Change search
Refine search result
1920212223 1051 - 1100 of 1113
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1051.
    Wennström (Klockar), Annika
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Rendón, Juan
    Technology Dept., Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Spain.
    Gustafsson, J. H.
    Telia Mobile AB, Karlstad, Sweden.
    The Impact of Preemptive Priority in GPRS on TCP Performance: A Measurement Study2004In: The first International Workshop on TCP and MAC Protocols in Wireless and Wired Networks, 2004, p. 430-436Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GPRS extends the widely deployed GSM system with a more effecient wireless Internet access. In this paper we investigate how a TCP transmission over GPRS is affected when it loses all its resources due to preemption by circuit-switched calls with higher priority. The results indicate that TCP performance is degraded more than necessary, as buffered data is flushed immediately when the GPRS traffic is preempted. The time required for error recovery is considerable also for very short preemption periods. The situation would improve if data was buffered during preemption and if the data was transmitted immediately as GPRS resources become available again.

  • 1052.
    Wennström (Klockar), Annika
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Rendón, Juan
    Technology Dept., Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Spain.
    Gustafsson, Jan H.
    Telia Mobile, Karlstad, Sweden.
    A GPRS Testbed for TCP Performance Measurements2002In: 4th International Workshop on Mobile and Wireless Communications Network, IEEE conference proceedings, 2002, p. 320-324Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a GPRS measurement testbed for TCP performance evaluation is presented. Unlike simulations and live measurements, the testbed combines the use of real network equipment and protocol implementations with a precise control over radio channel conditions. Some initial TCP measurements obtained with the GPRS testbed are also presented. The effect of varying numbers of PDCH and of buffering in the GPRS system is investigated.

  • 1053.
    Wennström (Klockar), Annika
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Rendón, Juan
    Gustafsson, Jan H.
    The Impact of GPRS Buffering on TCP Performance2003Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless Internet access over GPRS, the packet-oriented extension to GSM, provides for higher data rates and more efficient network utilization compared to circuit-switched access. The performance of the Internet protocols in GPRS is dependent not only on the quality of the radio link, but also on the buffering in the GPRS network. In this paper we investigate the impact of buffering on TCP performance. Measurements are conducted in a GPRS testbed consisting of real network nodes with real protocol implementations. When the buffer between the fixed and the wireless networks is large, then the round trip times may become very long. Measurements with different buffer settings indicate that the buffer could be decreased in order to reduce the queuing delay, without degrading the throughput. Measurements of concurrent packet- and circuit-switched traffic show that buffered data is flushed immediately as the GPRS traffic is preempted by circuit-switched calls. When resources are available again, the lost data must be retransmitted. In many cases this could be avoided by guarding the data with a timer

  • 1054.
    Wennström (Klockar), Annika
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Garcia, Johan
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Gustafsson, Jan H.
    Telia Mobile AB, Karlstad, Sweden.
    TCP and GSM Link Layer Interactions: Implications for the Wireless Internet2001In: IEEE VTS 53rd Vehicular Technology Conference, 2001, IEEE conference proceedings, 2001, p. 2198-2202Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for wireless access to the Internet has grown rapidly making the performance of TCP in wireless environments an important issue. We present experimental measurements of the performance of TCP over GSM. The measurements were captured over a real GSM network connected to a controlled radio environment. A range of radio conditions were considered with a focus on the interaction between TCP and the GSM link layer. Even for very poor radio conditions, only neglible negative interaction effects were found.

  • 1055.
    Westlinder, Simon
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Video Traffic Classification: A Machine Learning approach with Packet Based Features using Support Vector Machine2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Internet traffic classification is an important field which several stakeholders are dependent on for a number of different reasons. Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and network operators benefit from knowing what type of traffic that propagates over their network in order to correctly treat different applications. Today Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) and port based classification are two of the more commonly used methods in order to classify Internet traffic. However, both of these techniques fail when the traffic is encrypted. This study explores a third method, classifying Internet traffic by machine learning in which the classification is realized by looking at Internet traffic flow characteristics instead of actual payloads. Machine learning can solve the inherent limitations that DPI and port based classification suffers from. In this study the Internet traffic is divided into two classes of interest: Video and Other. There exist several machine learning methods for classification, and this study focuses on Support Vector Machine (SVM) to classify traffic. Several traffic characteristics are extracted, such as individual payload sizes and the longest consecutive run of payload packets in the downward direction. Several experiments using different approaches are conducted and the achieved results show that overall accuracies above 90% are achievable.

