-6391, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 1-4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1060. Strandvik, T.
    et al.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Negative critical incident mapping1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1061. Strandvik, T.
    et al.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Negative critical incident mapping1998In: E. E. Scheuing, W. S. Brown, B. Edvardsson & R. Johnston (Eds.), Pursuing service excellence: practices and insights. QUIS 6. (pp. 161-169), Warwick Printing Company , 1998Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1062.
    Strömberg Johansson, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Empati. Imagine that.: En kvantitativ studie om empati och föreställningsförmåga2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1063.
    Ståhl, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Att uppfinna ett nytt hjul eller att fastna i gamla hjulspår: En studie i priming av användbarhet och originalitet vid idéskapande2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine priming with example’s impact on ideas creativity, regarding usability and novelty both as a result of targeting priming and conceptual priming. A subsidiary aim was to examine the relationship between an idea’s degree of originality and usefulness and the interest in pursuing the idea.

    The effects of priming were tried in an experiment involving 36 students who were asked to develop IT solutions for public transport. The students were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group. The members of the experimental group were primed with an example with high originality respectively usability. The solutions were given two indexes on how many of the properties of respective examples were found in the solutions. Their degree of originality and usefulness were also assessed by a group of experts. This group also assessed their interest in the respective solution.

    The study revealed a significant positive correlation between a solution's usability and interest of the solution. A positive significant correlation could also be seen between a solution's originality and the interest of the solution, but only in the group of analysts consisting of scientists. Among the industry-experts the results instead pointed toward a negative relationship between originality and interest, although a non-significant relationship.

    There were no significant differences between the group’s solutions regarding their degree of originality and usefulness nor the frequency in which features from the example was found in the solutions.

    The study is of importance because it shows how increases in the creativity of solutions produced by individuals and employees not necessarily lead to an increase in the creativity of an organization, due to lack of interest in embracing and invest in these creative solutions.

    The study also reflects the difficulties in transferring priming effects discovered in a lab environment to situations that more closely resembles those in real life. Further research is necessary to broaden the knowledge regarding variables that affects priming and the limits between which priming exist.

  • 1064.
    Stålbro, Zanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Intuition eller strategi?: Lärares intuition och kriteriebaserade bedömningar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We humans do many different assessments each day; either through intuition or more strategic where we through deliberate reasoning arrive at answers. The purpose of this study was to examine the link between experts overall evaluations and the same experts criteria based assessments. Data were collected through a web-based questionnaire sent to teachers at Karlstad University where they evaluated new ideas related to education. Answers from 33 individuals where analyzed with a multiple regression analysis and two t-tests. The conclusions are that about 43 % of overall assessments could be explained by the four criteria: Originality, operability, user value for students and user value for teachers. The remaining percentage can be considered intuition as well as other criteria or personal values. Teachers should therefore ponder how they make their assessments and what values ​​they put in addition to the criteria listed in the syllabus.

  • 1065.
    Sundin, Sofia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Livstillfredsställelse, optimism och copingstrategier: En kovariansanalys utförd på studenter2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate life satisfaction and optimism, and its relation to coping strategies among students The sample consisted of 163 students at Umeå, Stockholm, Uppsala and Lund University who were asked to answer an anonymous electronic questionnaire. The electronic questionnaire was available for 14 days on the Universities Student Union group on the social media Facebook. The respondent’s level of life satisfaction, optimism and coping strategies were measured by the instrument Satisfaction With Life Scale, Life Orientation Test-Revised and Brief COPE. The collected data were then processed and analyzed using SPSS. In order to answer the question of the study an ANCOVA was performed, where the dependent variable was the life satisfaction and the independent variables was low and high degree of optimism. Covariate in the study were three different coping strategies called problem focused, emotion focused and dysfunctional coping strategy. Results showed that, depending on the coping strategy the respondents used, influenced its degree of life satisfaction. The results also showed that there was no significant difference between the low and the high degree of optimism regarding life satisfaction with coping strategies as controlling variable. Conclusions drawn from the study was that it did matter what kind of coping strategy the individual used regarding the degree of life satisfaction. Further conclusions showed that it did not matter if the individual had a low or high degree of life satisfaction, as there was no relationship or connection with the degree of life satisfaction, with or without coping strategies as a controlling variable.

