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  • 101.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Johnson, Michael
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Improving the Customer Orientation Process2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 102.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Customer co-creation in service innovation: a matter of communication?2012In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 311-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – Customer co-creation is becoming increasingly popular among companies, and intensive communication with customers is generally seen as a determinant of the success of a new service or product. The purpose of this study is to analyze customer co-creation based on four dimensions of communication – frequency, direction, modality, and content – in order to understand the value of customer co-creation in service innovation. One of the key aims of the study is to investigate whether all dimensions of customer co-creation have an effect on product and market success, and if the effect depends on the degree of innovativeness of a development project.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – The authors conducted a study including 334 managers with experience in new service and product development to examine how development projects applied customer co-creation in terms of communication in order to address future customer needs. Data were analyzed using partial least squares (PLS). The first analysis was performed with a sub-sample of 207 development projects regarding incremental innovations. A subsequent analysis was performed with a sub-sample of 77 development projects on radical innovations.

    Findings

    – A total of three of the four dimensions of customer co-creation (frequency, direction, and content) have a positive and equally significant effect on product success when developing incremental innovations. For radical innovations, frequency has a positive effect and content has a negative significant effect on product success. These findings suggest that co-creation and innovation can be combined, but that the choice of methods for co-creation differs depending on whether incremental or radical innovations are developed.

    Originality/value

    – Despite a general consensus that co-creation with customers is beneficial, there is a lack of agreement regarding how and why. The present article addresses this shortcoming and shows that co-creation is largely about communicating with customers in order to understand their future needs. On the other hand, a company working on radical innovations may wish to limit customer input that is too concrete or solution based.

  • 103.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Service innovation: a literature review2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 104.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    The Dimensions of Co-Creation and its Contribution to Market Success2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 105.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Myhren, P.
    Kundanpassa sanningens ögonblick: Illustration av ett analysverktyg för tjänstemötet2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 106.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Nilsson, Lilian
    Johnson, M
    The Role of Quality Practices in Service Organizations2003In: International Journal of Service Industry Management vol 14, no 2, p 232-244, 2003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many organizations use quality management to improve firm performance, but the results do not always come quickly. Research in the manufacturing sector has found that different organizational characteristics, such as firm size and the degree of capital intensity, influence the perceived benefits of quality management. We use data from 281 firms that work with quality management to investigate the role of quality practices in service organizations. The results of our investigations support that the relationship between quality practices and business performance is dependent on firm size. In addition we provide insight into how the business results are influenced by individual quality practices such as employee management, process orientation, and customer orientation, depending on firm size

  • 107.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Nilsson, Lilian
    Johnson, M. D.
    Quality Practice in Service Organizations,2003In: International Journal of Service Industry Management. 14(2), 232-244, Presenterad vid:Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 108.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Persson, P.
    Elg, M.
    Priority Setting in QFD - Improvements and Implications1999Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the more important purposes of QFD is to prioritize customer needs and thus know where to focus resources in the future. The standard procedure in QFD is to ask customers to state their importances and there are many disadvantages connected to this procedure. The state-of-the-art approach in customer satisfaction modeling is to derive importances from the customers' evaluation of a product. This paper compares the two approaches. The conclusion is that it is better to derive the importances since it can be expected to generate more reliable results and it is easier to interpret

  • 109.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Roos, Inger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Customer Clubs in Telecommunications - A Relationship Marketing Perspective2004In: Managing Service Quality 14(2/39), pp 157-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Similar to most industries telecommunications has introduced customer or loyalty clubs to their customers during a number of years. Customer clubs occurred as negations of the consequences the deregulated market initiated. Customer clubs are a recognizable part of most CRM strategies, their effect on customer loyalty are, however, not obvious. This study presents result on the fact that the majority of the customers included in clubs do not consider their participation to engage them more than before regarding the telecom service provider. In comparison, excluded customers reflect, however, differently on their telecom relationship. This article evaluates two qualitatively conducted studies, in which customer experiences are contrasted against customer switching processes. Based on the qualitative studies some evidence has been quantified regarding responses to customer clubs. The roles of customer experiences as reasons for switching telecom providers are hence revealed and confronted with the customer-club maintenance function on relationships.

