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  • 101.
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    Sahlström, F.
    Calander, F.
    Karlsson, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    Heikkilä, M.
    Together? - on child care as a meeting place in a Swedish city2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 2002:47, Nr. 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 102.
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    Sahlström, Fritjof
    Melander, Helen
    Från förskola till skola - berättelser från ett forskningsprojekt2003Report (Refereed)
  • 103.
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Fabricando buenos alumnos: autoevaluación y negociación en la escuela sueca2014In: Estudios etnográficos de las políticas públicas en contextos educativos: Contextos múltiples de socialisacón y aprendizaje. Un análisis desde la etnografía de la educación. / [ed] Carlos Peláez-Paz, María Isabel Jociles, Madrid: Traficantes de Sueños , 2014, p. 221-232Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 104.
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Rehusando la responsabilidad: Autoevalución y fabricaciones en un quinto año de la escuela sueca.2015In: Paideia, Revista de educación, ISSN 0716-4815, Vol. 56, p. 43-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an analysis of how the individual imperative that is a central element in neoliberal changes in educational policies during recent decades, is constructed in classroom interaction in upper primary school. It is also shown how this construction is challenged by the actions of one student who refuses to take responsibility for the expectations that a specific practice of policy assigns to him. Theoretically the article draws on the concepts of policy enactment, performativity and fabrications (Ball, 2003, 2009) in combination with applied conversation analysis (Have, 1999) as a methodological approach. Data comes from video documentation from a lesson where the students are supposed to make a self-evaluation of their learning and social situation. The analyses of the interaction between the teacher and the students show how they orient to dominating policy discourses about the constant need for being able to identify weaknesses and the responsibility to articulate means how to improve. The analysis also show how this becomes challenged as one student refuses to take on this responsibility and how this leads to a negotiation that gradually changes the power relations in the classroom and results in a reformulation of the problem.

  • 105.
    Roos, Carin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Pérez Prieto, HéctorKarlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    KAPET 2016, 12(2): Karlstads universitets pedagogiska tidskrift2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta nummer av KAPET inleds med artikeln Att göras till "riktig" pojke – Maskulinitetsskapanden i skolans praktik. Tomas Saar och Marie Nordberg presenterar alternativa berättelser från ett längre etnografiskt projekt. I artikeln Förändrade dokumentationspraktier – förändrade stödinsatser? diskuterar Marie Tanner och Héctor Pérez Prieto hur specialpedagoger översätter och hanterar en nyligen införd reform. Reformen gäller skolors stödinsatser. Vi följer upp detta genom artikeln History of change in education of pupils with severe hearing loss – Teachers’ narratives from Finland and Sweden där Marjatta Takala och Carin Roos uppmärksammar oss på att det saknas forskning om undervisning av döva elever och elever med hörselnedsättning. De belyser lärares egna perspektiv på sin praktik. Vidare har Anna-Lena Göransson och Annica Ådefors skrivit en resumé där de presenterar läslyftsmodulen Språk i yrkesämnen som tagits fram på uppdrag av Skolverket. Konsten att fånga kommunikation beskrivs i en metodartikel Kameraanvändning i videoobservation. Anna Öhman beskriver sina erfarenheter av att använda sig av både hand- och huvudkamera vid videoobservationer. Handledning står i fokus i Annelie Andersén och Hamid Asgharis artikel Identitetsframträdande och positionering i handledares berättelser. Avslutningsvis zoomar vi ut med En nyfiken betraktelse av de ökade kraven på skolans vetenskaplighet. Anette Forssten Seiser kopplar ihop diskursen ökade krav på vetenskaplighet med diskursen utbildningsprestation som konkurrensmedel. 

