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  • 101. Möller, Hans Joachim
    et al.
    Long, Li
    Riedel, Stephan
    Rinio, Markus
    Yang, Deren
    Werner, Martina
    Oxygen precipitation in polycrystalline ingot and ribbon solar silicon1997Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 102.
    Müller, Christian
    et al.
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköpings universitet, Sweden.
    Bergqvist, Jonas
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköpings universitet, Sweden.
    Vandewal, Koen
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköpings universitet, Sweden.
    Tvingstedt, Kristoffer
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköpings universitet, Sweden.
    Anselmo, Ana Sofia
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för fysik och elektroteknik. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Materialvetenskap.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköpings universitet, Sweden.
    Alonso, M. Isabel
    Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Esfera UAB, ES-08193 Bellaterra, Spain.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för fysik och elektroteknik. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Materialvetenskap.
    Arwin, Hans
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköpings universitet, Sweden.
    Campoy-Quiles, Mariano
    Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Esfera UAB, ES-08193 Bellaterra, Spain.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköpings universitet, Sweden.
    Phase behaviour of liquid-crystalline polymer/fullerene organic photovoltaic blends: thermal stability and miscibility2011Inngår i: Journal of Materials Chemistry, ISSN 0959-9428, E-ISSN 1364-5501, Vol. 21, s. 10676-10684Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermal behaviour of an organic photovoltaic (OPV) binary system comprised of a liquidcrystalline fluorene-based polymer and a fullerene derivative is investigated. We employ variabletemperature ellipsometry complemented by photo- and electroluminescence spectroscopy as well as optical microscopy and scanning force nanoscopy to explore phase transitions of blend thin films. The high glass transition temperature correlates with the good thermal stability of solar cells based on these materials. Furthermore, we observe partial miscibility of the donor and acceptor together with the tendency of excess fullerene derivative to segregate into exceedingly large domains. Thus, for charge generation less adequate bulk-heterojunction nanostructures are poised to develop if this mixture is exposed to more elevated temperatures. Gratifyingly, the solubility of the fullerene derivative in the polymer phase is found to decrease if a higher molecular-weight polymer fraction is employed, which offers routes towards improving the photovoltaic performance of non-crystalline OPV blends.

  • 103.
    Nilsson, Svante
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för fysik och elektroteknik.
    Bernasik, Andrzej
    Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, Krakow 30–059, Poland.
    Budkowski, Andrzej
    M. Smoluchowski Insitute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, Krakow 30–059, Poland.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för fysik och elektroteknik. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Materialvetenskap.
    Morphology and phase segregation of spin-casted films of polyfluorene/PCBM blends2007Inngår i: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 40, nr 23, s. 8291-8301Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the morphology of spin-casted films of polymers blended with [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) has been studied. It was found that the lateral structure formation in the films is favored by rapid solvent evaporation and strong polymer−PCBM repulsion. The formation of homogeneous films is favored by slow evaporation and weak polymer−PCBM repulsion. The effect of solvent evaporation rate is the opposite of what is found for spin-casting polymer−polymer blends. The results can be explained by the kinetics of phase separation and the phase behavior involving limited solubility and crystallization of PCBM.

  • 104.
    Pacho, Aleo Paolo
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet.
    Petrelius, Beppe
    Karlstads universitet.
    Rinio, Markus
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013).
    Quantifying the impact of grain boundaries on standard and high performance mc-silicon solar cells2018Inngår i: Proc. 35th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Brussels, EU PVSEC , 2018, s. 535-538Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Crystal defects such as grain boundaries affect the overall performance of a solar cell. The light beam induced current method allows for the localized quantification of the impact on the internal quantum efficiency of such defects. This work presents a method to estimate the separate impact of grain boundaries on the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of multicrystalline silicon solar cells by correlating LBIC topographs with optical images of etched samples. Segmenting the impact of the grain boundaries on the IQE against those of other defects in our samples showed that the grain boundaries remain the most detrimental. The average IQE at 826 nm was reduced by up to 1.29 % (vs 0.25 % for other defects) absolute for standard multicrystalline and up to 1.15 % (vs 0.28 % for other defects) absolute for high performance multicrystalline silicon.