  • 1066.
    Sundström, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Tjänster och relaterade begrepp: Innebörd och implikationer för policy2009Report (Other academic)
  • 1067.
    Sundström, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Heinonen, Kristina
    Strandvik, Tore
    Mickelsson, Karl-Jacob
    Andersson, Per
    Rethinking Service Companies Business Logic: Do We Need a Customer-Dominant Logic as a Guideline?2009Report (Other academic)
  • 1068.
    Sundström, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Magnusson, P.
    Learning from and with customers in the development of new services a review of customer involvement methods2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1069. Suzuki, Haruna
    et al.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Ettema, Dick
    How satisfaction with trip legs affect whole trip satisfaction?: Tests of models for aggregated satisfaction of work commutes2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1070.
    Svalmark, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Extra känslig?: En kvantitativ studie om studenter och vaccination mot svininfluensan2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine which personality aspects that are differing from students who got vaccinated against the swine flu, to students who did not get vaccinated. This study carried out a quantitative survey on 194 students from a mid-region university in Sweden. The participants were to answer psychometric personality tests on sensitivity, anxiety, depression, sympathy and dependability. Thereafter, statistical tests were conducted through SPSS, mainly to calculate mean differences.

    The results conclude that vaccinated students are significantly more sensitive than un-vaccinated students. Vaccinated students are also more anxious but these differences are not significant. There are no notable differences in depression, sympathy or dependability. Type of education and sex do not either predict vaccination.

    Finally, sensitivity shall be viewed as the most important predictor in a person’s likeliness to get vaccinated at pandemics. The findings can be generalized to the Swedish population because the proportion of vaccinated students in this study corresponds to the proportion of vaccinated people of the Swedish population. However, the sample of this study does not correspond to the educational level of the Swedish population. On the other hand, educational level has not been shown as an important determinant in health protective behaviors in former research literature, why my result should be considered as meaningful.

  • 1071.
    Svanevall, Jessica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    En kvantitativ studie om människors attityd till personer med diagnosen schizofreni2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1072.
    Svensson, Claes
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Bergman, Hampus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    ”En titel å en bra lön vettu, det e ju det som driver en” – eller?: En studie i vad som driver människor att söka sig till eller anta mellanchefspositioner2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research has been to map out what drives people to strive towards or accept middle management positions. A qualitative interview study has been conducted with an inductive approach since the area of interest until now had not been researched and that the ambition has been to examine the unique within this. Ten interviews were carried out in which all of the respondents, at the time of the study, were working as middle position managers within either the private or public sector. The data has been transcribed and then analyzed using an inductive thematic analysis which resulted in four overall themes answering what drives people to strive towards or accept middle management positions. These themes are denominated as following: The Development – a strive towards a development on a personal level, The Power – to have power and through it the possibility to influence as well the organization as the own work situation, Career advancement – the mid-level management position is seen as but a step in the career advancement, The Confirmation – a wish to be liked, to be confirmed by those in your surroundings for having accomplished something. The results have been compared with existing psychological theories and a conclusion has been made that the above themes describe what drives people to strive towards or accept middle management positions. To conclude, suggestions about future research have been presented to exemplify how to further map out what has been researched here.

  • 1073.
    Svensson, Matilda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Självkänsla och materialistiska värderingar: Relationer mellan självkänsla och materialistiska värderingar hos studenter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En kvantitativ enkätstudie genomfördes med syfte att undersöka eventuella samband mellan självkänsla och materialistiska värderingar hos studenter i Karlstad. Urvalet bestod av 263 studenter vid Karlstads Universitet som anonymt fick besvara en elektronisk enkät via läroplattformen It’s Learning. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale användes för att mäta självkänsla och Material Values (MVS):short forms användes för att mäta materialistiska värderingar. Spearman’s korrelationstest visade ett positivt samband mellan självkänsla och materialistiska värderingar. Detta innebar att de studenter med lägre självkänsla hade lägre materialistiska värderingar och de med högre självkänsla hade högre materialistiska värderingar. Spearman’s korrelationstest visade även att ju äldre studenterna var desto lägre självkänsla och materialistiska värderingar hade de.Slutsatsen är att studenter i Karlstad har högre materialistiska värderingar då självkänslan är högre, samt lägre materialistiska värderingar då självkänslan är lägre. De äldre studenterna i Karlstad har även lägre självkänsla och materialistiska värderingar än de yngre studenterna. Det framkommer även att studenter i Karlstad har en låg självkänsla.

  • 1074. Svensson, N.
    et al.
    Archer, T.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    A Swedish version of the Regressive Imagery Dictionary: Effects of alcohol and emotional enhancement on primary-secondary process relations2006In: Creativity Research Journal, 18, 459-470Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1075. Svensson, N.
    et al.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Archer, T.
    Effects of individual performance versus group performance with and without de Bono techniques for enhancing creativity2002In: The Korean Journal of Thinking & Problem Solving, 12, 15-34Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1076.
    Svensson, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Do you dare to think outside the box?: Impacts of alcohol, negative affect and evaluation apprehension on inhibition of creative performance2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Conditions relating to evaluation apprehension, alcohol and affect were investigated in relation to creative performance. Study I compared group work with individual work, and control conditions were compared with de Bono creativity-enhancing techniques. Study II studied the effect of alcohol and emotional-enhancing film material on primary-secondary process relations and creative performance. Study III explored experiences of working on a creative task after receiving negative feedback. Study IV investigated the relationship between fear of evaluation and creative performance. Study I showed higher scores on different measures of creative performance for group work, while individual work showed higher total fluency scores. Further, de Bono technique conditions showed lower fluency and lower flexibility. Study II showed signs of decreased creative performance after the intake of alcohol, and signs of increased primary process thinking but no effect of on creative performance after emotional enhancement. Study III showed that stress, fear of producing ‘incorrect’ responses and low self-efficacy were inhibiting factors on creative performance. Study IV showed that fear of evaluation was related to a lower self-efficacy, higher degree of worry, and higher degree of self-censorship. Further, Study IV showed that fear of negative evaluation had a positive relation to number of ideas produced, but no relation to quality of ideas. Additionally, support for creativity showed positive relations to both number of ideas produced and quality of ideas.