  • 1056.
    Winberg, André
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Golrang, Ramin Alberto
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Analytics as a Service: Analysis of services in Microsoft Azure2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1057. Wolf, Peter
    et al.
    Barrat, Jordi
    Bolo, Eden
    Bravo, Alejandro
    Krimmer, Robert
    Neumann, Stephan
    Parreño, Al A.
    Schürmann, Carsten
    Volkamer, Melanie
    Certification of ICTs in Elections2015Book (Other academic)
  • 1058.
    Wu, Hao
    et al.
    The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Taheri, Javid
    The University of Sydney, Australia.
    Zomaya, Albert
    The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    B-Alarm: An Entropy Based Burst Traffic Prediction Approach for Ethernet Switches in Data Centers2013In: High Performance Computing and Communications & 2013 IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing (HPCC_EUC), 2013 IEEE 10th International Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1059.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Angulo, Julio
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Evoking Comprehensive Mental Models of Anonymous Credentials2012In: Proceedings of the 2011 IFIP WG 11.4 international conference on Open Problems in Network Security / [ed] Camenisch J., Kesdogan, D., Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, Vol. 7039, p. 1-14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anonymous credentials are a fundamental technology for preserving end users' privacy by enforcing data minimization for online applications. However, the design of user-friendly interfaces that convey their privacy benefits to users is still a major challenge. Users are still unfamiliar with the new and rather complex concept of anonymous credentials, since no obvious real-world analogies exists that can help them create the correct mental models. In this paper we explore different ways in which suitable mental models of the data minimization property of anonymous credentials can be evoked on end users. To achieve this, we investigate three different approaches in the context of an e-shopping scenario: a card-based approach, an attribute-based approach and an adapted card-based approach. Results show that the adapted card-based approach is a good approach towards evoking the right mental models for anonymous credential applications. However, better design paradigms are still needed to make users understand that attributes can be used to satisfy conditions without revealing the value of the attributes themselves.

  • 1060.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Graf, Conny
    Hochleitner, Christina
    Wolkerstorfer, Peter
    Angulo, Julio
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Final HCI Research Report: Deliverable D4.1.52011Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This deliverable provides an overview of recent research results of Activity 4 ‘Usability’ of PrimeLife, where an emphasis is put on those results, which have not been reported in the same detail in other HCI-related PrimeLife deliverables yet. The first part reports about our results in the area of User Interface (UI) Representation of Privacyenhancing Identity Management Concepts and presents research on PET methodologies, mental models for anonymous credentials and the results from the final round of end-user evaluations of the UI prototypes developed during the PrimeLife project. The second part reports about our work in the area of usable privacy policies and presents the final results of Activity 4’s research on policy icons and on a user-friendly management and display of PPL (PrimeLife Policy Language) policies.

  • 1061.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Graf, Cornelia
    Hochleitner, Christina
    Wolkerstorfer, Peter
    Angulo, Julio
    Towards Usable Privacy Enhancing Technologies: Lessons Learned from the PrimeLife Project2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this deliverable, we present lessons learnt from the PrimeLife HCI (Human Computer Interaction) Activity by discussing typical HCI challenges and fallacies that we experienced during the PrimeLife project. We also provide guidance on how these issues can be addressed in order to develop usable privacy-enhancing technology solutions.

  • 1062.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fischer Hübner, SimoneKarlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.Köffel, CWolkerstorfer, Peter
    HCI Research Report: Version 12009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the core activities in the PrimeLife  project is the design and implementation of privacy aware applications that are usable. Therefore it is the main objective of Activity 4 to assure the usability of those applications and advance the research in this area. The First HCI Research Report presents the main research results of the HCI activity within the first year of PrimeLife. The HCI Research Report V1 presents work in progress and will be updated and complemented by a second version, the Final HCI Research Report (D4.1.5), which will be published at the end of the PrimeLife project.

  • 1063.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Wolkerstorfer, Peter
    Usability Challenges of Privacy Technologies2011Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1064.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Zwingelberg, Harald
    UI prototypes: Policy administration and presentation (version 1)2009Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Privacy Policies are an important prerequisite for user control in privacy-enhancing identity management. The transparency of privacy policies can be enhanced if users are informed about mismatches of a site’s policy with the user’s preferences. Investigating understandable and transparent privacy policies as well as simplified and usable privacy preference (data release policy) management "on the fly" are the objectives of the deliverable. For this, it is discussing icons presenting the content of policies and different User Interface (UI) prototypes for policy display and preference administration, which have been partly compared and tested in an Online user study. Finally, legal requirements for policy display in social network sites and how they translate to Human Computer Interaction (HCI) requirements are investigated.

