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  • 101.
    Magnusson, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Hipp, MaC
    Exploring the Ideation Patterns of Ordinary Users: The case of mobile telecommunications services2010In: International Journal of Product Development, ISSN 1477-9056, E-ISSN 1741-8178, Vol. 11, no 3-4, p. 289-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managers aiming to utilise the potential of involving ordinary users in ideation for innovation receive very little guidance from the existing literature with regard to how to do so in a satisfactory way. This paper aims to fill this knowledge gap by contributing to a better understanding of how users contribute to the ideation process of technology-based services, as well as how users may satisfactorily be managed within it. This is accomplished by identifying and investigating different ideation patterns and their effects on the created ideas' characteristics in the context of mobile telephony services. The current paper is based on a quasi-experimental study lasting 12 days and involving 56 ordinary users and 12 professionals as idea creators. Three different groups of users and one reference group of professionals were used. The paper inductively identifies four different ideation patterns leading to different types of ideas with regard to their innovativeness (incremental/radical). These are further related to the existing literature. The paper concludes with the managerial implications concerning how to manage user involvement for ideation to obtain either more incremental or more radical ideas

  • 102.
    Magnusson, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Matthing, Jonas
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Managing User Involvement in Service Innovation: Experiments with Innovating End-Users2003In: Journal of Service Research, 2003, 6 (2), pp. 111-124, Vol. 2003, 6(2), p. 111-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Artikel nominerad till Bästa artikel 2003 i Journal of Service Research.



    User involvement is frequently practiced in order to enhance companies innovation processes. However, previous research findings are contradictory regarding its benefit. This article experimentally assesses the contributions made by users in comparison with professional service-developers. It also examines how the implementation of user involvement affects the outcome.

    During periods of twelve days, three different groups were assigned the task of generating ideas for end-user telecom services. One group consisted of professional designers, while the other two consisted of ordinary users. The users in one of the groups coped with idea creation by themselves, while the other group consulted a service design expert at two controlled meetings who provided feedback regarding technical feasibility, and whether or not the proposed idea already existed.

    The findings show that involving the users makes the quality of the generated ideas more original, holding a higher perceived user-value. However, the users ideas are less producible on average. The outcome was also affected by how user involvement was implemented (intensity and mode). Scholarly as well as managerial implications conclude the article.

  • 103.
    Magnusson, Peter R
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Hipp, Christiane
    Exploring Ideation Patterns among Ordinary Users: The Case of Mobile Telecommunication Services2007In: Extreme Customization: Proceedings of the MCPC 2007 World Conference on Mass Customization & Personalization / [ed] William J. Mitchell, Frank T. Piller, Mitchell Tseng, Ryan Chin, Betty Lou McClanahan, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managers aiming at utilizing the potential of involving ordinary users in ideation for innovation have at the present very little guidance from the existing literature regarding how to do this in an adequate way. This paper aims filling this knowledge gap by contributing to a better understanding of how users contribute to, and how they could adequately be managed in the ideation process of technology-based services. This is accomplished by identifying and investigating different ideation patterns and their effects on the created ideas’ characteriztics, in the context of mobile telephony services. The paper is based on a quasi-experimental study lasting over twelve days involving 56 ordinary users and 12 professionals as idea creators. Three different groups of users and one reference group of professionals were used. The paper inductively identifies four different ideation patterns that lead to different types of ideas in regard to their innovativeness (incremental/radical). These are further related to the existing literature. The paper concludes with managerial implications regarding how to manage this type of user involvement in order to obtain either more incremental or more radical ideas.

  • 104.
    Magnusson, Peter R
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Hipp, Christiane
    Exploring Ideation Patterns among Ordinary Users: The Case of Mobile Telecommunication Services2009In: Proceedings of the 18th Annual Frontiers in Service Conference., 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 105.
    Magnusson, Peter R
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Hipp, Christiane
    BTU, Cottbus, Germany.
    Ordinary Users and Creativity: Fostering Radical or Incremental Innovation?2010In: Handbook of research in mass customization and personalization / [ed] Frank T. Piller, Mitchell M. Tseng, Singapore: World Scientific Publishing , 2010, p. 1059-1080Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 106.
    Magnusson, Peter R
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Matthing, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Managing User Involvement in Service Innovation: Experiments with Innovating End-Users2003In: Journal of Service Research, ISSN 1094-6705, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 111-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although user involvement is frequently practiced in companies, the research findings regarding its benefits for innovation are contradictory. This article experimentally assesses the contributions made by users in comparison with professional service developers and examines how the implementation of user involvement affects the outcome. During periods of 12 days, three different groups were assigned the task of generating ideas for end user telecom services. One group consisted of professional de signers, whereas the other two consisted of ordinary users. The users in one of the groups coped with idea creation by themselves, whereas the other group consulted a service design expert at two controlled meetings who provided feedback regarding technical  feasibility. Involving users makes the ideas more original, holding a higher perceived user value, but the users’ideas are less producible on aver-age. The outcome was also affected by how user involvement was implemented. Scholarly and managerial implications conclude the article.

  • 107. Matthing, Jonas
    et al.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Parasuraman, A.
    Developing Successful Technology-Based Services: The Issue of Identifying and Involving Innovative Users2005In: Journal of Services MarketingArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 108.
    Matthing, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Parasuraman, A
    Department of Marketing, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida, USA.
    Developing Successful Technology-Based Services: The Issue of Identifying and Involving Innovative Users2006In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 288-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – The aim of this paper is to explore the identification of innovative customers and the effectiveness of employing such customers to generate new service ideas in a technology-based service setting.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – The first study reported here employs the “technology readiness” (TR) construct and involves telephone surveys with randomly selected Swedish consumers. The second involves a field experiment.

    Findings

    – Findings from Study I suggest that the TR is a useful tool for identifying users who exhibit both innovative attitudes and behaviors. The results from Study II show that users with a high TR are highly creative as reflected by the quantity and quality of new service ideas.

    Research limitations/implications

    – The sample size for Study II was relatively small and making empirical generalizations with confidence should await results from studies involving larger samples. However, in sum the research demonstrates that TR appears to be an effective tool for identifying innovative customers who would be both willing to participate in new service development and capable of generating creative ideas.

    Originality/value

    – Service businesses interested in using customers to help generate new ideas could benefit from this research.

  • 109. Matthing, Jonas
    et al.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Parasuraman, A.
    New Service Development: A Matter of Finding Innovative Users2006In: Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. Vol 20 No. 5, pp. 288-297Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 110.
    Olsson, Lars E
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    How Subjective Value Fluctuates Temporally: Effects of Framing Consumption as Materialistic or Experiential2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 111.
    Pedersen, Tore
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Affective forecasting: predicting and experiencing satisfaction with public transport2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 112.
    Pedersen, Tore
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Affective forecasting: Predicting and Experiencing Satisfaction with Public Transportation2011In: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0021-9029, E-ISSN 1559-1816, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 1926-1946Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Affective forecasting in public transport was investigated in 2 studies. Study 1 revealed differences in satisfaction between users (n = 870) and non-users (n = 137). Users were more satisfied than were non-users with regard to reliability and safety, as well as with regard to overall satisfaction. It was also found that non-users mispredicted their satisfaction with public transport. Study 2 revealed that habitual car users (n = 106) reported greater satisfaction after using public transport for 1 month than they had predicted initially, which provided additional support for the hypothesis that habitual car users would mispredict their satisfaction with public transport. Satisfaction with public transport also increased in comparison with a random sample of car users (n = 63).