  • 1077.
    Svensson, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Subjective experiences of creative work after negative feedback2015In: Thinking Skills and Creativity, ISSN 1871-1871, E-ISSN 1878-0423, Vol. 15, p. 26-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study investigated thoughts, feelings and actions when working on a divergent-thinking task after receiving negative feedback on a problem-solving task. Eleven university students were interviewed after working on an unsolvable version of the Necklace Problem and three situations of the Dramatic Events Test. They also rated response contentment on the Dramatic Events Test. The interviews were analyzed by interpretative phenomenological analysis. The results showed that the less-content respondents experienced stress due to situational demands, were anxious to meet perceived criteria, expressed fear of being evaluated by others, and expressed uncertainty about the responses. These respondents also often erased or withheld responses they felt did not meet perceived criteria. It was more common for the content respondents to adapt to situational demands or take them as a challenge, view the failure on the problem-solving task as a motivation to perform better on the subsequent test, not be afraid of criticism from others, and view ideas as changeable. The results are discussed with regard to attention, perfectionism, convergent thinking, intrinsic motivation, evaluation apprehension, and self-efficacy.

  • 1078. Svensson, Nina
    et al.
    Archer, Trevor
    Norlander, Torsten
    A swedish version of the regressive imagery dictionary: Effects of alcohol and emotional enhancement on primary-secondary process relations2006In: Creativity Research Journal, ISSN 1040-0419, E-ISSN 1532-6934, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 459-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Regressive Imagery Dictionary (RID) measures the degree of primary and secondary process content in texts and verbal speech/writing. RID was translated into Swedish and 2 studies were performed to validate it. In Study 1, alcohol was used in a placebo design to induce a shift toward the dominance of primary over secondary process thinking. Surprisingly, the alcohol group showed indications of using more secondary process in written stories than both the control group and the placebo group, although there were no significant differences between the groups in primary and secondary process as measured with the Swedish RID. In Study 2, the participants watched either a neutral film or an action film, whereupon they wrote down an ending of their own choosing. The action film condition produced more primary process than the neutral film condition, as measured by the Swedish RID. These findings underline both alcohol dose relationships in behavioral studies and emotional state in primary-secondary process thinking relationships in creative expression. Above all, in validating the Swedish RID scope for new insights into processes involved creative performance is obtained.

  • 1079.
    Svensson, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    The effect of evaluation apprehension on creative performance at everyday workplaces.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 1080.
    Svensson, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstad University, Division for Social Sciences.
    Archer, Trevor
    Effects of individual performance versus group performance with and without de Bono techniques for enhancing creativity.2002In: The International Journal of Creativity & Problem Solving, ISSN 1598-723X, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 15-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three experimental studies with high school students and university students as subjects were carried out in order to investigate the effects of different conditions on the performance of creative tasks. Study 1 investigated the effects of working individually (Single-work group) or in a Group (Group-work group) upon fluency, flexibility, and originality. It was found that although Group-work produced better results on the different measures of creativity, the total fluency score was higher for the Single-work group. Study 2 investigated whether or not two techniques for enhancing creativity, random word input and provocation, produced effects upon creative performance. It was shown that fluency after the manipulation was lower for the random word and provocation conditions, but not for the control condition. In Study 3, which differences in the creative process between subjects working during a period of three days under varying conditions, namely working as an individual versus working in a group (Assemblage condition) and working under control condition versus working with random word input (Technique condition). Group-work showed higher fluency and originality, although the Single-work group showed a greater mean value on fluency. Group-work produced also higher scores on thought change and incubation at all levels of the creative process, whereas the Single-work group produced higher scores on assertion for the original product and illumination on the final product. These results suggest that the Single-work group reached further in the creative process than the Group-work group. The participants in the random word condition showed a lower rate of flexibility than the participants in the control condition did, but also a higher level of thought change during the middle phase of the experiment.