  • 1065.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    End User Transparency Tools: UI Prototypes2010Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Data Track is a user-side transparency-enhancing tool developed in PrimeLife, which provides the users with a history function documenting what personal data the user has revealed to whom under which conditions. Besides, it provides online functions to access the user’s personal data at the remote services side. This deliverable documents PrimeLife work package 4.2’s work on a usable Data Track. After introducing into the Data Track functionalities and the technical background, we will present the results of five iterations of user interface developments and usability testing, which we performed at Karlstad University and at CURE. We also present our initial work on a Data Track for social communities as well as on a Data Track for lifelong privacy.

  • 1066.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    The Users' Mental Models' Effect on their Comprehension of Anonymous Credentials2011In: Privacy and Identity Management for Life / [ed] Camenisch, J.; Fischer-Hübner, S.; Rannenberg, K., Heidelberg: Springer , 2011, p. 233-244Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Anonymous Credentials are a key technology for enforcing data minimisation for online applications. The design of easily understandable user interfaces for the use of anonymous credentials is however a major challenge, as end users are not yet familiar with this rather new and complex technology and no obvious real-world analogies exist for them. In this chapter, we analyse what effects the users’ mental models have on their understanding of the data minimization property of anonymous credentials in the context of an e-Shopping application scenario. In particular, we have investigated the effects of the mental models of a card-based user interface approach and an attribute-based user interface approach and compared these in terms of errors of omission and addition. The results show that the card-based approach leads to significantly more errors of addition (i.e., users believe that they have disclosed more information than they actually have) whereas the attribute-based approach leads to more errors of omission (i.e., users underestimate the amount of data that they have disclosed).

  • 1067.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Wolkerstorfer, Peter
    Austria.
    PET-USES2011In: Privacy and Identity Management for Life / [ed] Camenisch, Fischer-Hübner, Rannenberg, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1068.
    Yang, Ting
    et al.
    China, Australia.
    Sun, Yugeng
    China.
    Taheri, Javid
    The University of Sydney, Australia.
    Zomaya, Albert
    The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    DLS: A Dynamic Local Stitching Mechanism to Rectify Transmitting Path Fragments in Wireless Sensor Networks2013In: Journal of Network and Computer Applications, ISSN 1084-8045, E-ISSN 1095-8592, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 306-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a pair of novel rectification algorithms (greedy negative pressure push algorithm and dynamic local stitching algorithm) is proposed to cooperatively repair broken transmitting paths in Wireless Sensor Networks. Our approach is to overcome the poor data validity in WSNs, specifically for harsh application environments - such as unattended sensor nodes or frail wireless transmitting channels - where fault tolerant becomes a vital aspect. Using adjacency information, Greedy negative pressure push algorithm can efficiently grow the transmitting path to achieve the minimum energy consumption for relays model. Here, we measured packet travel time and the expectation of relay distance to set this model's key parameters to achieve the lowest possible end-to-end transmitting delay. Dynamic local stitching algorithm has a major difference with other existing routing algorithms in rectifying broken paths: despite others that reroute whole paths, our algorithms only stitch broken fragments of the original path spending minimum amount of energy as well as recovery time. Based on mathematical computing and simulation, our novel rectification algorithm could effectively (1) reduce the total number of routing overheads, (2) improve net throughput, and (3) increase system fault tolerant much better than four already designed routing algorithms. Results were also very promising to motivate other algorithms in this field.