    Customers connect loyalty more and more to customer-club programs in their minds because of the offer frequency to them of varying memberships in order to receive benefits of all kinds for being a company-regular customer. Literature suggests different definition of loyalty and retention (Johnson and Gustafsson 2000) specifying that loyalty embeds an extended behavioral loyalty including also attitudinal aspects (Oliver 1997), while retention more is a customer maintenance measure as differing actions for keeping customers (Stauss et al. 2001). McGoldrick and Andre (1997) point out that loyalty should be a long-term strategic goal, and not the subject of a series of short-term tactical schemes . The reason of their statement is that customer preferences change over time and that it is important to be able to include the changes in the definition on loyalty. Oliver (1997) indicates following the same line that loyalty is a deeply held commitment to rebuy or repatronize a preferred product or service consistently in the future, despite situational influences and marketing efforts having the potential to cause switching behaviour (Oliver 1997, p. 392). Such definition disagrees, however, with the relationship perspective. Relationships have been considered dynamic with changing character and the interaction with customers is therefore suggested to be close in order to know the customer Gummesson 1995; Grönroos 1996). Recently, relationships are deliberately suggested to need new forms of reflecting tools in order to capture the dynamism (Roos 2002; Edvardsson et. al 2002). The influence of the context is assigned a considerable significance (Bolton et al. 2000), the competitors, for example, are by the authors established to have a complex impact on customer-relationship dynamism and even cause switching.

    Customer clubs can be argued to be a part of or a way to perform relationship marketing. Relationship marketing was in its early shape a tool for keeping customers instead of continuously focusing on new customers (Berry 1983; Grönroos 1983). In this article we use that original statement and nature of relationship marketing as our basis. However, we do know that tools were lacking for introducing relationship-marketing procedures into companies strategies as the procedures were introduced in the literature. Personnel were considered key factors (Gummesson 1993) and moment-of-truth the marketplace of the mission for learning to know the customer. At the moment, it seems to be more a question of devising schemes. All customers are regular customers of several companies. The main problem is that customers not always are always aware of the difference being a regular customer included in the customer club or just being a customer.

    The purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to deliberately study how customers in a Swedish telecommunication company perceive and identify the customer-club membership in terms of effect on loyalty and retention.

    The role of satisfaction in customer clubs

    An important question regarding satisfaction and customers included in customer clubs is: do these kinds of programs increase customer satisfaction? Bolton et al. (2000) emphasize the importance of understanding the role of satisfaction regarding customer clubs. According to literature (Jones and Sasser 1995; Bolton and Lemon 1999; Bolton 1998) customer clubs have a longitudinal effect on customer relationships if customers perceive the experiences satisfactory. In other words, the usage level become crucial in customer clubs, otherwise customers are not able to build there perceived satisfaction particularly on experiences.

    Bolton (1998) carried out in the cellular communication industry. She argues that constant failures, even if recovery is perceived by customers as satisfactory, decrease the duration of the relationship. In other words, customers update their relationships according to an anchoring and adjustment process. The adjustment process is motivated by the impact of new information, and customers with a long relationship consequently have higher cumulative satisfaction and fewer perceived losses. Those with many perceived losses normally do not have long relationships, according to this study. Therefore, she suggests that service providers should understand early indicators of switching.

    Loyalty

    Concepts such as retention and re-purchasing are frequently used as indicators of loyalty (Dufer and Moulins 1989; Reichheld and Sasser 1990; Bolton and Drew 1991; Cronin and Taylor 1992; Denison and Knox 1993; Reichheld 1996).

    The link between usage, satisfaction and loyalty is in this article highlighted by introducing the influence of comparability of attributes on switching (Keaveney 1995; Bolton 1998; Roos 1999). When alternatives decreases, the likelihood for perceiving the evaluated attributes more satisfactory increases, which in turn has effect on re-purchase (choice) intention. In telecommunication it seems to be crucial to understand the process behind satisfactory perceived experiences. Srinivasan (1987) argues, for example, that customers do not evaluate the technology itself, because it is too complicated for most of them. They only process the technology-change perception, and are not able to evaluate it. Simonson and Tversky (1992) put it in the following way: performance defines the goal of a purchase. Price, for example, which is central in telecommunication-customer perceptions, is merely considered to be a tool with which to achieve the goal. As a consequence, whereas the experience may be perceived of as more important than price, and thus may affect choice probability, the price may affect the extent of choice. Performance uncertainty, which may appear as uncertainty related to possible wrong choices, needs to be reduced in order to facilitate choice. Customers need to feel safe in their purchasing. Nowlis and Simonson (1996) discuss the topic in terms of how different kinds of attributes compete intrinsically based on the ease of comparison. In sum, in order to build strong customer relationships in a business where the products as in telecommunications is rather similar among competitors and additionally difficult to evaluate in terms of rare contacts to the company, satisfactory experiences become important. Therefore it seems necessary and useful to stress the usage of the products both in terms of frequency and up sell. Then the possibility for partly switching (Roos 1999) to a competitor may be reduced and the prerequisite for satisfactory experiences increased.

    The procedure of the qualitative study

    The qualitative part of our study was designed to include both interviews as well as focus groups. The reason for including two different kinds of tools for collecting qualitative data was to achieve appropriate richness regarding understanding the variables behind customers evaluation of the telecommunication companys customer club.