  • 1081.
    Sälik, Elina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Andlighet som prediktion av livstillfredsställelse och optimism: En enkätstudie om livsåskådning och välmående2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A quantitative survey study has been carried out to investigate possible correlations and predictions between spirituality, belief in a higher power, life satisfaction and optimism. The sample consisted of 116 students at the University of Karlstad who responded to an anonymous electronic survey via the learning platform It´s Learning. The predictor variable spirituality was measured by Spirituality Assessment Scale (SAS). The belief in a higher power was measured by a separated statement of SAS, and analyzed individually with the dependent variables. Dependent variables life satisfaction and optimism were measured by The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) and Life Orientation Test - Revised (LOT-R). The data has been processed in SPSS and analyzed by simple regression and Spearman correlation test. The results showed that spirituality was a significant predictor of optimism where 33.8% of the variance was explained. Spirituality was also a significant predictor of life satisfaction, where 43.7% of the variance was explained. There was no correlation between the belief in a higher power and optimism nor between the belief in a higher power and life satisfaction. Results and validity in relation to cultural differences were discussed.  Despite some qualitative questioning, the conclusions made that there was a tendency for states to higher spirituality predicts a higher subjective well-being and optimism, where the main elements of well-being seemed not to deal with the relationship or an explicit belief in a higher power. For further research, it was presented proposals for the development of measuring instruments of spirituality with cultural context into account, as well as ideas on reviewing the school's traditional religious education.

  • 1082.
    Sälik, Elina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Marknadsföring av ayahuasca: En kvalitativ explorativ studie om hur ayahuascaretreater skildrar den hallucinogena brygden på internet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, interest in ayahuasca and trips to the Amazon to consume the brew brought in more and more Westerners, who can find a lot of ads for ayahuasca retreats on the Internet. The increased demand has paved the way for dubious ayahuasca activities, and different kinds of exploitation of tourists and other adverse effects have been reported. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted to identify and describe the online marketing of this hallucinogenic brew, to, from a psychological perspective, increase the understanding of why the marketing works. The result included thematic analysis of a total of 19 of the most popular ayahuasca retreats ranking on the search engine Google.se, and the analysis generated four themes. It was concluded that the marketing is primarily directed to three different target groups: the sick, the individualistic inner seekers and the sensation seekers. The overarching theoretical framework that could explain the general marketing strategies were based on promises to meet basic needs according to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, theories of fundamental and unaware needs based on a customer psychological perspective, as well as a generally individualistic-oriented marketing rhetoric. Moreover, it could also be ascertained specific strategies for how the different target groups are attracted; including using the affective state of desperation and the desire to maintain control over the situation, promises of satisfying the need of spirituality, meaning and context, and by focusing on personality traits and tendencies like extraversion, optimism, thrill-seeking and risky behavior. It was argued that these strategies work partly because of different cognitive mechanisms (confirmation bias, wishful thinking bias), but also because of the general rhetoric that seemed to speak to the individualistic modern man. A more critical approach to these ayahuasca activities was argued to be desirable.

  • 1083.
    Söderlund, Gabriella
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Stereotypes are mental representations of for example people groups or places. It has been argued that stereotypes are used to classify for example individuals in to normal and deviant categories. One group in Sweden who are being associated with strong stereotypes and prejudice are individuals of a Muslim background. This study aims at understanding Swedish middle-aged men and woman’s images of Muslims. The overall resarchquestion which the study seeks to answer is; what are Swedish middle-aged men and woman’s images of Muslims? The research design of the study is of a qualitative nature. The method employed is phenomenological analysis. The data collection techniques employed in the study are interviews and projective techniques. The study’s findings indicate that the Swedish middle-aged men and woman’s images of Muslim are of a confirmatory nature. A typical stereotype of individuals of a Muslim background is, according to the respondents, that Muslims are dangerous and hold a female-hostile point of view. Furthermore, all of the respondents exhibit an ethnocentric way of thinking regarding Muslims.

  • 1084.
    Söderqvist, Simon
    Karlstad University.
    Improvisatörers upplevelse av sitt hantverk: En kvalitativ studie om improvisatörers upplevelse av sitt arbete2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study is based on nine semi-structured interviews with participants who have worked or who are working with improvisation theater for at least three years.The applied method is qualitative. The analysis and processing consisted of a thematic analysis. The purpose of the study was to investigate improvisers' experiences of their profession. The three themes emerged from the analysis were "The feeling of being in the present", "The meaning of the group" and "Moving the story forward". The result showed that improvisation as a form of theater has a big impact on the participants in terms of happiness, self-esteem and flow. The result also showed the difficulty of improvising and how the participants reasoned to create a good performance.