  • 1069.
    Yang, Ting
    et al.
    School of Electrical and Automation Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin.
    Woo, Peng-Yung
    Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Northern Illinois University.
    Wang, Zhaoxia
    Institute of High Performance Computing, Singapore.
    Taheri, Javid
    The University of Sydney, Australia.
    Choor, Chin Hoong
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    Hu, Guoqiang
    School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technology University, Singapore.
    Ubiquitous Data-Centric Sensor Networks2014In: International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, ISSN 1550-1329, E-ISSN 1550-1477, Vol. 10, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1070.
    Ye, Panming
    et al.
    Karlstad University. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Zhou, Yong
    Karlstad University. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Distributed Cross-layer Monitoring in Wireless Mesh Networks2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless mesh networks has rapid development over the last few years. However, due to properties such as distributed infrastructure and interference, which strongly affect the performance of wireless mesh networks, developing technology has to face the challenge of architecture and protocol design issues. Traditional layered protocols do not function efficiently in multi-hop wireless environments. To get deeper understanding on interaction of the layered protocols and optimize the performance of wireless mesh network, more recent researches are focusing on cross-layer measurement schemes and cross-layer protocol design. The goal of this project is to implement a distributed monitoring mechanism for IEEE802.11 based wireless mesh networks. This module is event-based and has modular structure that makes it flexible to be extended. This project results a novel Cross-Layer Monitoring Module, CLMM, which is a prototype that monitors each layer of the nodes locally and dynamically, calculates the average values of the metrics, compares these values with thresholds and handles the cross-layer messages of each node. The CLMM also has a routing module structure that can be extended to distribute the metrics to its neighbors.

  • 1071.
    Yedugundla, Kiran
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Evaluating and Reducing Multipath Transport Latency2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to the Internet is a very significant part of everyday life with increasing online services such as news delivery, banking, gaming, audio and high quality movies. Applications require different transport guarantees with some requiring higher bandwidth and others low latency. Upgrading access link capacity does not guarantee faster access to the Internet as it offers higher bandwidth but may not offer low latency. With increasing number of mobile devices supporting more than one access technologies (e.g., WLAN, 3G, 4G,..), there is a need to analyse the impact of using multiple such technologies at the same time. Legacy transport protocols such as TCP or SCTP are only able to connect to one access network at a time to create an end-to-end connection. When more than one access technology is used, there may be a large difference in the data rate offered by each technology. This asymmetry might impact latency sensitive applications by creating out of order delivery. In this thesis, we focus on the latency aspect of multipath transport protocol performance. We consider CMT-SCTP and Multipath TCP as available multipath protocols that were designed for exploiting multiple paths for better throughput and reliability. We consider various real world traffic scenarios such as Video, Gaming and Web traffic to measure end-to-end latency. We perform simulations, emulations and experiments using heterogeneous network settings involving access networks with different bandwidth, delay and loss characteristics. MPTCP performs better in terms of latency than CMT-SCTP and TCP in certain scenarios where available paths are symmetric. However, MPTCP does not perform well in asymmetric scenarios with latency sensitive traffic. This analysis provides insights in to various areas of improvement in MPTCP such as scheduling and loss recovery to achieve low latency. We further focus on packet loss recovery in MPTCP for specific cases of tail losses to reduce latency. Tail losses are the losses that occur at the end of a packet stream. Recovering such losses is of higher significance to latency sensitive applications. We propose a modification to the use of TLP, a mechanism in TCP for tail loss recovery. We evaluate the performance of proposed TLP modification, first using emulations and with real world network experiments. Our results show significant improvements in latency for specific loss scenarios in emulations and up to 50% improvement in experiments.

  • 1072.
    Yedugundla, Kiran
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Handling Packet Losses in Cloud-Based Application Traffic2019In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science - Volume 1: CLOSER, SciTePress, 2019, p. 111-119Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet traffic is comprised of data flows from various applications with unique traffic characteristics. For many cloud applications, end-to-end latency is a primary factor affecting the perceived user experience. As packet losses cause delays in the communication they impact user experience, making efficient handling of packet losses an important function of transport layer protocols. Multipath TCP (MPTCP) is a modification to TCP that enables simultaneous use of several paths for a TCP flow. MPTCP is known to improve throughput. However, the performance of MPTCP is not optimal when handling certain loss scenarios. Efficient packet loss recovery is thus important to achieve desirable flow completion times for interactive cloud-based applications. In this paper we evaluate the performance of MPTCP in handling tail losses using traffic traces from various cloud-based applications. Tail losses, losses that occur at the end of a flow or traffic burst, are particularly challenging from a latency perspective as they are difficult to detect and recover in a timely manner. Tail losses in TCP are handled by using a tail loss probe (TLP) mechanism which was adapted to MPTCP from TCP. We investigate the performance of TLP in MPTCP, comparing the standard implementation to a recently proposed, less conservative approach. Our experimental results show that a less conservative implementation of TLP performs significantly better than the standard implementation in handling tail losses, reducing the average burst completion time of cloud based applications when tail loss occurs by up to 50% in certain cases.