  • 105. Raue, Peter
    et al.
    Lawerenz, Alexander
    Long, Li
    Rinio, Markus
    Buhrig, E.
    Möller, Hans Joachim
    Multicrystalline Si1–XGeX Alloys for Solar Cell Applications1997Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 106. Riedel, Stephan
    et al.
    Rinio, Markus
    Möller, Hans Joachim
    Scanning Infrared Microscope Investigation of Precipitates Decorating Dislocations in Silicon Solar Cell Material2001Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 107.
    Rinio, Markus
    Fakultät für Chemie und Physik, der Technischen Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Deutschland.
    Untersuchung der prozessabhängigen Ladungsträgerrekombination an Versetzungen in Siliziumsolarzellen2004Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [de]

    Die Dissertation demonstriert ein Verfahren zur Messung der normalisierten Rekombinationsstärke (Gamma) von Versetzungen in blockerstarrten Siliziumsolarzellen. Es basiert auf der topografischen Messung der internen Quanteneffizienz IQE und der Versetzungsdichte. Unter Verwendung des theoretischen Modells von Donolato und Simulationen mit dem Programm PC1D werden für einzelne Versetzungscluster aus dem gemessenen Zusammenhang zwischen der IQE und der Versetzungsdichte die Gamma-Werte bestimmt. Zur Messung der Versetzungsdichte wurden neue Methoden der automatischen Bildanalyse zur Erkennung von angeätzten Kristalldefekten mit dem Computer entwickelt. Die in den Solarzellen gemessenen Gamma-Werte variieren über ca. eine Größenordnung innerhalb weniger Millimeter. Regelmäßig angeordnete Versetzungen haben kleinere Gamma-Werte gegenüber ungeordneteren Verteilungen. Der Gamma-Wert korreliert signifikant mit den Prozesstemperaturen bei der Solarzellherstellung. Es wird gezeigt, in welcher Weise eine Remote-Plasma-Wasserstoffpassivierung die lokale IQE und die Gamma-Werte beeinflusst.

  • 108. Rinio, Markus
    et al.
    Ballif, Christoph
    Buonassisi, Tonio
    Borchert, Dietmar
    Defects in the deteriorated border layers of block-cast multicrystalline silicon ingots2004Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 109. Rinio, Markus
    et al.
    Borchert, Dietmar
    Müller, S.
    Riepe, S.
    Tölle, R,
    Janßen, Lars
    Kurz, H.
    Industrial rear SiN-passivated multicrystalline silicon solar cells2006Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 110. Rinio, Markus
    et al.
    Hauser, Alexander
    Möller, Hans Joachim
    Topography correlation – a powerful tool applied to the visualisation of remote plasma hydrogen passivation effects2003Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 111. Rinio, Markus
    et al.
    Käs, Martin
    Hahn, Giso
    Borchert, Dietmar
    Hydrogen passivation of extended defects in multicrystalline silicon solar cells2006Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 112.
    Rinio, Markus
    et al.
    Institute for Experimental Physics, TU Freiberg, Silbermannstr. 1, 09596 Freiberg, Germany,.
    Möller, Hans Joachim
    Werner, Martina
    LBIC investigations of the lifetime degradation by extended defects in multicrystalline solar silicon1998Inngår i: Solid State Phenomena, ISSN 1012-0394, E-ISSN 1662-9779, Vol. 63-64, s. 115-122Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A calibrated measurement of the short circuit current and the surface reflection coefficient can be directly converted into the internal quantum efficiency(IQE) of a solar cell. The IQE at a wavelength of 833 nm were measured on ingot, EFG and RGS silicon solar cells with a spatial resolution of 6 μm. Ingot solar cells were found to be predominantly influenced by a homogeneous distribution of recombination centers. However, if the dislocation densities exceeded a certain limit the IQE was reduced by recombination at dislocations. This limit varied in different parts of the wafer. EFG solar cells only showed a lifetime reduction by dislocations whereas the investigated solar cells made of RGS silicon were dominated by recombination at grain boundaries. The RGS silicon was further investigated by TEM- measurements, which showed that the extended defects were highly decorated with SiO2- and SiC precipitates.