  • 1085.
    Taniguchi, Ayako
    et al.
    Risk Engineering/University of Tsukuba, Japan.
    Grääs, Carin
    Attityd i Karlstad AB.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Satisfaction with travel, goal achievement, and voluntarily behavioral change2014In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 26, no Part A, p. 10-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential effectiveness of soft policy measures aimed at reduced car use depends on how car users experience these. A common measure being implemented is a free monthly travel card valid for a limited period on public transport (PT). In this study, a total of 321 car commuters living in Värmland, Sweden were recruited into such a program. The goal was to use PT between home and work at least three times a week over a period of four weeks. Immediately after completion of the program, the participants answered a follow-up questionnaire. The Satisfaction with Travel Scale (STS) was used to measure their travel experiences. They were also asked to rate their goal achievement. A process model was used during the analyses. Regression analysis showed that the distance from home to the nearest bus stop had a significantly negative effect on the STS. The STS had a significantly positive effect on goal achievement. Both goal achievement and the STS had a significantly positive effect both on PT use and on future goals. This study shows that travel experiences and goal achievement are important for voluntary behavioral change.

  • 1086.
    Terp, Ulrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Cognitive Behavioral Stress Management Training for Nursing Students2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this thesis is to examine a stress management intervention developed for nursing students.

    The thesis comprises three studies (Study I-III) based on empirical data from a sample of nursing students. The specific aim in the first study (Paper I) was to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of the stress management intervention. The results in the first study suggested that the feasibility of conducting a full-scale evaluation was confirmed for recruitment, acceptability, data collection, and adherence to the intervention. However, difficulties relating to homework were also identified. In the second study (Paper II), the specific aim was to investigate the participants’ experiences of participating in the stress management intervention. Findings indicate that participants developed new adaptive coping strategies, which were attributed to the intervention. The participants expressed that they had increased their ability to reflect which led to increased insight and self-reflection. Findings emphasize the importance of both theoretical and structural aspects when planning a stress management training intervention. A group format delivery in combination with a multi-component cognitive behavioral intervention can be interrelated elements for positive stress-related changes. The third study (Paper III), aimed at investigating preliminary psychological effects regarding self-esteem, self-efficacy and stress management competence. In the third study, the results showed that perceived stress-management competency was improved and had withstanding effects one year later when compared with a control group. Self-esteem and self-efficacy, both psychological resources, increase over time after the intervention. 

    In summary, this dissertation provides an insight into the challenges and the complexities of developing and implementing a stress management intervention in a nurse education context.

  • 1087.
    Terp, Ulrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Is an ounce of prevention worth a pound of cure?: Effekter av ett kognitivt baserat stresshanteringsprogram för sjuksköterskestudenter i storgrupp2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning visar att sjuksköterskestudenters exponering för stress påverkar studieresultat och framtiden som yrkesverksam sjuksköterska negativt. Studien syftade till att undersöka effekterna av ett 10 veckor långt KBT-baserat stresshanteringsprogram som genomförts i storgrupp (n=28) på sjuksköterskeprogrammet termin 2. För att undersöka effekterna genomfördes beroende mätningar före och efter interventionen. Resultaten visade signifikanta förändringar för variablerna upplevd stresshanteringskompetens (SHK) som ökade, upplevd stress som minskade, samt generell själv tilltro (self-efficacy) som ökade. Möjliga konsekvenser av dessa uppmätta resultat diskuterades.

  • 1088.
    Terp, Ulrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Bisholt, Birgitta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Manuscript: A feasibility study of a Cognitive Behavioral based stress management intervention for nursing students: Results, challenges, and implications for research and practiceManuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1089.
    Terp, Ulrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Bisholt, Birgitta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Not Just Tools to Handle It: A Qualitative Study of Nursing Students' Experiences From Participating in a Cognitive Behavioral Stress Management Intervention2019In: Health Education & Behavior, ISSN 1090-1981, E-ISSN 1552-6127, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 922-929Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Stress-related problems are an increasing challenge within nurse education since it affects learning, professional development, and mental health negatively. Despite this, knowledge is scarce regarding nursing students' experiences of being in stress management interventions. Aim. This study aimed to describe how nursing students experienced a preventive cognitive behavioral therapy-based stress management intervention. Method. Data were collected through 14 semistructured interviews with nursing students who had participated in a stress management intervention, and analyzed using inductive qualitative content analysis. Results. The analysis yielded one theme, Turning points, which consisted of four categories: (1) more in touch with reality, (2) increased self-confidence, (3) improved communication skills, and (4) a new way of reflecting. Discussion. Findings emphasize the importance of both theoretical and structural aspects when planning a stress management training intervention. A group format delivery in combination with a multicomponent cognitive behavioral intervention can be interrelated elements for positive stress-related changes. Conclusion. Our findings indicate that participants developed new and more adaptive coping strategies, which were attributed to the intervention. The participants expressed that they had increased their ability to reflect, which led to increased insight and self-reflection. The intervention constitutes an example of a contribution to stress management research and provides information for stress management training initiatives in nurse education.