  • 1073.
    Ypper, Andreas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Demand responsive transit service module2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1074.
    Zhang, Ge
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    An analysis for anonymity and unlinkability for a VoIP conversation2009In: PRIVACY AND IDENTITY MANAGEMENT FOR LIFE, 2009, p. 198-212Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the growth of its popularity, more and more VoIP services are deployed in the Internet nowadays. Similarly to other Internet applications, VoIP users may desire to be unlinkable with their participated VoIP session records for privacy issues. In this paper, we explore the Items of Interests (IOIs) from anonymization aspects based on a simplified VoIP model and analyze the potential links between them. We address possible methods to break the links. Finally, we also discuss requirements for a VoIP Anonymization Service (VAS)

  • 1075.
    Zhang, Ge
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Towards Secure SIP Signalling Service for VoIP applications: Performance-related Attacks and Preventions2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Current Voice over IP (VoIP) services are regarded less secure than the traditional public switched telephone network (PSTN). This is due to the fact that VoIP services are frequently deployed in an relatively open environment so that VoIP infrastructures can be easily accessed by potential attackers. Furthermore, current VoIP services heavily rely on other public Internet infrastructures shared with other applications. Thus, the vulnerabilities of these Internet infrastructures can affect VoIP applications as well. Nevertheless, deployed in a closed environment with independent protocols, PSTN has never faced similar risks.

    The main goal of this licentiate thesis is the discussion of security issues of the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), which serves as a signalling protocol for VoIP services. This work especially concentrates on the security risks of SIP related to performance. These risks can be exploited by attackers in two ways: either actively or passively. The throughput of a SIP proxy can be actively manipulated by attackers to reduce the availability of services. It is defined as Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. On the other hand, attackers can also profile confidential information of services (e.g., calling history) by passively observing the performance of a SIP proxy. It is defined as a timing attack. In this thesis, we carefully studied four concrete vulnerabilities existing in current SIP services, among which, three of them can lead to DoS attacks and one can be exploited for timing attacks. The results of our experiments demonstrate that these attacks can be launched easily in the real applications.

    Moreover, this thesis discusses different countermeasure solutions for the attacks respectively. The defending solutions have all in common that they are influencing the performance, by either enhancing the performance of the victim during a DoS attack, or abating the performance to obscure the time characteristic for a timing attack. Finally, we carefully evaluated these solutions with theoretical analyses and concrete experiments.

  • 1076.
    Zhang, Ge
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Berthold, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Hidden VoIP Calling Records from Networking Intermediaries2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract

    While confidentiality of telephone conversation contents has recently received considerable attention in Internet telephony (VoIP), the protection of the caller--callee relation is largely unexplored. From the privacy research community we learn that this relation can be protected by Chaum's mixes. In early proposals of mix networks, however, it was reasonable to assume that high latency is acceptable. While the general idea has been deployed for low latency networks as well, important security measures had to be dropped for achieving performance. The result is protection against a considerably weaker adversary model in exchange for usability. In this paper, we show that it is unjustified to conclude that low latency network applications imply weak protection. On the contrary, we argue that current Internet telephony protocols provide a range of promising preconditions for adopting anonymity services with security properties similar to those of high latency anonymity networks. We expect that implementing anonymity services becomes a major challenge as customer privacy becomes one of the most important secondary goals in any (commercial) Internet application.

  • 1077.
    Zhang, Ge
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Cheng, Feng
    Meinel, Christoph
    SIMPA: A SIP-based Mobile Payment Architecture2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, many mobile payment (MP) schemes have been proposed and used in practise. However, a prerequisite for extended acceptance and adoption of MP technologies is to deploy an effective MP system. So far, there is no such a standardised and scalable MP platform. Most current MP schemes are circumscribed by its mobile network infrastructures. Fortunately, the fast advancement of 3G technology equips next generation mobile phone network more benefits. Following this direction, we propose SIMPA - A SIP-based Mobile Payment Architecture for next generation mobile network, which not only supports P2P payment communications between customers and merchants using Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), but also supports several traditional Internet security protocols, to enhance privacy, confidentiality and integrity during the transaction. This paper depicts detailed protocol and system architecture of SIMPA. Some application examples from customers' view are shown to demonstrate its function and feature