  • 106.
    Tanner, Marie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Elevers motstånd i ett beslut som berör dem2017In: Att ständigt bli bedömd: Elevers berättelser om betyg och nationella prov / [ed] Héctor Pérez Prieto, Håkan Löfgren, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, p. 159-174Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 107.
    Tanner, Marie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Förändrade dokumentationspraktiker - förändrade stödinstatser?2016In: Kapet (elektronisk), E-ISSN 2002-3979, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 21-38Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här artikeln diskuteras hur specialpedagoger översätter och hanterar en nyligen införd reform när det gäller skolors stödinsatser, där det tidigare begreppet ”särskilt stöd” nu har delats in i två nivåer av stödinsatser, ”extra anpassningar” eller ”särskilt stöd”. Med utgångspunkt i en mindre intervjustudie uppmärksammas några av de frågor och dilemman som aktualiseras i samband med detta. Reformen förstås som ett exempel på hur policy reformer ramar in och formar det tolkningsarbete som sker på alla nivåer i utbildningssystemet, vilket mot bakgrund av skolans nuvarande styrningssystem under senare decennier har inneburit ett ökat performativt tryck. Analysen grundar sig på tre intervjuer med specialpedagoger på olika skolor och olika stadier. Sådana aspekter som i intervjuerna framstår som kritiska för hur specialpedagogerna hanterar de förändringar som skrivits fram på myndighetsnivå har identifierats och tematiserats. Resultatet visar hur specialpedagogerna hamnar i en mellanposition mellan rektor och lärararbetslagen, där förhandlingar om olika yrkesgruppers ansvar i förhållande till varandra blir centralt när reformen hanteras. Strävan efter att utarbeta hållbara rutiner och strukturer för att utreda, dokumentera och följa upp stödinsatser framstår som en stor del av specialpedagogernas tolkning av reformen, medan förändringsarbetet på klassrumsnivå blir mindre synligt i deras framställning. 

  • 108.
    Tanner, Marie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    In between self-knowledge and school demands.: Policy enacted in the Swedish middle year classroom.2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent series of articles Braun et al highlights the importance of studying the ways that policy is enacted by teachers in their everyday work attending the material and discursive contingencies that forms, frames and limits practical responses to policy (Braun, Ball, & Maguire, 2011) . Using these articles as point of departure we go one step further in empirically exploring how policy is interpreted and made in to being in the classroom interaction between teacher, students and artifactual texts being used.

    In the performative society that has  developed in the new education economy (Lauder, Brown, Dillabough, & Halsey, 2006)  it is not so much in the structures of the formal organization but in the constant flows of performativities that power is produced where, as Stephen Ball puts it (S. J. Ball, 2006), “[I]t is the database, the appraisal meeting, the annual reviews, report writing and promotion applications, inspections, peer reviews that are to the fore” (p. 693). Policy work in schools thus comes to be a much broader concept not only referring to policy as top-down steering from governmental decisions and organizational structures but as something that is achieved and made on all levels by the actors in the school system. Different kinds of texts and documents made on all levels and by various actors thereby become part of the regulatory techniques in the performative society. In a Swedish context one example is how new text genres and literacy practices are created (Andreasson & Asplund Carlsson, 2009)  when schools have to find ways to organize and document increased demands of assessments and control over student outcomes through national standards and tests as well as written assessments and individual developmental plans for each student. These student centred texts has in various studies been seen as self-regulatory technologies from a governmentality perspective (Andreasson, 2007; Bartholdsson, 2007; Granath, 2008).

    This paper aims at showing how policy is enacted in the everyday classroom interaction and how the student’s identity and position in relation to ideals of “the good student” is negotiated and fabricated within new kinds of literacy practices in the classroom context. We focus the interaction in a Grade 5 classroom where students are asked to fill in a “self-evaluation form” as a preparation for a forthcoming discussion on progress between teacher, student and parents aiming at producing an individual developmental plan. Drawing on the theoretical concepts of fabrications and performativity (S. Ball, 2006; S. J. Ball, 2003) we see this practice as an enactment of policy where both teacher and students are seen as actors and subjects made into being in interaction with the self-evaluation form as a textual artifact.  In doing this we also draw on critical views of literacy within the field of the new literacy studies (Barton, 2007; Brandt & Clinton, 2002; Gee, Hull, & Lankshear, 1996; Gee, 2008)  where literacies are seen as social practices made in interaction in different domains in people’s lives, such as for example the school context.

    Method (200 words)

    The empirical data used comes from a larger video ethnographic study of literacy practices in the Middle years, which in Sweden means students that are 10 to 12 years old. In this analysis we focus a lesson during 30 minutes when the teacher first instructs the whole class and then moves to different students to help them fill out the form “self-evalutation”. Two video cameras have been used to document the interaction between teacher and students in the classroom from a classroom- and a teacher perspective, where we make a detailed micro-level analysis of a series of interactions with one of the students during the class. In the analysis we use conversation analysis (CA) as an analytic tool to make visible the joint interaction of the participants, teacher and students in an institutional setting (Have, 1999; Heritage, 1997; Sacks, Schegloff, & Jefferson, 1974; Schegloff, 1992; Schegloff, 1996)  where  participants use verbal talk and other semiotic resources to simultaneously both make use of and continuously shape material and contextual resources through their interactional work (Duranti & Goodwin, 1992; Goodwin, 2000) .

    Expected outcomes (200 words)

    The result of the analysis shows how the “self-evaluation” form that seemingly addresses the student’s self-knowledge to be made explicit in order for school to be able to give support meets interpretations of preferred answers to the different boxes in the form that results in a negotiation between different ways of construction the student’s social identity. This makes visible how the “self-evaluation” as a policy document not only can be seen as means for self-regulation from a governmentality perspective, but how the students identity rather can be seen as a fabrication where the teacher and student negotiate different conceptions of the ideal student in relation to the students self-knowledge and school demands both socially and in relation to curricular knowledge. It is an empirically grounded contribution that hopes to enrich and deepen the understanding about how policies are interpretated and made into being by the local actors in schools. It also highlights how students from early years in school are made participants in new literacy practices related to neoliberal changes in the societal work order at large, which also can be seen as a learning practice even though it is not made explicit in the curriculum.

  • 109.
    Tanner, Marie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Centre for Research on the Teaching and Learning of Languages and Literature.
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    In between self-knowledge and school demands: Policy enacted in the Swedish middle year classroom2014In: Discourse. Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, ISSN 0159-6306, E-ISSN 1469-3739, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 554-569-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we focus on the interaction in a Year 5 classroom where students fill in a ‘self-evaluation form’ as a preparation for a forthcoming discussion on progress aiming at the production of an Individual Developmental Plan. Drawing on the theoretical concepts of fabrications and performativity (Ball, 2003; 2006), we understand this as an enactment of policy where both teacher and students become actors and subjects (Ball et al., 2012; Maguire et al. 2011). From using document analysis together with conversation analysis as a methodological approach, we show how the ‘self-evaluation’ in interaction becomes a successful exercise in fabrications as teacher and student negotiate conceptions of the ideal student in relation to self-knowledge and school demands. The article is an empirically grounded contribution to the understanding of how policies are interpreted and made into being by local actors in everyday practices, in this case teachers and students in schools.

  • 110.
    Tanner, Marie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    Studying policy in interaction: Students’ enactment of new grades and national tests in Swedish year six.2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this presentation is to explore how recent policy changes in education gets interpreted and realized in student interaction. In recent years the concept of enactment has been used within policy research as an analytical tool for the understanding of how policy gets translated into practice by actors on different levels (Ball, 2006; Ball, Maguire & Braun, 2012; Singh, Heimans & Glasswell, 2014; Tanner & Pérez Prieto, 2014). Most studies on a school level focus on school leaders and teachers, whereas the students often remain unnoticed as actors in policy practice. In this presentation we argue for the importance of including students’ perspectives in studies of policy, and suggest new methods for how this could be explored.  

    Methodologically we bring together understandings of policy enactment and performativity from the field of educational sociology with the ethnomethodological stance of conversation analysis (CA) for studying how policy comes to play in interactions between students (ten Have, 1999).  We use data from a larger study about students’ experiences on doing national tests and getting grades in year 6, including more than 10 schools. The data consists of audio- and video recordings from focus group interviews with students and of video recordings from classrooms in the preparation and realization of the national tests.

    Preliminary results show how students position themselves as competent actors in relation to peers, teachers and family as they talk about tests and grades. In the interactions they negotiate strategies for coping with expectations and increasing pressure, while at the same time playing down the importance of tests and grades in for example comparisons with friends or in relation to final grades in year nine.   Even though the combination of CA and the theoretical concept of policy enactment require careful methodological considerations, we find a substantial gain in the way it makes new understandings of students’ identity formations in relation to educational policy possible.

  • 111.
    Tanner, Marie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    "They want to show that they are topnotch": Students enactments of policy in interaction2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation focuses on recent reforms in Swedish education concerning new grades and extended use of national tests in grade six, and how this extensive reform comes to play in everyday practices in schools. Schools today have to be able to handle a multitude of policy initiatives that get introduced with increasing pace in the new education economy. Not least has several studies on the effects of schools marketization showed how this results in higher demands for schools to produce information about themselves and the students to inform and guide families school choices as well as governments control and inspection  (Ball, 2006; Löfdahl &Pérez Prieto, 2009; Löfgren, 2012).The new national tests and grades in year 6 are examples of policymaking that has the capacity of producing high stake information about the actors in schools (teachers, school leaders and students) as well as information about schools in terms of competitiveness and results in relation to given standards. Here we take an interest in the consequences this could have from the students’ perspective.

    Policy reforms are often studied in terms of implementation, i.e. measuring schools’ responses to different specific policy initiatives. As an alternative approach, in recent years the concept of enactment has been used within policy research as an analytical tool for the understanding of how policy gets translated into practice by actors on different levels (Ball, Maguire & Braun, 2012; Singh, Heimans & Glasswell, 2014; Tanner & Pérez Prieto, 2014). The concept of policy enactment is used to address the complexities in institutional policymaking not only referring to policy as top-down steering from governments through organizational structures, but as something that is interpreted on all levels by different actors in the school system (Ball et al., 2012).

    Most studies on a school level focus on school leaders and teachers, whereas the students often remain unnoticed as actors in policy practice. We have in previous studies argued for the importance of including students’ perspectives in studies of policy enactment, and have suggested new methods for how this could be explored (Pérez Prieto & Tanner, 2013; Tanner & Pérez Prieto, 2014). In this presentation we continue to develop this line of work in relation to the new reforms on grades and national tests in year six. Using conversation analysis (CA) as a methodological approach we explore how these policies are interpreted and realized in student interactions within the school context, and how this helps to produce and re-produce policy discourses in schools today. The aim is to describe how the reform is being made in interaction from the students’ perspective. We depart from the following research questions:

    • How are national tests and grades oriented to in students’ interaction?

    • How do students position themselves in relation to these changed assessment practices in different situations?

    This study is part of a larger project about students’ experiences of doing national tests and getting grades in sixth grade, where in total more than 150 students in 7 schools have been interviewed. Within the larger project, this presentation builds on a complementary video-ethnographic substudy where three groups from two different schools have been followed during preparation and realization of national tests in the subjects of social sciences and natural sciences. The data material in the substudy consists of more than 30 hours of video recordings from classroom interaction in three different groups in two schools, 7 video recorded group interviews with students focusing on their experiences of getting grades and 7 video recorded group interviews with students about doing national tests. From this data different examples where students position themselves to these assessment practices are selected for further analysis on how this policy reform gets interpreted. The selected data consists of different kinds of interactions; between students, between teacher and students or interactions within an interview setting.

    To visualize new aspects of how policy is constituted in the interaction between different actors in school, we make a somewhat unusual methodological combination of policy studies and interactional analysis, where we use the inductive approach of conversation analysis (CA) focusing on the institutionally framed interaction within the school context (Drew & Heritage 1992; Heritage, 1997). CA aims at studying human sociality as it is organized in people’s talk-in-interaction and how they together create shared meanings in relation to context (c.f. Hutchby &Wooffitt, 2008). Whereas early CA studies mainly focused on verbal talk in everyday situations, there is now within CA an increasing interest in to how verbal and non-verbal resources such as gesture, gaze and material artefacts are coordinated in human interaction (Goodwin, 2000; 2007). In this study the use of video recordings makes these kinds of multimodal analysis possible. Here we view the participants’ interpretations of policy as social actions, and explore how these kinds of policy practices is being made in student interaction through the use of different kinds of available semiotic resources. 

    Even though the combination of CA and the theoretical concept of policy enactment require careful methodological considerations, we find a substantial gain in the way it makes possible new understandings of how students position themselves in relation to educational policy. Preliminary results show how students position themselves as competent actors in relation to peers, teachers and family as they talk about tests and grades. In the interactions they negotiate strategies for coping with expectations and increasing pressure, while at the same time playing down the importance of tests and grades in for example comparisons with friends or in relation to final grades in year nine. To a large extend they position themselves as being responsible for making changes and increasing their efforts to achieve good results. But in the empirical data are also examples of how students’ position themselves in relation to increased demands on teachers and schools, and expectations to produce good results in competition with other schools in a marketized education system.

    References 

    Ball, S. J. (2006). Performativities and fabrications in the education economy: Towards the performative society. In H. Lauder, P. Brown, J-A. Dillabough & A. H. Halsey (Eds.), Education, globalization & social change (pp. 692-701). New York: Oxford University Press.

    Ball, S. J., Maguire, M. & Braun, A. (2012). How schools do policy: Policy enactment in secondary schools. London: Routledge.

    Drew, P., & Heritage, J. (1992). Talk at work: Interaction in institutional settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Goodwin, C. (2000a). Action and embodiment within situated human interaction. Journal of Pragmatics, 32(10), 1489-1522. doi: 10.1016/S0378-2166(99)00096-X

    Goodwin, C. (2007). Participation, stance and affect in the organization of activities. Discourse & Society, 18(1), 53-73. doi:10.1177/0957926507069457

    Heritage, J. (1997). Conversational analysis and institutional talk. I D. Silverman (Red.), Qualitative research: Theory, method and practice (ss. 161-182). London: Sage.

    Hutchby, I., & Wooffitt, R. (2008). Conversation analysis (2. uppl.). Cambridge: Polity

    Löfdahl, A. & Pérez Prieto, H. (2009). Between control and resistance: Planning and evaluation texts in the Swedish preschool. Journal of Education Policy 4(24), 293-408. 

    Löfgren, H. (2012). Det sitter inte i väggarna: Identiteter i lärares berättelser om skola och arbete [It is not in the walls – Professional identities in teachers’ stories about school and work). Doctoral dissertation, Karlstad: Karlstad University Studies. 

    Pérez Prieto, H. & Tanner, M. (2014): Fabricando buenos alumnos: autoevaluación y negociación en la escuela sueca. I C. Peláez-Paz & M.I. Jociles (Eds) Estudios etnográficos de las políticas públicas en contextos educativos. Madrid: Traficantes de Sueños

    Singh, P.,  Heimans, S.  & Glasswell, K. (2014) Policy enactment,context and performativity: ontological politics and researching Australian National Partnership policies, Journal of Education Policy, 29:6, 826-844 

    Tanner, Marie; Pérez Prieto, Héctor (2014) In between self-knowledge and school demands: Policy enacted in the Swedish middle year classroom. Discourse. Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 2014, volym 35 (5)

  • 112.
    Tanner, Marie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education (from 2013).
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    "...When It Is Us the Tests Are Made for". Students' Argumentations in a Performative Education System2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim is to analyse how policy decisions about assessment practices influence what it means to be a student in a performative system. We examine an occasion where a previously mandatory national test became optional, and how students took the opportunity to try to change the school's decision about this. The study is based on student group interviews in year 6, and uses Conversation Analysis to examine how they use discursive resources to co-construct fabrications of the ideal student. The findings show how neoliberal rhetoric has worked its way into the students' everyday lives, and how they display a deep knowledge about how to use arguments that work inside the system. We argue that there is a need for more knowledge about contemporary education policies from a student perspective.

  • 113.
    Tanner, Marie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Samuelsson, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for the Studies of Social Sciences Didactics (from 2013).
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Skolan, marknaden och ämnet.: Kommersiella aktörer på internet i undervisningen2017In: Kapet (elektronisk), E-ISSN 2002-3979, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 3-26Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här artikeln uppmärksammar vi förekomsten av olika privata och kommersiella webbsajter som specifikt riktar sig mot undervisning och lärande i skolan. Syftet är att beskriva och diskutera hur några olika kommersiella aktörer på internet tar plats som policyaktörer i ett utbildningssammanhang, och vad det kan betyda i relation till undervisningens ämnesinnehåll. Med ett särskilt fokus på historieämnet, analyserar vi med inspiration från metoden network ethnograpy två olika exempel på sådana webbsajter, SO-rummet samt studi.se. Vi undersöker det nätverk av aktörer som ligger bakom webbsajten, hur syftet med sajten framställs samt hur historieämnet konstrueras på dessa sajter. Resultatet visar hur den politiska styrningen av skolan har fått konkurrens av nya aktörer, vilket leder till att de förstnämndas inflytande minskar till förmån för det komplexa nätverk av aktörer som istället tar plats. På så vis skapas ett marknadens ämne, som visserligen i de två studerade exemplen visar sig ligga nära det konventionella skolämnet historia, men som också visar på ett starkt behov av ytterligare forskning som kan synliggöra hur olika och vitt skilda ideologiska intressen tar plats och skapar politiska kluster som kommer att påverka undervisningens innehåll.

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