  • 1090.
    Terp, Ulrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Bisholt, Birgitta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Effects of a Cognitive Behavioral-Based Stress Management Program on Stress Management Competency, Self-efficacy and Self-esteem Experienced by Nursing Students2019In: Nurse Educator, ISSN 0363-3624, E-ISSN 1538-9855, Vol. 44, no 1, p. E1-E5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nursing students' exposure to stress negatively affects both academic and clinical performance and potentially their future as professional nurses. This pilot study measured the effects of a 10-week cognitive behavioral therapy-based stress management program, using a quasi-experimental design. Independent t tests showed positive effects of the training program compared with a control group. Students' perceived stress management competency, self-efficacy, and self-esteem were higher 1 year after the intervention.

  • 1091.
    Thomtén, Johanna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Boersma, Katja
    Örebro universitet.
    Flink, Ida
    Örebro universitet.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Örebro universitet.
    Social Anxiety, Pain Catastrophizing and Return to Work Self-efficacy in chronic pain: A Cross-sectional Study2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 11, no April, p. 98-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims

    Returning to work after periods of sick-leave due to chronic pain problems, involve a number of situations of interpersonal nature (e.g. meeting supervisors/insurance companies to adapt work setting to present functional level, receive help from colleagues, express pain, etc.). Since chronic pain has shown co-morbidity with social anxiety, it is of interest to investigate restraining factors in return to work among chronic pain sufferers from a social perspective. Catastrophizing is identified in both pain and social anxiety as a mechanism that might fuel a continuous bias in how situations are perceived (threat) and by hindering the development of functional behavior strategies. The presence of social anxiety in chronic pain patients might be seen as a stressor that limits the individuals’ ability to effectively communicate pain-related needs to colleagues, and/or employers and therefore act as a hindering factor in return-to-work. Hence, the overall aim of this study was to examine the relationship between social anxiety, pain catastrophizing, and perceived ability to communicate pain-related needs to the work environment in a clinical pain population.

  • 1092.
    Thunberg, Katarina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Emojis har betydelse!: En kvalitativ studie om hur emojis upplevs i textlig kommunikation2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate people`s experiences of emojis in textual communication. The study used qualitative method for the study in the form of Braun and Clarkes (2006) Thematic analysis. The data collection consisted of three focus groups with four participants in each group, of witch eleven particpants were woman and one particpant was male. The Thematic analysis generated three themes: First theme The secuarity and uncertainty of the emojicode describes the particpants sense of security through the use of specific emojis that create a code to manage different relationship. The emojicode can also create uncertainty as a relationship developes because emojis can be interpreted in different ways. Other themes Emoji reinforce or mitigate messages describe how emojis are perceived to affect the meaning of the message. The last theme of Emoji replaces the words of emotion describing the effectiveness of emojis in textual communication but can also result in an exaggeration. Emoji in textual communication is of great importance as the effect of using them is perceived as possible to manage relationships and social roles. Managing relationships and social roles is important for strengthening self-esteem and maintaining self-image.

  • 1093.
    Tillfors, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Ekbäck, Kristofer
    Linton, Steven J.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Boersma, Katja
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Underlying factors of social anxiety and pain: Aspects of self-focused attention – private and public self-consciousness2012In: 14th World Congress on Pain, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high degree of co-morbidity has been observed in general between chronic pain and various anxiety disorders and specifically between chronic pain and social anxiety disorder (or social phobia) both in clinical pain populations and in general populations. What is the etiology behind this co-morbidity? One clue may come from the concept of self-focused attention. A personality trait that refers to people’s individual differences in the degree of self-focused attention is self-consciousness, which has been observed to consist of two separate aspects. One is a private aspect addressing a person’s inner experiences as thoughts, feelings and somatic symptoms. The other aspect is a public aspect addressing a person’s attention to the self as a social object. Social anxiety disorder is characterized by a marked fear of scrutiny in a variety of social situations which implies a high degree of public self-consciousness. High degree of public self- consciousness has been associated both with higher degree of sensitivity to being socially rejected, and with physical (sexual) pain. However, research related to public self-consciousness and pain is very limited. Interesting to note is that from a neurobiological perspective the same area in the brain is activated both in physical pain and in social exclusion. In line with this, it has also been observed that sensitivity to physical pain and sensitivity to social rejection are mutually reinforcing. In Western societies we build much of our identity from what we achieve. For people who develop chronic pain and the often accompanying labor reduction should the social environment be experienced more invalidating if the person at the same time worries a lot for how others will perceive him/her (i.e., being high on public self-consciousness). This in turn may reinforce the impulse to avoid not only situations involving activities of a physical nature but also social activities. Overall, it should be of interest to examine public self-consciousness in relation to both pain and social anxiety. It has to our knowledge not been done before.

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to examine and identify possible patterns (by cluster analysis) of self-consciousness (public and private), social anxiety and pain in a non-clinical population. These profiles were examined in relation to disabling social anxiety respectively disabling pain.

    Methods: In this study, cluster analysis was used to identify subgroups of people characterized by different profiles of social anxiety, self-consciousness (public and private) and pain. University students (19-46 years old; N = 302) participated in a cross-sectional study.

    Results: We identified six clusters, including one group scoring high on all variables (the co-morbidity cluster). Further, we found a significant relation between the cluster solution and both disabling pain and disabling social anxiety where people belonging to the co-morbidity cluster were overrepresented.

    Conclusions: This suggests that public self-consciousness may be important to consider in terms of co-morbidity between pain and social anxiety. A next step is to try to replicate this result and thereby increase the external validity. Finally, if a person has a pattern in which he/she scores high on pain, social anxiety and public and private self-consciousness this may point to an enhanced risk for that person to developing both social anxiety disorder and chronic pain.

  • 1094.
    Tillfors, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Mörtberg, Eva
    Institutionen för psykologi, Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Van Zalk, Nejra
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Inhibited and impulsive subgroups of socially anxious young adults: their depressive symptoms and life satisfaction2013In: Open Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 2161-7325, E-ISSN 2161-7333, Vol. 3, no 1A, p. 195-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Socially anxious people are typically thought of as being behaviorally inhibited; however, an atypical subgroup, which is impulsive rather than inhibited, has recently been identified [1]. Theoretically, inhibition and impulsivity could be viewed as different strategies for coping with anxiety that have the same goal—escape from negative emotions—but they seem to have different implications. Previous studies have found that the socially anxious-impulsive subgroup was higher on risk-prone behavior, as for example drug use, compared with a socially anxious-inhibited subgroup [1]. In this study, we aimed to identify these subgroups in a general population, and asked whether they also experience various levels of depressive symptoms and life satisfaction, as well as moderating effects of gender.

    Methods: Cluster analysis was used to identify subgroups of young adults (20 - 24 years old; N = 772) characterized by different profiles of social anxiety and impulsivity. These subgroups were compared on levels of internal adjustment, and the moderating effects of gender were also tested.

    Results: We identified five clusters, including an Anxious-Inhibited and an Anxious-Impulsive cluster. In the interaction between gender and cluster membership, gender showed evidence of moderation regarding both depressive symptoms and life satisfaction, with the young women in the Anxious-Inhibited and the Anxious-Impulsive clusters faring worst.

    Conclusions: We replicated previous findings demonstrating the existence of a socially anxious-impulsive subgroup, thus solidifying current knowledge that may be important when it comes to diagnostics and treatment. This may prove particularly important for young women regarding internalizing symptoms.

  • 1095.
    Tillfors, Maria
    et al.
    Univ Orebro, Sch Law Psychol & Social Work, Örebro, Sweden.
    Persson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health (from 2013).
    Willén, Maria
    Univ Orebro, Sch Law Psychol & Social Work, Örebro, Sweden.
    Burk, William J
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Inst Behav Sci, Nijmegen, Netherland.
    Prospective links between social anxiety and adolescent peer relations2012In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 1255-1263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines bi-directional links between social anxiety and multiple aspects of peer relations (peer acceptance, peer victimization, and relationship quality) in a longitudinal sample of 1528 adolescents assessed twice with one year between (754 females and 774 males; M = 14.7 years of age). Lower levels of peer acceptance predicted increases in social anxiety. Social anxiety predicted decreases in relationship support for males and increases in peer victimization for females. Collectively our findings suggest that peers seem to play a significant role for adolescent mental health and social anxiety seems to interfere with healthy peer relations. Importantly, developmental pathways for social anxiety seem to differ for adolescent females and males.

  • 1096.
    Tillfors, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Toll, Christina
    Center for Health and Medical Psychology.
    Branting, Mattias
    Center for Health and Medical Psychology.
    Boersma, Katja
    Jansson-Fröjmark, Markus
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Allowing or fighting social anxiety: The role of psychological flexibility in a non-clinical population2015In: Journal for Person-Oriented Research, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 151-161Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1097.
    Tillfors, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Van Zalk, Nejra
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Easier to accelerate than to slow down: contributions of developmental neurobiology for the understanding of adolescent social anxiety2015In: Social anxiety and phobia in adolescents: development, manifestation and intervention strategies / [ed] Ranta, K., La Greca, A.M., Garcia-Lopez, L.-J., Marttunen, M., Springer, 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1098.
    Tillfors, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Van Zalk, Nejra
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Kerr, Margaret
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Investigating a socially anxious-impulsive subgroup of adolescents: a prospective community study2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 267-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has identified a subgroup of socially anxious adults who are both anxious and impulsive. To date, however, this subgroup has not been identified in adolescence. Therefore, in this study we aimed to identify this subgroup in a sample of adolescents. In addition, we hypothesized that this subgroup would be higher on problem behaviors, and that these processes would be moderated by gender. We used longitudinal data from 714 adolescents who were in the 7th and 8th grades at Time 1. They were followed annually for three years. Cluster analyses identified an anxious-inhibited subgroup as well as an anxious-impulsive subgroup in early adolescence (Time 1). The socially anxious-impulsive adolescent boys were generally higher on both intoxication frequency and delinquency compared with all other adolescents in all clusters at each time point. Findings suggest that social anxiety subgroups may differ on problem behavior, and that early detection of an anxious-impulsive subgroup may be important to prevent maladjustment, especially for adolescent boys.

  • 1099.
    Tivani, Jessika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Akademisk motsta ndskraft och kontrollokus: En kvantitativ undersökning om studenters psykiska välbefinnande2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Motståndskraft är en viktig egenskap för individens psykiska välbefinnande. Forskning inomområdet har konstaterat att yttre och inre interaktioner mellan individen och miljön ärförknippade till varandra. I föreliggande studie har sambandet mellan akademiskmotståndskraft och kontrollokus hos studenter undersökts. För att svara på studiensfrågeställning användes teorierna akademisk motståndskraft och kontrollokus. Undersökningengjordes genom en enkätundersökning. För att besvara frågeställningen tillämpades enSpearmans rangkorrelationskofficient med en tvåsidig prövning. Resultatet visade att det fannsett signifikant samband mellan akademisk motståndskraft och kontrollokus hos studenter. Dettyder på att studenter har en hög akademisk motståndskraft och motiveras av ett inrekontrollokus.

  • 1100.
    Torbjörnsson, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Does ESD support or oppose change in the fundamental socioenvironmental values of pupils?2010In: / [ed] Leif Östman, Tungalag Baljir, Ulanbaatar: Mongolian State University of Education, Uppsala University , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Educational policy documents from global to national and local levels give priority to learning how to achieve sustainable development. “Few issues are so important but so elusive as sustainable development, and there can be very few such issues indeed where the role of learning is so crucially important to our future.”(Scott & Gough, 2004, s. xi). A need of change in human values is often expressed as a prerequisite for sustainable development.  How ESD can support this change, without yielding to manipulation and indoctrination, is one of the current main issues.  How do you as a teacher balance on the edge between “knowing what is right and knowing that it´s wrong to tell others what is right” ?(Wals, 2010)           There are abundant suggestions about which values that have to be changed in order to achieve sustainable development.  I choose to presuppose the fundamental values underlying The Millennium Declaration of the UN. They are freedom, equality, solidarity, tolerance, respect for nature and shared responsibility (UN, 2000). Despite their importance not very much is known about how these values help or hinder sustainable development (Leiserowitz, Kates, & Paris, 2006). Studies from many different countries show that students´ primary concern is globally environmental problems. Less is  known about how this concern is related to other issues that the students find important (Rickinson, 2001) and how the values mentioned above are correlated to each other.

    An individual can express values through actions and attitudes. Focus in my research is on how the fundamental values, underlying sustainable development, are expressed in attitudes and how these are combined and distributed among Swedish pupils in upper secondary school. A questionnaire (n=917) with 27 statements, concerning attitudes towards nature and towards fellow human beings is so far the empirical body. I use five-grade Likert items[i] aggregated into four groups, each of them summing up to a Likert scale[ii] measuring different aspects of one value. The four values are; biocentrism, anthropocentrism (two different aspects of respect for nature) equality and solidarity and are consequently connected to the underlying values in The Millennium Declaration of the UN. I use Bogner and Wiseman´s (2003)Model of Ecological Values to measure  respect for nature and have constructed a new scale, Model of Social Values,  for the purpose of measuring solidarity and equality.

    Preliminary results show a significant correlation between a strong willingness to preserve nature and to show solidarity with a wide in-group of others. There is also a significant correlation between strong utilization attitudes towards nature and to show solidarity with a narrower in-group and also between strong utilization attitudes and to accept unequal distribution of resources.  These findings mainly confirm results from earlier research. People high in empathy tend to be low in materialistic values and high in intrinsic values and more negative environmental attitudes are often associated with less concern for social justice and equality(Crompton & Kasser, 2009).

    My all-embracing research question is to analyze how pupils today understand how learning processes in elementary school have supported or opposed their own socioenvironmental values. To do that I need to carry out qualitative interviews with individuals representing the main categories in my survey. In those interviews one aim is to catch the essence of how pupils interpret their teachers’ ability to balance on the edge between telling what is right and supporting diversity and pluralism. 

    [i] The respondent mark the level of agreement from 1= strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree

    [ii] A summated scale of several items which together measure one dimension

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