  • 1078.
    Zhang, Ge
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Cheng, Feng
    Meinel, Christoph
    Towards Secure Mobile Payment Based on SIP2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile payment has some unique advantages over more traditional payment methods in, for example, TV shopping and mobile multimedia services. Unfortunately, most existing mobile payment solutions rely heavily on underlying communication infrastructures, which are platform-dependent and have no unified implementation criteria. This limitation is reducing, however, through the rapid spread of the Voice over IP (VoIP) telephony service and its integration with mobile phones. The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is currently the standard signalling protocol of VoIP. Mobile payment is expected to be implemented and deployed in an SIP environment in order to keep pace with the evolution of the mobile phone network. The goal of this paper is firstly to propose a new mobile payment scheme based on SIP. The protocol of the proposed framework is thoroughly analysed. Secondly, we evaluate security issues and propose enhanced solutions to make this new framework applicable in practise

  • 1079.
    Zhang, Ge
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Peer-to-Peer VoIP Communications Using Anonymisation Overlay Networks2010In: Communications and Multimedia Security: Proceedings of the 11th IFIP TC 6/TC 11, CMS2010, international conference on Communications and Multimedia Security / [ed] De Decker, Bart; Schaumüller-Bichl, Ingrid, Berlin: Springer , 2010, p. 130-141Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) which enables voice conversation remotely over packet switched networks gains much attentions for its low costs and flexible services. However, VoIP calling anonymity, particularly to withhold who called whom, is difficult to achieve since VoIP infrastructures are usually deployed in an open networking environment (e.g., the Internet). Our work studies an anonymisation overlay network (AON) based solution to prevent surveillance from external attackers, who are able to wiretap the communication channels as well as to manipulate voice packets in the channels. However, it has been demonstrated that the VoIP combined with traditional AONs are vulnerable to two attacks, namely watermark attack and complementary matching attack. Taking these two attacks into account, we investigate the defensive dropping method in VoIP: A VoIP user-agent sends packets to an AON in a constant rate, but packets during periods of silence are marked. Then, the AON drops some silence packets and forwards the remaining ones to their destinations. The result of our experiments shows that the dropping rate must be carefully selected to counteract both of the two attacks. Finally, we discuss further threats in terms of this solution

  • 1080.
    Zhang, Ge
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Bezzi, Michele
    Duquenoy, Penny
    Hansen,, Marit
    Privacy and Identity Management for Life: 5th IFIP primelife international summer school revised selected papers2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1081.
    Zhang, Ge
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Fischer Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Pallares, Jordi Jaen
    Rebahi, Yacine
    SIP Proxies: New Reflectors? Attacks and Defenses2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract

    To mitigate identity theft in SIP networks, an inter-domain authentication mechanism based on certificates is proposed in RFC 4474 [10]. Unfortunately, the design of the certificate distribution in this mechanism yields some vulnerabilities. In this paper, we investigate an attack which exploits SIP infrastructures as reflectors to bring down a web server. Our experiments demonstrate that the attacks can be easily mounted. Finally, we discuss some potential methods to prevent this vulnerability

  • 1082.
    Zhang, Ge
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Ehlert, Sven
    Blocking attacks on SIP VoIP proxies caused by external processing2010In: Telecommunications Systems, ISSN 1018-4864, E-ISSN 1572-9451, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 61-76Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1083.
    Zhang, Ge
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Pallares, Jordi Jaen
    Rebahi, Yacine
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    SIP Proxies: New Reflectors in the Internet2010In: Communications and Multimedia Security: 11th IFIP TC 6/TC 11 International Conference, CMS 2010, Linz, Austria, May 31 – June 2, 2010. Proceedings, Springer, 2010, p. 142-153Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To mitigate identity theft in SIP networks, an inter-domain authentication mechanism based on certificates is proposed in RFC 4474 [10]. Unfortunately, the design of the certificate distribution in this mechanism yields some vulnerabilities. In this paper, we investigate an attack which exploits SIP infrastructures as reflectors to bring down a web server. Our experiments demonstrate that the attacks can be easily mounted. Finally, we discuss some potential methods to prevent this vulnerability.