  • 113.
    Rinio, Markus
    et al.
    Institute for Experimental Phusics Germany.
    Peters, S.
    Werner, Martina
    Lawerenz, Alexander
    Möller, Hans Joachim
    Measurement of the normalized recombination strength of dislocations in multicrystalline silicon solar cells2002Inngår i: Solid State Phenomena, ISSN 1012-0394, E-ISSN 1662-9779, Vol. 82-84, s. 701-706Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An improved technique is presented to measure the normalized recombination strength Gat dislocations in silicon solar cells that were fabricated of cast grown silicon. G is the number ofrecombinations per unit time, length, and excess carrier density divided by the minority carrierdiffusion coefficient D. The measurement is based on fitting the theoretical correlation betweeninternal quantum efficiency IQE at a single wavelength and dislocation density r to the measureddata. The IQE is measured topographically by the light beam induced current (LBIC) method. Foreach point of the LBIC map a dislocation density is determined by analysing the etched samplesurface with an image recognition programme. The theory for IQE(r) combines Donolato'sprediction for L(r) with a calculation of IQE(L) made by the computer programme PC1D. L is thediffusion length of the minority carriers. The programme PC1D takes special properties of the solarcell process into account. The method was applied to solar cells made by a conventional furnaceprocess as well as a rapid thermal process (RTP). In the latter case a correlation between G and theemitter diffusion temperature was found. Finally TEM measurements were made to investigatedislocations with different values of G.

  • 114. Rinio, Markus
    et al.
    Tao, L
    Keipert-Colberg, Sinje
    Borchert, Dietmar
    Double sided inline diffusion of multicrystalline silicon wafers2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 115.
    Rinio, Markus
    et al.
    Fraunhofer ISE, Laboratory and Servicecenter, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen, Germany.
    Yodyunyong, Arthit
    Fraunhofer ISE, Laboratory and Servicecenter, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen, Germany.
    Keipert-Colberg, Sinje
    Fraunhofer ISE, Laboratory and Servicecenter, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen, Germany.
    Borchert, Dietmar
    Fraunhofer ISE, Laboratory and Servicecenter, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen, Germany.
    Montesdeoca-Santana, Amada
    Universidad de La Laguna, Avda Astrofísico Fco Sánchez, 2, 38206 La Laguna, Spain.
    Recombination in ingot cast siliconsolar cells2011Inngår i: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 208, nr 4, s. 760-768Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Minority carrier recombination is studied in multicrystalline ingot cast silicon solar cells. The normalized recombination strength G of dislocations is obtained by correlating topogramsof the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) with those of the dislocation densityr.G is obtained by fitting an extended theory of Donolato to the experimental data. The measured G-values vary significantly between adjacent dislocation clusters and correlate with the spatial pattern of the dislocations. All G-values are strongly dependent on the parameters of the solar cell process. The influence of phosphorus diffusion and hydrogenation is shown. After solidification of the silicon, impurities from the crucible enter the ingot and deteriorate its border regions during cooling to room temperature. These deteriorated border regions can be significantly improved byan additional low temperature anneal that is applied after phosphorus diffusion. The experiments indicate that the mechanism of the anneal is external phosphorus gettering into the emitter.

  • 116.
    Rinio, Markus
    et al.
    Laboratory and Service Center, Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen, Germany.
    Yodyunyong, Arthit
    Laboratory and Service Center, Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen, Germany.
    Keipert-Colberg, Sinje
    Laboratory and Service Center, Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen, Germany.
    Botchak Mouafi, Y. P.
    Laboratory and Service Center, Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen, Germany.
    Borchert, Dietmar
    Laboratory and Service Center, Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen, Germany.
    Montesdeoca-Santana, Amada
    Universidad de La Laguna, Avda Astrofísico Fco Sánchez, 2, 38206 La Laguna, Spain.
    Improvement of multicrystalline silicon solar cells by a low temperature anneal after emitter difusion2011Inngår i: Progress in Photovoltaics, ISSN 1062-7995, E-ISSN 1099-159X, Vol. 19, s. 165-169Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of an annealing step at about 500 degree celsius after emitter diffusion of multicrystalline solar cells is investigated. Neighboring wafers from a silicon ingot were processed using different annealing durations and temperatures. The efficiency of the cells was measured and detailed light beam induced current measurements were performed. These show that mainly areas with high contents of precipitates near the crucible walls are affected by the anneal. An efficiency increase from 14.5 to 15.4% by a 2h anneal at 500 degree celsius was observed. The effect seems to be more likely external than internal gettering.

  • 117. Rinio, Markus
    et al.
    Yodyunyong, Arthit
    Pirker, M.
    Zhang, C.
    Günther, D.
    Botchak-Mouafi, Y. P.
    Keipert, Sinje
    Borchert, Dietmar
    Heuer, Martin
    Montesdeoca-Santana, Amada
    New results using a low temperature anneal in processing of multicrystalline solar cells2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 118. Rinio, Markus
    et al.
    Yodyunyong, Arthit
    Pirker, Maik
    Keipert, Sinje
    Wang, P.
    Buonassisi, Tonio
    Borchert, Dietmar
    Defect redistribution by low temperature annealing in ingot silicon solar cells2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 119. Rinio, Markus
    et al.
    Zippel, Elmar
    Borchert, Dietmar
    Spatial redistribution of recombination centres by the solar cell process2005Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 120.
    Rysz, Jakub
    et al.
    M. Smoluchowski Insitute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, Krakow 30–059, Poland.
    Josiek, Monika
    M. Smoluchowski Insitute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, Krakow 30–059, Poland.
    Marzec, Mateusz M.
    Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30–059 Krak.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik.
    Pattern Replication in Blends of Semiconducting and Insulating Polymers Casted by Horizontal Dipping2013Inngår i: Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, ISSN 0887-6266, E-ISSN 1099-0488, Vol. 51, nr 19, s. 1419-1426Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 121.
    Soldemo, Markus
    et al.
    KTH.
    Lundgren, Edvin
    Lund University.
    Weissenrieder, Jonas
    KTH.
    Oxidation of Fe(110) in oxygen gas at 400 °c2016Inngår i: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 644, s. 172-179Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The initial oxidation of Fe(110) in oxygen gas at 400 °C beyond initial adsorbate structures has been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Formation of several ordered phases of surface oxides is observed at oxygen coverages between approximately 2.3 and 3.5 oxygen atoms/Fe(110) surface atom. Initially, a FeO(111)-like film is formed with a parallelogram-shaped moiré pattern. It has two mirror domains that are formed symmetrically around the growth direction of a zigzag-shaped adsorbate structure. With increased local oxygen coverage, the moiré structure transforms into a ball-shaped form. Both these moiré structures have equal atomic stacking at the surface and equal apparent height in STM, suggesting oxygen ions diffusing into the film upon oxidation and that the oxide growth takes place at the iron-iron oxide interface. The FeO(111)-like film turns into a Fe3O4(111)-like film with a triangular bistable surface termination as the oxidation proceeds further. The FeO(111)-like film growth proceeds according to the Frank-van der Merwe mechanism while the Fe3O4(111)-like film grows according to the Stranski-Krastanov mechanism.

  • 122.
    Starfelt, Samuel
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013).
    Zhang, Hanmin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Materialvetenskap.
    Johansson, Lars
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Materialvetenskap.
    Quantum-well states in thin Ag films grown on the Ga/Si(111)-root 3 x root 3 surface2018Inngår i: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 97, nr 19, artikkel-id 195430Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Silver thin films have been created by room temperature deposition on a Ga/Si(111)-root 3 x root 3 surface and their valence band structures and core levels have been measured by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). Discrete quantum-well states (QWSs) quantized from the Ag sp valence band are observed already at 3 monolayers (ML). The characteristics of the QWSs have been examined in the phase accumulation model for thicknesses between 3 and 12 ML. The phase shift and QWSs binding energies dependence with Ag film thicknesses have all been consistently derived. In-plane energy dispersion follows a parabolic curve, and the effective mass of the QWSs shows an increasing trend with binding energies as well as with reduced film thicknesses. Furthermore, the ARPES measurements reveal umldapp mediated QWSs around the (M)over-bar points of the Si(111) 1 x 1 surface Brillouin zone. The study confirms that the Ga/Si(111)-root 3 x root 3 surface is a good substrate for growing uniform ultrathin Ag films in room temperature conditions.

  • 123.
    Svensson, Krister
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för fysik och elektroteknik.
    Andersson, Stig
    Department of Physics, Göteborg University.
    Desorption of H2, HD, and D2 through Temporary Negative Ion Formation2012Inngår i: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 109, s. 196102-1-196102-4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Physically adsorbed H2, HD, and D2 desorb via the low-energy 2u+ electron scattering resonance with characteristic electron energy dependent cross sections as we show by desorption and electron energy-loss measurements. Only H2 and HD desorb, for energetic reasons, via excitation of the j = 0 —>2 rotational mode and its subsequent decay into free translational motion, while all three isotopes desorb by direct transitions to unbound continuum states, with a probability close to unity and an unexpectedly weak mass dependence ~m 1/2.

  • 124.
    Talyzin, Alexandr
    et al.
    Department of Physics, Umeå University.
    Luzan, S.M.
    Department of Physics, Umeå University.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Division for Electron Microscopy and Nanoengineering, Department of Engineering Sciences, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-75121 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Akhtar, S.
    Division for Electron Microscopy and Nanoengineering, Department of Engineering Sciences, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-75121 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fetzer, J
    Fetzpahs Consulting, P.O. Box 942, Pinole, California 94564, United States.
    Cataldo, F
    Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica .
    Tsybin, Y.O.
    Biomolecular Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Tai, C.W.
    Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dzwilewski, Andrzej
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för fysik och elektroteknik.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för fysik och elektroteknik. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Materialvetenskap.
    Coronene fusion by heat treatment: Road to nanographenes2011Inngår i: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 115, nr 27, s. 13207-13214Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The reactions of coronene dehydrogenation and fusion upon heat treatment in the temperature range of 500700 C were studied using XRD, TEM, Raman, IR, and NEXAFS spectroscopy. The formation of a coronene dimer (dicoronylene) was observed at temperatures 530-550 C; dicoronylene can easily be separated using sublimation with a temperature gradient. An insoluble and not sublimable black precipitate was found to form at higher temperatures. Analysis of the data shows that dimerization of coronene is followed at 550600 C by oligomerization into larger molecules. Above 600 C amorphization of the material and formation of graphitic nanoparticles was observed. Coronene fusion by annealing is proposed as a road to synthesis of larger polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nanographenes.

  • 125.
    van Lith, B. S.
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology - P. O. Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Muntean, Adrian
    Eindhoven University of Technology - P. O. Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Storm, C.
    Eindhoven University of Technology - P. O. Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    A continuum model for hierarchical fibril assembly2014Inngår i: Europhysics letters, ISSN 0295-5075, E-ISSN 1286-4854, Vol. 106, nr 6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the biological polymers that make up our cells and tissues are hierarchically structured. For biopolymers ranging from collagen, to actin, to fibrin and amyloid fibrils this hierarchy provides vitally important versatility. The structural hierarchy must be encoded in the self-assembly process, from the earliest stages onward, in order to produce the appropriate substructures. In this letter, we explore the kinetics of multistage self-assembly processes in a model system which allows comparison to bulk probes such as light scattering. We apply our model to recent turbidimetry data on the self-assembly of collagen fibrils. Our analysis suggests a connection between diffusion-limited aggregation kinetics and fibril growth, supported by slow, power-law growth at very long time scales.

  • 126.
    van Stam, Jan
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper (from 2013).
    Van fraeyenhoven, Paulien
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper (from 2013). UC Leuven Limburg, Leuven, Belgium.
    Andersén, Mikael
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper (from 2013).
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013).
    Comparing Morphology in Dip-Coated and Spin-Coated Polyfluorene:Fullerene Films2016Inngår i: Proceedings of SPIE: Organic Photovoltaics XVII / [ed] Zakya H. Kafafi, Paul A. Lane, Ifor D.W. Samuel, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2016, Vol. 9942, s. 99420D-1-99420D-10, artikkel-id UNSP 99420DKonferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 127.
    Watcharinyanon, Somsakul
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för fysik och elektroteknik.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för fysik och elektroteknik.
    Johansson, Lars S.O.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för fysik och elektroteknik.
    Mixed Self-Assembled Monolayers of Ferrocene-Terminated and Unsubstituted Alkanethiols on Gold: Surface Structure and Work Function2009Inngår i: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 113, nr 5, s. 1972-1979Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mixed self-assembled monolayers of 11-ferrocene-1-undecanethiol (FcC11) and decanethiol (C10) were prepared by two different methods: from a mixed solution and by subsequent immersion. These preparations result in self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with different portions of FcC11 molecules, orientations, and degrees of order in the SAM. The structure of these layers was studied by high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HRXPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, and their effect on the surface electronic properties was investigated by Kelvin probe. The fraction of FcC11 in C10 thiol could be estimated from the intensity of the HRXPS Fe 2p3/2 peaks. The SAM prepared from the mixed solution was of high quality, and the portion of FcC11 molecules in this film was about 60%. The interaction of neighboring ferrocene moieties indicated phase separation between FcC11 and C10 species in the film. For the SAMs prepared by subsequent immersion in C10 and FcC11 solutions, the portion of FcC11 molecules varied from 35% to 55% dependent on the immersion times in the C10 solution. The degree of orientational order of the alkyl chains increased with increasing immersion time in C10. In addition, the adsorption of C10 decreased the work function of the gold surface while the adsorption of FcC11 increased this value. By varying the fraction of FcC11 in the SAMs with different preparation schemes, the work function of the gold surface could be varied in a controllable way

  • 128.
    Zhang, Hanmin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för fysik och elektroteknik.
    Ericsson, Leif
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för fysik och elektroteknik.
    Johansson, Lars
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för fysik och elektroteknik.
    PTCDA induced reconstruction on Sn/Si(111)-2√3×2√32012Inngår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 85, nr 24, s. 245317-1-245317-5Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The electronic structures of the Sn/Si(111)-2√3×2√3 surface and deposited 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) have been studied by use of high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. On deposition, PTCDA molecules form a 4√3×2√3 periodicity superposed on the substrate. The new reconstruction is caused by a charge transfer between the Sn/Si(111)-2√3×2√3 surface and the molecules, as indicated by a new component of the Sn 4d core level that is shifted toward higher binding energy. In contrast to earlier reports, the charge provided by Sn is given to carbonyl C atoms instead of O atoms. This is evidenced by a new component in the C 1s core-level spectra, which is shifted toward lower binding energy. The charge transfer also induces a splitting in the highest occupied molecular orbital level of PTCDA seen in the valence band structure.

  • 129.
    Zhang, Hanmin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för fysik och elektroteknik.
    Gustafsson, Jörgen
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för fysik och elektroteknik.
    Johansson, Lars
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för fysik och elektroteknik.
    Electronic structure of PTCDA on Sn/Si(111)-√3×√32011Inngår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, ISSN ISSN 1550-235x (online), 1098-0121 (print), Vol. 84, nr 20, s. 205420-1-205420-8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The electronic structures of PTCDA films on Sn/Si(111)-√3×√3 have been studied by high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). There is a clear chemical interaction between PTCDA molecules and the Sn/Si(111)-√3×√3 surface, as indicated by new components in Sn 4d core levels that are shifted to higher binding energies. The chemical interaction is also evidenced by new components in the O-1s and C-1s core-level spectra. The new components are shifted to lower binding energies and have their origins from two reactions between Sn dangling bonds and the PTCDA molecules. One reaction is located at the anhydride O atom and the other is at the carbonyl C atom. These reactions also induce modifications in the HOMO and LUMO levels seen in the valence band and NEXAFS spectra. For thin films, the NEXAFS results suggest a tilting molecular configuration with respect to the substrate, while for the thicker films, there is an improved ordering of the molecular orientation to the substrate.

  • 130.
    Zhang, Hanmin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik.
    Hirvonen Grytzelius, Joakim
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik.
    Johansson, Lars
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik.
    Thin Mn germanide films studied with XPS, STM, and XMCD2013Inngår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 88, nr 4, s. 045311-1-045311-6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin Mn germanide films with nanoscale thicknesses on Ge(111) have been studied by low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), core-level spectroscopy (CLS), and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. The 260 C annealing of 16 monolayers of Mn deposited on Ge(111)c(2×8) resulted in a uniform film with intense threefold split √3×√3 LEED spots and Moiré patterns in the STM images. This ultrathin film shows a clear ferromagnetism with a Curie temperature of ∼250 K. High-resolution Ge 3d CLS spectra were recorded with photon energies between 50 and 90 eV at normal and 60 emission angle. To achieve a consistent fit over the energy and angular range three components were used in the line-shape analysis. The low temperature (260 C) annealed film shows significant differences in terms of electronic structure and magnetism in contrast to the high temperature (330 C or above) annealed ones. Our results indicate that the annealing temperature and the Mn coverage play important roles in the formation of a thin magnetic Mn germanide film.

  • 131.
    Zhang, Hanmin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013). CMM, Characterization and modeling of materials.
    Holleboom, Thijs
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013).
    Johansson, Lars
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013).
    Band splitting of quantum wells of thin Ag films on Sn/Si(111)√3×√32017Inngår i: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 96, nr 4, s. 041402-1-041402-6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High-resolution valence band spectra of ultrathin Ag films on Sn/Si(111)√3×√3 show intrinsic splitting of the quantum-well states (QWSs). Especially at low coverages, the QWSs of such a system display delicate coupling characters with the bulk bands from the substrate. The observed QWS splitting agrees well with the result of the theoretical calculation. We found that the splitting originates from an interface with a finite thickness. In addition, the interface also causes a large sp band splitting due to the Umklapp scattering in the Γ−M direction of the Ag(111) surface Brillouin zone.

  • 132.
    Zhang, Hanmin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik.
    Johansson, Lars
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik.
    Electronic structure of PTCDA on Sn/Si(111)-2√3×2√32014Inngår i: Chemical Physics, ISSN 0301-0104, E-ISSN 1873-4421, Vol. 439, s. 71-78Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The electronic structures of PTCDA on the Sn/Si(111)-2√3×2√3 surface have been thoroughly studied by high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). Upon deposition of PTCDA, there is an unusual charge transfer from the Sn/Si(111)-2√3×2√3 surface to the molecules. This is clearly shown by a new component in the Sn 4d core-level spectra that shifts towards higher binding energy. In contrast to the literature, the charge provided by Sn is donated to the carbonyl C instead of the O atoms. This is revealed by a new component in the C 1s core-level spectra that shifts towards lower binding energy. The charge transfer causes a splitting of the HOMO level in the valence band spectra. As indicated in the NEXAFS spectra, it also induces a splitting of the LUMO level of the molecules. For thick films the NEXAFS results suggest a layer by layer growth mode.

123 101 - 132 of 132
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