  • 113.
    Pedersen, Tore
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Reluctance to Use Public Services: Effects of Defocusing Techniques2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 114.
    Pedersen, Tore
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Reluctance to use public transport: Effects of a defocusing technique on car users' predicted satisfaction with public transport2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 115.
    Pedersen, Tore
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    The role of predicted, on-line experienced and remembered satisfaction in current choice to use public transport services2011In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 471-475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A longitudinal field study investigated the role of predicted, on-line experienced and remembered satisfaction in the current use of public transport. Sixty-two car users voluntarily travelled by public transport for a period of one month and ratings of predicted, on-line experienced and remembered satisfaction were collected. The results showed that remembered satisfaction with public transport was significantly lower than on-line experienced satisfaction. Furthermore, overall remembered satisfaction accounted for current public transport use, whereas on-line experienced satisfaction did not. Results suggest that recollection of satisfaction with public transport is negatively biased. This bias affects current choice to travel by public transport.

  • 116.
    Pedersen, Tore
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Counteracting the focusing illusion: Effects of defocusing on car users’ predicted satisfaction with public transport2012In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 30-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Car users underestimate their potential satisfaction with public transport due to a focusing illusion (i.e., focusing on a too narrow range of aspects related to the focal event). To investigate whether a defocusing technique would increase car users’ predicted satisfaction with public transport, the effects of defocusing techniques, generic (Study 1) and self-relevant (Study 2), were investigated. In Study 1 (estimate daily time spent on ten pre-selected activities), the generic defocusing technique did not generate higher predicted satisfaction with public transport. In Study 2, the self-relevant defocusing technique generated higher predicted satisfaction on quality attributes, namely satisfaction with the number of departures, the number of available seats and the condition of the vehicles, in comparison with controls. It is concluded that the self-relevant defocusing technique applied in Study 2 (state your various everyday activities and describe how much time you engage in them) was successful in making car users take into account activities in life that will remain unchanged if they were to use public transport for their daily travel. Additionally, in Studies 1 and 2, it was found that car-use habit, regardless of the experimental condition, influenced the magnitude of predicted satisfaction, that is, the higher the car-use habit, the lower the predicted satisfaction with public transport.

  • 117.
    Pedersen, Tore
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Effects of Critical Incidents on Car Users' Predicted Satisfaction with Public Transport2011In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, p. 138-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines the hypothesis that car users’ affective forecasts of satisfaction with public transport are biased by a focusing illusion. In Study 1, 54 car users with a stated intent to change travel mode read descriptions of a positive, a negative or a neutral critical incident. They were asked to predict their satisfaction with public transport if the incident occurred. In Study 2, 38 car users with no stated intent to change travel mode read descriptions of a positive or a negative critical incident. They were asked to predict their satisfaction with the service if the incident occurred. The results from Studies 1 and 2 showed that focus on a negative critical incident significantly generated lower predicted satisfaction. Thus, the study show that predicted satisfaction is altered when car users focus on negative critical incidents.

  • 118.
    Pedersen, Tore
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Improving Potential Customers Predictions of Future Satisfaction with a Service Defocusing the Focusing Illusion2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 119.
    Rosenbaum, Mark
    et al.
    Northern Illinois University.
    Kelleher, C
    Cork University Business School, .
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Scherer, A
    Technology and Economics, ETH Zürich.
    Re-placing place in marketing: A resource-exchange place perspective2017In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 79, p. 281-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study clarifies the marketing discipline's conceptualization of place by presenting a revised perspective and conceptual framework of place, referred to as REPLACE. Drawing from resource exchange theory and attention restoration theory, the framework problematizes the assumption that places are merely physical locales by foregrounding how places can become inseparable aspects of consumers' lives. We present an alternative resource-based perspective of place, namely as a repository of resources that are potentially available to consumers through exchange processes. These exchange processes, and the complexity of the offered resources, influence consumers' relationship with a locale as well as their sense of well-being. With this alternative perspective, we bridge the place concept to public health and extend the understanding of attachment in service settings.

  • 120.
    Sandström, Sara
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Magnusson, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Value in use through service experience2008In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 112-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The aim of this article is to propose a framework for a new perspective on the total service experience, which dimensions influence it, and how a service experience is linked to value in use.

    Design/methodology/approach – The article is conceptual and suggests a new theoretical frame of reference describing value in use through service experience in technology-based services.

    Findings – According to this article, a service experience is the total functional and emotional value of a consumed service. The service experience is unique to every individual customer and the service consumption situation. Value in use is the cognitive evaluation of the service experience.

    Research limitations/implications – The framework is discussed in the context of technology-based services and will provide a basis for future research. Empirical studies are called for concerning service experiences in different kinds of service contexts.

    Originality/value – This article contributes a new framework, illustrating the service experience, which dimensions influence the service experience, and how it is linked to value. The framework is placed in a context of technology-based services. Unique to these kinds of services is a lack of personal interaction between the service producer and the customer.

  • 121.
    Sandström, Sara
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Magnusson, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Increased understanding of service experiences through involving users in service development2009In: European Journal of Innovation Management, ISSN 1460-1060, E-ISSN 1758-7115, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 243-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to bring better understanding to how involving users in the development process of new mobile phone services can increase understanding of the overall service experience in a technology-based service setting.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on an experimental setting which aims to emulate the involvement of users in a service development process in order to provide information regarding the overall service experience. This is done by letting users evaluate both user- and company-created services.

    Findings – Users are found to be an important information source when it comes to understanding the overall service experience of technology-based services. The paper shows that users are to some extent better at coming up with services regarding value in use. The findings show that some of the most important experience outcomes that are demanded, functionally related outcomes, are better met by user-created services.

    Research limitations/implications – The paper provides empirical evidence regarding the importance of a user perspective when it comes to understanding both the functional and emotional parts of the overall technology-based service experience. The result of this paper implies a more advanced user focus during service development in order to be able to know what it is that creates value for technology-based service users. Just how technology-based services are functionally and emotionally experienced by their users is a fairly new research area and more empirical studies regarding this subject will be called for in the future.

    Originality/value – This paper provides evidence of the importance of a user perspective when creating value propositions for technology-based service users. From a managerial point of view, it is of interest to see whether it will be possible to learn more about the users' service experience of technology-based services by involving them in the development process.

  • 122.
    Sjodin, Carina
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Customer’s mixed experiences of co-creation during service innovation2012In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 189-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – The purpose of this article is to present the outcome of a co-creation service innovation project, both to understand the possible outcome when using a process model and to achieve a better understanding of how customers experience participation in co-creation in an open service innovation project. The article also discusses the outcome of co-creation in terms of new knowledge concerning customers’ needs, both expressed and latent needs compared to the knowledge gained through a regular guest survey.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – The study is based on 29 in-depth interviews that were conducted subsequent to participation as visitors in a service innovation project which involved testing a model for user involved service innovation. In the process model users were asked to be attentive and produce real time documentations. The co-creation in this case thus occurred when obtaining input for service innovation ideation.

    Findings

    – Participants (visitors to a Swedish zoo), had mixed opinions about their participation in the project. Favourable experiences, such as benevolence and deepened relationships, were balanced by unfavourable experiences such as incapability and intrusion. Also a user involved service innovation approach as the one studied provides valuable knowledge about customers suggested to be useful for service innovation. Users presented a wide range of real time documentations; from brief comments about certain aspects of their experience to more detailed suggestions for future services.

    Originality/value

    – The study provides empirical evidence regarding the importance of adopting a user’s perspective towards service innovation. This is unlike previous research,which has been limited to the study of how companies perceive and can manage co-creation in a manner that is beneficial for them. The study also connects to this perspective by suggesting that co-creation both enhances opportunities for successful service innovation and provides a deeper understanding of customers’ needs.

  • 123.
    Sjödin, Carina
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Employee attitudes and feelings toward customer co-creation during service innovation2012In: Innovative Service Perspectives: Proceedings from the AMA SERVSIG International Service Research Conference, Helsinki, Finland, June 7-9 2012, Helsinki: Helsinki University , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 124.
    Sjödin, Carina
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Involving users in the development of new service experiences2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 125.
    Sjödin, Carina
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Nilsson, Eva
    MTC - Marknadstekniskt Centrum.
    Delac, Camilla
    Parken Zoo - Eskilstuna kommun.
    Tapping users hidden needs: a key to service innovation2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 126.
    Snyder, Hannah
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Logist & Qual Management, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.;Linkoping Univ, HELIX Vinn Excellence Ctr, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Fombelle, Paul
    Northeastern Univ, DAmore McKim Sch Business, Boston, MA USA..
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Identifying categories of service innovation: A review and synthesis of the literature2016In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 69, no 7, p. 2401-2408Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service innovation acts as society's engine of renewal and provides the necessary catalyst for the service sector's economic growth. Despite service innovation's importance, the concept remains fuzzy and poorly defined. Building on an extensive and systematic review of 1046 academic articles, this research investigates and explores how service innovation is defined and used in research. Results identify four unique service innovation categorizations emphasizing the following traits: (1) degree of change, (2) type of change, (3) newness, and (4) means of provision. The results show that most research focuses inward and views service innovation as something (only) new to the firm. Interestingly, service innovation categorizations appear to neglect both customer value and financial performance. 

  • 127.
    Sundström, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Magnusson, P.
    Learning from and with customers in the development of new services a review of customer involvement methods2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 128.
    Svensson, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    The effect of evaluation apprehension on creative performance at everyday workplaces.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 129.
    Trischler, Jakob
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Scott, Don
    Southern Cross Business School, Southern Cross University, Lismore, Australia.
    Team diversity and its management in a co-design team2017In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 120-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the conditions under which a co-design team comprised of in-house professionals and leading-edge service users can generate innovative service design concepts. Design/methodology/approach: The investigation used a field-experimental design to conduct two studies. Observations and open-ended questionnaires were used to examine cross-comparison matrices with experts rating the generated outcomes and t-tests being used to compare the outcome ratings between teams of different compositions. Findings: The outcomes produced by a co-design team seem to be linked to the team diversity – process facilitation relationship. Bringing a variety of knowledge and skills into the team can lead to original outcomes, while a high disparity between members’ backgrounds can require extensive efforts to facilitate a collaborative process. Separation between users’ objectives can result in a user-driven process and outcomes that are too specific for the broader marketplace. Co-design teams that characterize minimum separation, maximum variety, and moderate disparity are likely to produce the most promising results. Research limitations/implications: The research was restricted to a narrowly defined study setting and samples. Future research should replicate the current study in other service contexts using different team compositions. Practical implications: Co-design requires the careful selection of users based on their background and motivations, as well as the facilitation of a process that enables the team to collaboratively transform relevant knowledge into innovative outcomes. Originality/value: The research contributes to a better understanding of the team composition – process facilitation relationship affecting innovation outcomes. Doing so provides a more fine-grained picture of the co-design team composition and the facilitation requirements for service design. © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 130.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Wikstrom, Fredrik
    Örebro University.
    Wetter-Edman, Katarina
    Örebro University.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Decisions on Recycling or Waste: How Packaging Functions Affect the Fate of Used Packaging in Selected Swedish Households2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 12, article id 4794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The intention of this paper is to learn more about why consumers choose whether or not to recycle, with special attention given to the functions of the packaging itself, in order to provide suggestions for improvements in packaging design, recycling systems and the environmental assessment of different packaging designs. The study focussed on ten households in Sweden that where motivated to participate in the study in order to gain an understanding of the complex matter of this decision-making process. The intention of implementing an interview-based qualitative study was to gain rich data and to reach beyond the respondents' immediate verbal responses. The respondents were interviewed with open-ended questions, which were supported with pictures of packaging; additionally, their waste bins were examined. This explorative study suggests a set of obstacles that cause consumers to dispose of packaging relating to the functions of packaging. The different obstacles that determine whether or not packaging is recycled were organised according to three different themes: the attitude towards cleanliness, the effort required to clean and sort and uncertainties about the best environmental alternative. The different functions of packaging do in fact influence all of the identified themes and; therefore, influence the decisions consumers make with regards to the recycling of specific packaging. The identified packaging functions were easy toseparate different materials, easy to separate different parts, easy to clean,easy to empty, easy to reseal, easy to compress and communication regarding recycling. Consumer behaviour with regards to specific packaging functions and recycling should be further investigated. It should also be considered for inclusion in design processes, to increase the chance of materials being recycled, and in food-packaging life-cycle assessments, to provide results that align more closely with reality.

  • 131. Witell, L.
    et al.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson, A.
    The effects of different market research techniques on the generation of new product ideas and discovery of expressed and latent needs2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 132.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Linkoping Univ, Dept Business Adm, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Anderson, Laurel
    Arizona State Univ, WP Carey Sch Business, Tempe, AZ USA.;Arizona State Univ, Ctr Serv Leadership, Tempe, AZ USA..
    Brodie, Roderick J.
    Univ Auckland, Sch Business, Mkt, Auckland 1, New Zealand..
    Colurcio, Maria
    Magna Graecia Univ Catanzaro, Dept Law Hist Econ & Social Sci, Catanzaro, Italy.;Univ Caxias do Sul, Innovat Management, Caxias Do Sul, Brazil..
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Lervik-Olsen, Line
    Norwegian Business Sch, Dept Mkt, Oslo, Norway..
    Sebastiani, Roberta
    Univ Cattolica Sacro Cuore, Dept Management, I-20123 Milan, Italy..
    Andreassen, Tor Wallin
    NHH Norwegian Sch Econ, Ctr Serv Innovat, Bergen, Norway..
    Exploring dualities of service innovation: Implications for service research2015In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 29, no 6-7, p. 436-441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to explore three paradoxes of service innovation and provide a way forward for fresh thinking on the topic. Design/methodology/approach - Through a conceptual model of service innovation research, the authors challenge the "pro-change" bias and explore what can be learnt from the duality of service innovation. Findings - This paper suggests that research moves beyond a firm perspective to study service innovation on multiple levels of abstraction. A conceptual model based on two dimensions, level (individual, organization and society) and outcome (success, failure), is used to pinpoint and explore three dualities of service innovation: adopt-reject, change-static and good-bad. Originality/value - By challenging the traditional perspective on service innovation, the authors present new avenues for fresh thinking in research on service innovation. In this paper, the authors encourage researchers and managers to learn from failures and to acknowledge the negative effects of service innovation.

  • 133.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Collaboration with customers - Understanding the effect of customer-company interaction in new product development2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 134.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    The Effects of Customer Involvement on New Product Ideas in Comparison to Traditional Market Research Techniques2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 135.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Idea Generation: Customer Co-creation versus Traditional Market Research Techniques2011In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 140-159Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 136.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Linköping University.
    Snyder, Hannag
    Linköping University.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Norway.
    Fombelle, Paul
    USA.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Defining service innovation: A review and synthesis2016In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 69, no 8, p. 2863-2872Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on service innovation appears in several research disciplines, with important contributions in marketing, management, and operations research. Although the concept is widely used, few research papers have explicitly defined service innovation. This dearth of research is the motivation for the present study. Through a systematic review of 1301 articles on service innovation appearing in academic journals between 1979 and 2014, this article examines research defining service innovation. The study identifies the key characteristics within 84 definitions of service innovation in different perspectives (assimilation, demarcation and synthesis) and shows how the meaning of the concept is changing. The review suggests that the large variety in definitions limits and hinders knowledge development of service innovation.

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