  • 1084.
    Zhang, Ge
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Rebahi, Yacine
    Tuan Minh, Nguyen
    Performance Analysis of Identity Management in the Session Initiation protocol (SIP)2009In: Communications of the ACS, ISSN 2090-102X, Vol. 2, no 001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a standard for managing IP multimedia sessions in the Internet. Identity management in SIP is a crucial security field that deals with identifying users in SIP networks and controlling their access to the corresponding resources. RFC 4474 describes a mechanism, based on certificates, for dealing with the SIP users identities. This RFC recommends the use of the RSA algorithm as it is currently the most popular public key cryptography system. The proliferation of small and simple devices as well as the need to increase the capacity of the SIP servers to handle the increasing VoIP traffic will make continued reliance on RSA more challenging over time. In this paper, we describe our implementation of the current RFC 4474, our integration of elliptic curves cryptography into this RFC and show that the corresponding performance is much more significant than the one where RSA is used. This paper can be considered as a first step in standardizing the use of elliptic curves in the identity management for SIP

  • 1085. Zhang, Xiaojing
    et al.
    Lindberg, Therese
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Xiong, N.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Mousavi, Atash
    Cooling Energy Consumption Investigation of Data Center IT Room with Vertical Placed Server2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 2047-2052Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As energy consumption by cooling data center IT equipment can be over 40 % of total energy consumption, efficient cooling for large data centers is essential for reducing operation costs. Modern data centers are complex systems involving IT facilities, power system, cooling and ventilation systems. In our previous work, literature study was made to investigate available data center energy consumption models; and energy consumption models for data center IT room with distributed air flow control were developed. In this paper, the models are further extended and developed to cover the combined distributed air flow control and vertical placed servers in raised floor ventilation system. Simulation of the three types of ventilation systems with Even load, Idle server and Uneven load scenarios showed that significant cooling energy consumed by a traditional ventilation system can be saved by applying the proposed new concept and method. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 1086. Zibuschka, Jan
    et al.
    Fritsch, Lothar
    Norsk Regnesentral.
    A hybrid approach for highly available & secure storage of pseudo-SSO credentials2012In: Secure IT Systems: 17th Nordic Conference, NordSec 2012, Karlskrona, Sweden, October 31 – November 2, 2012. Proceedings, Springer, 2012, p. 169-183Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: We present a novel approach for password/credential storage in Pseudo-SSO scenarios based on a hybrid password hashing/password syncing approach that is directly applicable to the contemporary Web. The approach supports passwords without requiring modification of the server side and thus is immediately useful; however, it may still prove useful for storing more advanced credentials in future SSO and identity management scenarios, and offers a high level of security. Keywords. Single sign-on, authentication, syncing, hashing.

  • 1087.
    Zibuschka, Jan
    et al.
    Goethe University.
    Fritsch, Lothar
    Goethe University.
    Radmacher, Mike
    Goethe University.
    Scherner, Tobias
    Goethe University.
    Rannenberg, Kai
    Goethe University.
    Enabling privacy of real-life LBS: A platform for flexible mobile service provisioning2007In: New Approaches for Security, Privacy and Trust in Complex Environments, Springer, 2007, p. 325-336Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Privacy in computerized environments is perceived very differently depending on the respective point of view. Often "privacy enhancing technologies" - initiated by the user, as a measure of self-defense - are seen as conflicting with business goals such as cost-efficiency, revenue assurance, and options for further business development based on existing data. This paper presents the design and implementation of an architecture and prototype for privacy-friendly, interoperable location-based services (LBS), based on intermediation of location data via a location middleware component. The aim is to combine privacy-friendliness, efficiency, and market potential. Therefore the security interests of the stakeholders are analyzed and an architecture solution including an intermediary is introduced. Then the prototype implementation (at a mobile operator) is described and the usage of the prototype for a commercial service and product offer by the operator involved in the development is discussed.

  • 1088. Zola, Enria
    et al.
    Barcelo-Arroyo, Francisco
    Dely, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Expected Bit Rate for Terminals Moving According to the Random Waypoint Model in a WLAN Cell2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The IEEE 802.11 standard defines the different bit rates and modulation schemes to which a WLAN device may adapt according to the channel quality. User mobility may also have an impact on the available bit rate. This paper presents a study of the bit rate evolution along time for devices that move according to the Random Waypoint mobility pattern in WLAN cells. Simulation has been applied in order to obtain statistical results that permit to characterize the evolution of the bit rate behavior along time and to compute average results in the ideal case (without interference) and in the presence of interfering devices. Our results can be useful in the solution of optimization problems in which decision on where to connect must be taken based on some minimum guaranteed bit rate. They also can be useful in the design of inter and intra-cell handover methods and load balancing schemes.