    The basis for the strategic sample was that the included customers had to reach a set volume of telecommunication traffic. Among the 800 customers that met the established conditions we randomly chose 12 customers with customer-club membership and 12 customers representing not members. We interviewed altogether 30 customers of the telecommunication company.

    Additionally to 24 interviews among member and not members of the customer club, ordinary customers were collected for focus groups interviews. The logic behind the two-part qualitative study was partly the maturity regarding richness of variables communicating important issues regarding customer clubs and partly the opportunity it served being able to include customers belonging to differing interest groups. The customers of the focus groups were chosen with the special request of being capable to both describe their membership properly, but also to compare their membership of the telecommunication customer club with other clubs and membership. Therefore, the age became important and customers between 30-55 years were applied for. They had to have a membership of at least 6 months to telecommunication club and additionally one or more other memberships of customer clubs.

    Results

    The overall impression is that customers do not perceive the customer-club membership to add relevant value to their relationship with the telecommunication company. It appears, however, obviously that on the whole, customers in the club differ regarding their evaluation of the telecommunication company. However, there is no clear distinction between perception of customers included in the customer club and customers that have not signed up for a membership. Accordingly, the customer club seems to indirectly add value to the relationship rather than influence retention.

    Verification

    A survey telephone was carried out in order to verify that the variables captured in the previous qualitative studies were relevant. In all the survey covered 898 respondents and the used sample was a representative sample with regards to age and geographical spread of all of The Companys customers. The respondents were asked to rate a number of issues on a 10-grade scale.

    In the sample (Table 1) there were 135 (15%) respondents that stated they were members and 566 (63%) that stated that they were non-members. It was interesting to find that in our sample 197 stated that they did not know whether or not they were members.

    There are 600 000 members for 4 200 000 customers (14 %).

    Table 1. Members and not members of the customer club

    n Percentage

    Member 135 15%

    Non-member 566 63%

    Do not know 197 22%



    If the loyalty club were to have the effects that it was originally intended to have, we would expect that the customers that are members would have higher ratings for the intended loyalty compared to non-members. The measures for intended loyalty that we use in this study can be found in Table 2.

    Given the art of the service, i.e. that the customers do not chose the service provider every time. In the telecom business a customer has the same service provider until he chooses another. The first two measures in Table 2 of intended loyalty is appropriate in this service context. The measures are whether or not the customer would stay on as a customer and that the customers have no reason to switch from the service provider. Generally the members score higher for these questions on intended loyalty. But the differences are only significant for the first measure and not the second one.



    One question measures the intention to switch, and two questions can be considered as measures of intended loyalty. That is if they were choosing today would they chose Telia again. Finally one question measures how faithful they are towards Telia, meaning if they could be a customer to more than one supplier simultaneously.

    If we study Table 2 we find that this is generally the case but the differences between members and non-members are not large enough in order to be significant which in turn makes us question how well the loyalty program actually works. One of the really interesting questions in the quantitative study is whether the respondent or not the respondents could consider having more than one operator at the same time, which is a clear indicator concerning how loyal the respondents really are. The differences between members and non-members are really small for this question.

    Table 2. Satisfaction and differences between members and non-members

    Member Non-member Sig

    Loyalty Continue as a customer to the company 8.14 7.59 0.032

    No reason for switching 7.14 6.69 0.144

    Can consider having more than one operator 6.82 6.88 0.854

    Likelihood of speaking favorably about the company to others 6.46 6.19 0.336

    Likelihood of choosing The company again 6.98 6.69 0.288

    Customer Satisfaction Overall satisfaction 7.37 6.75 0.003

    Performance versus the customers ideal service provider in the category 7.23 6.84 0.055

    Expectancy disconfirmation 6.62 6.50 0.541



    Apart from loyalty we also included attitude questions in the form of customer satisfaction measures in the quantitative study. Since we are working from a relationship perspective we think of customer satisfaction an overall evaluation of the consumption experience. Cumulative customer satisfaction as such is usually measured through three survey measures: overall satisfaction, expectancy-disconfirmation, and performance versus an ideal product or service in the category (Johnson et. al., 2001).

    As can be seen from Table 2 we actually do find significant differences between members and non-members for the customer satisfaction measures, which in turn implies that the loyalty program actually has some effect. Members are overall more satisfied with Telia as a service provider and they are closer to an ideal service provider. There are, however, no difference between the to groups when Telias performance is compared to the respondents expectations.

    The results from this exploratory study both confirm and disconfirm the effects of loyalty programs. The proofs against the loyalty program is that a large share of the population is uncertain whether or not they actually are members in the program, which makes it questionable how attractive a membership really is. Members of the loyalty program does not seem particularly loyal to Telia, although some of the ratings for the loyalty questions are higher it is not significantly higher. The proof in favor of the loyalty program is that the members actually seem to have higher satisfaction ratings which implies that the loyalty program actually has some effect on the members attitude toward Telia.

    References



    Berry, Leonard L. (1983): Relationship Marketing. Emerging Perspectives on Services Marketing. Ed. Leonard L. Berry, Texas A&M University, G. Lynn Shostack, Bankers Trust Company and Gregory D. Upah, Young and Rubicam, pp. 25-28. Chicago: American Marketing Association.

    Bolton, Ruth N. (1998), A Dynamic Model of the Duration of the Customers Relationship with a Continuous Service Provider: The Role of Satisfaction. Marketing Science, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1998, pp. 45-65.

    Bolton, Ruth N. and James H. Drew (1991), A Multistage Model of Customers` Assessments of Service Quality and Value. Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 17, March.

    Bolton, Ruth N. and Katherine N. Lemon (1999), A Dynamic Model of Customers Usage of Services: Usage as an Antecedent and Consequence of Satisfaction, Journal of Marketing Research, 36 (2), pp. 171-186.

    Bolton, Ruth N., P. K. Kannan and Matthew D. Bramlett (2000), Implications of Loyalty Program Membership and Service Experiences for Customer Retention and Value, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 95-108.

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    Dufer, Jean and Jean-Louis Moulins (1989), La Relation Entre la Satisfaction du Consommateur et Sa Fidélité à la Marque: Un Examen Critique. Recherche et Application en Marketing, Vol. 4, No 2, pp. 21-36.

    Edvardsson, Bo, Anders Gustafsson och Inger Roos (2002), Understanding the Trigger Effect on Customers Maturity Processes in Telecommunications. In, Service Quality in Service: Crossing Boundaries. Ed. Tax, S, Ian Stuart, Stephen W. Brown, Bo Edvardsson, Robert Johnston and Eberhard E. Scheuing. Canada, Victoria: University of Victoria, Printing and Duplicating Services, pp. 256-265.

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    McGoldrick, Peter J., and Elisabeth Andre (1997), Consumer Misbehavior. Promiscuity or Loyalty in Grocery Shopping, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 73-81.

    Nowlis, Stephen M. and Itamar Simonson (1996): The Effect of New Product Features on Brand Choice. Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. XXXIII, February 1996, pp. 36-46.

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  • 110.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Shams, Poja
    Wästlund, Erik
    Packaging Placement Vs. Packaging Design: The effect of extrinsic cues on visual perception2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 111.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Tarasi, C
    Walker, B
    Bolton, R
    Building actionable market segments based on customers' cash flow variability2009Report (Refereed)
  • 112.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Tarasi, Crina
    Bolton, Ruth
    Walker, Beth
    How Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty Programs Influence Customer's Cash Flow Variability: Implications for Market Segmentation2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 113.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Widell, Lars
    Analyzing Customer Relationships - A New Type of Customer Information2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 114.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Analysing Customer Relationships - A New Type of Customer Information2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 115.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Brown, Stephen
    Beyond Products2009In: Wall Street Journal. Europé, ISSN 0921-9986, no 22/06/2009Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 116.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Johnson, M. D.
    Customer Orientation in Practice - An Investigation of the Relationship between Customer Orientation and Customer Satisfaction2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 117.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Löfberg, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Service strategies in a supply chain2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 118.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Löfberg, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Brown, Stephen
    Business Models throughout the Supply Chain How Different Positions Require Different Service Strategies2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 119. Herrmann, A.
    et al.
    Huber, F.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Determinants of Customer Loyalty-Results of a Causal Analytical Study and Implications for Car Retailers1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 120. Herrmann, A.
    et al.
    Johnson, M.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Huber, F.
    Transformation von Kundenzufriedenheitsurteilen in Produktqualitätsvorgaben1999In: Zeitschrift für Planning 10: 117-131Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 121. Herrmann, Andreas
    et al.
    Johnson, Michael D.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Huber, Frank
    Das Bridging the Gap-Modell (The Bridging the Gap Model)2000In: A.Herrmann, G. Hertel, W. Virt and F. Huber (eds.), Kundenorientierte Produktgestaultung (Customer Oriented Product Development), Munich, Germany: Verlag Vahlen München , 2000Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 122. Huber, F.
    et al.
    Herrmann, A.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    On the Influence of the Evaluation Methods in Conjoint Design - Some Empirical Results2000In: Conjoint Measurement - Methods and Applications (Gustafsson, A., A. Herrmann, and F. Huber eds.), Springer Verlag , 2000Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 123.
    Huneke, Tabea
    et al.
    EBS Business Sch, Oestrich, Germany..
    Benoit (nee Moeller), Sabine
    Univ Roehampton, London SW15 5SL, England..
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Does Service Employees' Appearance Affect the Healthiness of Food Choice?2015In: Psychology & Marketing, ISSN 0742-6046, E-ISSN 1520-6793, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 94-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Derived from previous research on social influence on food consumption and social comparison theory, this article examines the effect of service employees' appearance on consumers' food choice using an experimental study, involving a video manipulation and eye-tracking technique. The video shows a menu being proffered by a waitress whose degree of apparent healthiness varies (healthy, overweight, unhealthy lifestyle). The menu contains both healthy and unhealthy meal alternatives. The analysis of participants' eye movements demonstrated that exposure to the overweight employee did not stimulate greater (i.e., earlier or longer) attention to unhealthy meal alternatives, whereas exposure to the employee who displayed an unhealthy lifestyle did. These findings have social and managerial implications: The postulated stigma according to which the presence of overweight others encourages unhealthy eating appears questionable. Service providers that might secretly hire according to body weight have no grounds to do so. In contrast, employees signaling an unhealthy lifestyle through their style choices prompt patrons to pay more attention to unhealthy meal alternatives. Food service providers might want to take this factor into consideration and actively manage the aspects that can be altered by simple measures. (C) 2014 The Authors. Psychology & Marketing Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 124.
    Högström, Claes
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. BI Norwegian Sch Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Tronvoll, Bard
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Hedmark University College, Norway.
    Strategic brand management: Archetypes for managing brands through paradoxes2015In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 391-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although brands are acknowledged as significant assets in a firm's value creation and differentiation process, branding literature often describes opposing perspectives and contradictory demands. This article develops a framework of three strategic brand management archetypes that provide new insights into the complexity and often paradoxical ambiguity of branding. By combining an empirical qualitative study with extant brand management and relational exchange theory, the authors suggests that firms create, reinforce, switch, or allow certain brand management archetypes to coexist to optimize specific effects and manage paradoxes. From a managerial perspective, the article suggests that understanding strategic brand management and related paradoxes is fundamental for organizations to achieve desired effects with their value creation. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved.

  • 125. Johnson, M. D.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Bridging the Quality Satisfaction Gap II1997In: of the Third Annual International QFD Symposium, Vol. 2 (Eds, Gustafsson, A., Bergman, B. and Ekdahl, F.) IKP/Quality Technology and Management, LinköpingArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Gustafsson and Johnson (1997) we describe a framework that links an external focus on customers, using customer satisfaction modeling (CSM), with a means of translating customer needs into their internal means of accomplishment, using quality function deployment (QFD). The linking of these traditionally separate systems poses certain problems when making customer-driven quality improvements. A lot of effort in QFD goes into the prioritization of the needs and making this as objective as possible in order to receive the best input possible to the house of quality. We, however, argue that this might not be the case. Rather it is one of the more fundamental problems encountered in QFD.

    The goal of this paper is to take a scientific approach to this problem using theoretical empiricism, i.e. blending theory and practice (Wold 1989). The measurement of customer needs and determination of their relative importance requires a fundamentally different approach than is typically encountered in applications of QFD. We argue that the measures used to prioritize benefits and attributes should depend, at least in part, on whether the primary goal is to identify areas in need of improvement or to design and develop products and services per se.

  • 126. Johnson, M. D.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Der bridging the gap-Ansatz Kundenorientierte Produktgestaltung1999In: (Andreas Herrmann, Günter Hertel, Wilfried Virt, Frank Huber eds)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 127. Johnson, M. D.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Improving Customer Satisfaction, Loyalty and Profit: An Integrated Measurement and Management System2000Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past two decades, you may have seen your company move sequentially from a focus on quality to focuses on customer satisfaction, loyalty and, most recently, relationship management. We view these various factors or perspectives as a system or chain of causes and effects that build upon each other and that cannot be treated or managed separately. Unfortunately, however, companies today do often try to treat them without regard to their place in a system.



    Our purpose in writing this book is to help you establish more explicit linkages from quality to customer satisfaction to loyalty, and ultimately to bottom-line financial performance. Future approaches to customer measurement and management cannot be based on simple arguments that "quality is free" or that it is less expensive to satisfy and keep customers than to constantly replace them. Upper managers and executives need specific estimates of the payoffs they should expect from increasing quality, satisfaction, and loyalty. Setting priorities and allocating resources requires it. If middle level managers or employees in charge of measuring and improving quality and satisfaction are to be of real service to upper management in this regard, they need to be able to supply the kind of data and information by which payoffs can be estimated.



    This book is intended for both "enablers" and "doers" in your company. As an executive in charge of improving quality, customer satisfaction or loyalty, your job may be to enable others to act through training and support. As a specialist within the quality, customer assessment, or product and service development areas of the company, your job may be to collect, analyze or use customer data to improve quality, satisfaction and retention. Whatever may be your particular niche, this text will help you to take part in creating an integrated customer measurement and management system that will improve your firm's ability to allocate resources and increase profits.

  • 128. Johnson, M. D.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Cha, J.
    The Evolution and Future of National Customer Satisfaction Indices1999In: the 11:th Annual AMA/ASQ Customer Satisfaction and Quality Measurement Conference, Mars 1-2, Anaheim CaliforniaArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Customer satisfaction has emerged as an important benchmark for gauging business performance. Satisfaction increases customer loyalty and retention, which over time increases revenues and lowers costs to increase profitability (Johnson 1998; Reichheld 1996). Satisfaction benchmarking has taken on national and international significance with the development of national satisfaction barometers and indices in Sweden (Fornell 1992), Germany (Meyer 1994) and the United States (Fornell et al. 1996). Other countries, including New Zealand, Taiwan and Austria, have tested indices on a smaller scale while still others are undertaking similar projects. There is also a proposal for a European Customer Satisfaction Index (ECSI), a joint effort across nations in the European Union.

    It remains to be seen whether these indices will develop on a global level and, importantly, in what form. Of critical importance to the validity and reliability of such indices is that the methods and models used to measure customer satisfaction and related constructs continue to learn, adapt, and improve over time. The goal of this report is to facilitate this learning, adaptation and improvement process. We begin with a discussion of the foundations for making broad-based comparisons of satisfaction across individual, industries, and nations. We then describe the evolution of national satisfaction indices, including details of the current model being used in the United States and Sweden, and review evidence of the comparability of satisfaction measures across industries and countries. Both the strengths and weaknesses inherent in the current approaches are detailed. Finally, we propose a series of improvements for measuring and modeling satisfaction going forward.

  • 129. Johnson, M.
    et al.
    Herrmann, A.
    Huber, F.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Customer Retention in Automotive Industry1997Book (Refereed)
  • 130. Johnson, Michael D.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Wallin Andreassen, Tor
    Lervik, Line
    Cha, Jaesung
    The Evolution and Future of National CustomerSatisfaction Index Models2001In: Journal of Economic Psychology 22 (2). Pp 217-245Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 131. Johnson, Michael D.
    et al.
    Herrmann, Andreas
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Customer Satisfaction over Industries, Countries and Time2002In: Journal of Economic Psychology 23. pp 749-769Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 132. Johnson, Michael D.
    et al.
    Herrmann, Andreas
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Customer satisfaction over industries, countries and time2000Report (Refereed)
  • 133.
    K Andersson, Pernille
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Changing the servicescape with music2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 134.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Any way goes: Identifying value constellations for service infusion2013In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 18-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing firms have always delivered services, by supplying spare parts, installing equipment, training employees, or performing maintenance. In competitive markets though, firms seek new ways to differentiate their business, including an increased focus on service, often referred to as service infusion. Of the studies that seek to understand this phenomenon, most focus on large multinational firms; little is known about service infusion in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This study adopts an explorative approach to investigate how SMEs construct new value constellations that enable value creation through services. The findings, based on in-depth interviews with key informants from 13 SMEs, suggest that there is no predefined transition process for service infusion in SMEs, which seldom have the resources to build new organizational units or create new specialties. Instead, they differentiate themselves through new value constellations within business networks. The heterogeneity of service offerings and business networks means those value constellations take many forms.

  • 135.
    Kristensson, Per
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Archer, Trevor
    Göteborgs universitet, Dept of Psychology.
    Harnessing the creative potential among users2004In: The Journal of product innovation management, ISSN 0737-6782, E-ISSN 1540-5885, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 4-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    User involvement in the development of new products may offer a novel approach to improved methods of meeting customer needs. These users are considered to offer possibilities for generating original, valuable, and realizable ideas leading to successful innovation. However, the merit of users’ ideas compared to ideas generated by the company itself has not been investigated empirically. In the present study, advanced users, ordinary users, and professional product developers were given the task of creating ideas for future mobile phone services. The main purpose was to examine the benefit of involving users in suggesting new product ideas in an innovation project. An experimental three-group design was used in order to assess the output in terms of its original, valuable, and realizable merit. The results indicated that ordinary users create significantly more original and valuable ideas than professional developers and advanced users. Professional developers and advanced users created more easily realizable ideas, and ordinary users created the most valuable ideas. The results were discussed from the viewpoint of divergent thinking. It was suggested that divergent thinking was facilitated through the opportunity to combine different information elements that appeared separate at the outset, such as personal needs coupled with the functionality of mobile phone services.

  • 136.
    Kristensson, Per
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Tjänsteinnovation2014Book (Other academic)
  • 137.
    Kristensson, Per
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Proactive versus Reactive approaches to generate customer knowledge2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 138. Lervik, Line
    et al.
    Andreassen, Tor W
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    If you break it, should I fix it?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 139.
    Lervik, Line
    et al.
    Department of Marketing, BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Linkoping Univ, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Turning customer satisfaction measurements into action2014In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 556-571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature on customer orientation by developing and empirically testing a model that attempts to explain the elements that constitute customer orientation and that, in turn, influence customer satisfaction. In particular, this study focuses on how service firms design, collect, analyse and use customer-satisfaction data to improve service performance. This study has the following three research objectives: to understand the process and, as a consequence, the phases of customer orientation; to investigate the relationships between the different phases of customer orientation and customer satisfaction; and to examine activities in the different phases of customer orientation that result in higher customer satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach– This study, combining quantitative and qualitative research, is based on a cross-sectional survey of 320 service firms and a multiple case study of 20 organisational units at a large service firm in the European telecom industry. Findings– The results show that customer orientation consists of a process that includes three phases: strategy, measurement and analysis and implementation. Contrary to previous research, implementation has the strongest influence on customer satisfaction. In turn, customer satisfaction influences financial results. In-depth interviews with managers provided insights into the specific activities that are key for turning customer-satisfaction measurements into action. Originality/value – This research contributes to the literature on customer orientation by developing and empirically testing a model that attempts to explain what constitutes customer orientation and, in turn, influences customer satisfaction and financial results. Given the large amount of research on customer satisfaction, studies on how service firms collect and use customer-satisfaction data in practice are scarce.

  • 140.
    Lusch, Robert F.
    et al.
    Univ Arizona, Eller Coll Management, 1130 East Helen St, Tucson, AZ 85745 USA..
    Vargo, Stephen L.
    Univ Hawaii Manoa, Shidler Coll Business, 2404 Maile Way, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA..
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. BI Norwegian Sch Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Fostering a trans-disciplinary perspectives of service ecosystems2016In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 69, no 8, p. 2957-2963Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides a brief introduction and comments on the articles in this special issue on transdisciplinary perspectives of service-dominant logic. Insights are provided that draw on economics, ecosystems theory, philosophy, service science, sociology, strategic management and systems science. Collectively these articles enhance service-dominant logic as well as foster more transdisciplinary research. We also integrate some of the ideas presented and share some observations and suggestions on resource integration, value co-creation, institutions, and service ecosystems. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 141.
    Löfberg, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. bIndustrial Engineering and Management, Linköping.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Service manoeuvres to overcome challenges of servitisation in a value network2015In: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 26, no 14-15, p. 1188-1197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When manufacturing firms increase the share of service revenues, managing service provision becomes challenging. This study extends previous research on servitisation in individual firms by analysing the challenges service provision creates in a value network. The challenges are identified both within the firms and in the business relationships in the value network. In addition, the paper identifies and describes service manoeuvres firms use to address challenges resulting from servitisation. This case study of a value network is based on interviews carried out at 13 firms in the automotive industry, including suppliers, original equipment manufacturers and consultancies. The research shows that service manoeuvres, such as new types of resource integration and value constellations, are used to overcome challenges in the value network.

  • 142.
    Löfberg, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Brown, W., Stephen
    W. P. Carey School of Business Arizona State University.
    Solving the paradoxes of service infusion: A multiple case study of a value network2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 143.
    Löfgren, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Customer satisfaction in the first and second moments of truth2008In: Journal of Product & Brand Management, ISSN 1061-0421, Vol. 17, no 7, p. 463-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Almost everything consumers buy in a store has a package. At point of purchase, the first moment of truth, the package functions as a silentsalesman. Once the purchase is made, the product is consumed in the second moment of truth. The purpose of this paper is to create a betterunderstanding of how customers evaluate different aspects of the package in the first and second moments of truth.Design/methodology/approach An empirical investigation is conducted on how customers experience three different packages for everydaycommodities in the first and second moments of truth. Causal modeling is used to analyze the impact of different benefits of a package onto customersatisfaction and loyalty.Findings It was found that both benefits and attributes can have different roles in affecting customer satisfaction and loyalty in different parts of theconsumption cycle. Furthermore, the results show that there are significant differences for the impacts of customer satisfaction on loyalty in the firstmoment of truth compared to the second moment of truth.Practical implications By applying a consumption system approach, it is possible for managers to design a package that can attract customers inthe first moment of truth and at the same time create customer satisfaction in the second moment of truth.Originality/value The research shows that the role of certain benefits and attributes can be different in the purchase and use situation. Previously,this has been modeled separately but by operationalizing the first and second moment of truth in the same model the true effects of various benefitsand attributes can be identified

  • 144.
    Löfgren, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Theory of Attractive Quality and Life Cycles of Quality Attributes2011In: The TQM Journal, ISSN 1754-2731, E-ISSN 1754-274X, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 235-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to shed further light on the dynamics of quality attributes, as suggested by the theory of attractive quality. The study aims to investigate the existence of the life cycle for successful quality attributes and to identify alternative life cycles of quality attributes.

    Design/methodology/approach – The research is based on two surveys in which a total of 1,456 customers (708 in 2003 and 748 in 2009) participated in the classification of quality attributes. In particular, the study investigated how customers perceived 24 particular packaging attributes at two points in time, in 2003 and 2009.

    Findings – The study identified three life cycles of quality attributes: successful quality attributes, flavor-of-the-month quality attributes, and stable quality attributes. The research also extends the theory of attractive quality by identifying the reverse movement of certain quality attributes; that is, that a quality attribute can take a step backwards in the life cycle of successful quality attributes through, for instance, a change in design.

    Originality/value – The paper provides empirical evidence for the existence of several alternative life cycles of quality attributes. The results of the empirical investigation increase the validity of the theory of attractive quality, which is important, given the limited amount of research that has attempted to validate the fundamentals of the theory of attractive quality.

  • 145.
    Löfgren, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Fombelle, Paul
    Northeastern University.
    Influencing the customer experience with gifts and greetings2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 146.
    Martin, Drew
    et al.
    Univ Hawaii, Coll Business & Econ, 200 West Kawili St, Hilo, HI 96720 USA..
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Choi, Sunmee
    Yonsei Univ, Sch Business, 50 Yonsei Ro, Seoul 120749, South Korea..
    Service innovation, renewal, and adoption/rejection in dynamic global contexts2016In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 69, no 7, p. 2397-2400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This Journal of Business Research special section includes 7 articles selected from papers presented during the 2014 Global Marketing Conference held July 15-18, 2014. The Conference's theme was "Bridging Asia and the World: Globalization of Marketing and Management Theory and Practice." This special edition introduces current topics concerning researchers and practitioners about service innovation, renewal, and adoption/rejection research. Following the conference's theme, this special edition emphasizes the need for educators and business leaders to make sense, plan, and interpret outcomes accurately of implementing service innovations in dynamic global contexts. 

  • 147. Matthing, Jonas
    et al.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Parasuraman, A.
    Developing Successful Technology-Based Services: The Issue of Identifying and Involving Innovative Users2005In: Journal of Services MarketingArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 148.
    Matthing, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Parasuraman, A
    Department of Marketing, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida, USA.
    Developing Successful Technology-Based Services: The Issue of Identifying and Involving Innovative Users2006In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 288-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – The aim of this paper is to explore the identification of innovative customers and the effectiveness of employing such customers to generate new service ideas in a technology-based service setting.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – The first study reported here employs the “technology readiness” (TR) construct and involves telephone surveys with randomly selected Swedish consumers. The second involves a field experiment.

    Findings

    – Findings from Study I suggest that the TR is a useful tool for identifying users who exhibit both innovative attitudes and behaviors. The results from Study II show that users with a high TR are highly creative as reflected by the quantity and quality of new service ideas.

    Research limitations/implications

    – The sample size for Study II was relatively small and making empirical generalizations with confidence should await results from studies involving larger samples. However, in sum the research demonstrates that TR appears to be an effective tool for identifying innovative customers who would be both willing to participate in new service development and capable of generating creative ideas.

    Originality/value

    – Service businesses interested in using customers to help generate new ideas could benefit from this research.

  • 149. Matthing, Jonas
    et al.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Parasuraman, A.
    New Service Development: A Matter of Finding Innovative Users2006In: Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. Vol 20 No. 5, pp. 288-297Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 150.
    McColl-Kennedy, Janet R.
    et al.
    Univ Queensland, UQ Business Sch, Mkt, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. ..
    Jaakkola, Elina
    Univ Turku, Sch Econ, Turku, Finland..
    Klaus, Phil
    Brunel Univ, Sch Business, London, England..
    Radnor, Zoe Jane
    Univ Loughborough, Sch Business & Econ, Serv Operat Management, Loughborough, Leics, England..
    Perks, Helen
    Univ Nottingham, Sch Business, Mkt, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England..
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Fresh perspectives on customer experience2015In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 29, no 6-7, p. 430-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide directions for future research on: broadening the role of customers in customer experience; taking a practice-based approach to customer experience; and recognizing the holistic, dynamic nature of customer experience across all touch points and over time. Design/methodology/approach - The approach is conceptual identifying current gaps in research on customer experience. Findings - The findings include a set of research questions and research agenda for future research on customer experience. Originality/value - This research suggests fresh perspectives for understanding the customer experience which can inspire future research and advance theory and managerial practice.

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