  • 1089. Zola, Enrica
    et al.
    Barcelo, Francisco
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Multi-objective Optimization of WLAN Associations with Improved Handover Costs2014In: IEEE Communications Letters, ISSN 1089-7798, E-ISSN 1558-2558, Vol. 18, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deployment of a large number of access points in public areas presents a new paradigm in which a given station may be served by more than one access point at a time. Recently, a network model has been proposed to derive the optimal association strategy for the stations by solving a linear optimization problem. According to that model, a station cannot download data while performing a handover. In this letter, we demonstrate that, even in static conditions (i.e., no mobility and constant load in the cell), an association strategy can force a handover. We thus propose a multi-objective optimization function that maximizes the download rates and minimizes the number of handovers. As a handover implies an extra cost due to necessary signaling to be exchanged, we propose a new handover cost function that takes into account the extra bandwidth. Using the new strategy, the system throughput slightly decreases, and the number of handovers is reduced.

  • 1090. Zola, Enrica
    et al.
    Dely, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Barcelo-Arroyo, Francisco
    Robust Association for Multi-radio Devices under Coverage of Multiple Networks2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1091. Zola, Enrica
    et al.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Energy Efficient Control of Virtual Machine Consolidation under Uncertain Input Parameters for the Cloud2015In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Engineering and Control for Reliable Cloud Services, Ghent, Belgium, September 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1092.
    Zola, Enrica
    et al.
    UPC, Dept Network Engn, Barcelona, Spain.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science.
    Energy Efficient Virtual Machine Consolidation under Uncertain Input Parameters for Green Data Centers2015In: 2015 IEEE 7th International Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and Science (CloudCom), IEEE, 2015, p. 436-439Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing the energy consumption of data centers and the Cloud is very important in order to lower CO2 footprint and operational cost (OPEX) of a Cloud operator. To this extent, it becomes crucial to minimise the energy consumption by consolidating the number of powered-on physical servers that host the given virtual machines (VMs). In this work, we propose a novel approach to the energy efficient VM consolidation problem by applying Robust Optimisation Theory. We develop a mathematical model as a robust Mixed Integer Linear Program under the assumption that the input to the problem (e.g. resource demands of the VMs) is not known precisely, but varies within given bounds. A numerical evaluation shows that our model allows the Cloud Operator to tradeoff between the power consumption and the protection from more severe and unlikely deviations of the uncertain input.

  • 1093.
    Zola, Enrica
    et al.
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Barcelona.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Optimising for Energy or Robustness? Trade-off for VM Consolidation under Uncertainty2016In: Optimization Letters, ISSN 1862-4472, E-ISSN 1862-4480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing the energy consumption of virtualized datacenters and the Cloud is very important in order to lower CO2 footprint and operational cost of a Cloud operator. However, there is a trade-off between energy consumption and perceived application performance. In order to save energy, Cloud operators want to consolidate as many Virtual Machines (VM) on the fewest possible physical servers, possibly involving overbooking of resources. However, that may involve SLA violations when many VMs run on peak load. Such consolidation is typically done using VM migration techniques, which stress the network. As a consequence, it is important to find the right balance between the energy consumption and the number of migrations to perform. Unfortunately, the resources that a VM requires are not precisely known in advance, which makes it very difficult to optimise the VM migration schedule. In this paper, we therefore propose a novel approach based on the theory of robust optimisation. We model the VM consolidation problem as a robust Mixed Integer Linear Program and allow to specify bounds for e.g. resource requirements of the VMs. We show that, by using our model, Cloud operators can effectively trade-off uncertainty of resource requirements with total energy consumption. Also, our model allows us to quantify the price of the robustness in terms of energy saving against resource requirement violations.

  • 1094. Zola, Erica
    et al.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Minimizing the Impact of Handover in WLAN: A Study on Performance Optimization2015In: Proceedings of SWE-CTW 2015, May 27th – 29th, Karlstad, Sweden, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1095. Zuccato, Albin
    A Decision Matrix Approach to Prioritize Holistic Security Requirements in E-Commerce2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1096. Zuccato, Albin
    A Holistic Information Security Management Frameworkapplied for electronic and mobile commerce2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1097. Zuccato, Albin
    A modified mean value approach to assess securityrisks2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1098. Zuccato, Albin
    Holistic Information Security Management Framework for electronic commerce2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 1099. Zuccato, Albin
    Holistic security management framework applied in electronic commerce2007In: Computers & Security 26(3), p. 256-265Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1100. Zuccato, Albin
    Holistic security requirement engineering for electronic commerce2004In: Holistic security requirement engineering for electronic commerceArticle in journal (Refereed)
1920212223 1051 - 1100 of 1113
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf