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  • 101.
    Abrahamsson, Elise
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Pratbubblan: den röda tråden: En studie av Karlstads Stadsnäts visuella kommunikation2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Karlstad City Fiber Network visual elements in the form of a pair of speech bubbles fit into the organization's holistic external communication and branding. The study examines whether Karlstad City Fiber Network image of the organization and the speech bubbles match the stakeholders view and how the visual elements are perceived and recognized by stakeholders. The theory associated with the study is theories of corporate visual identity, image, identity and branding and visual communication. These three elements are important to be aware of when a generation of an effective external communications. Qualitative interviews with employees at Karlstad City Fiber Network and Karlstad municipality has undertaken to give an idea of ​​what the organization wants to achieve and what their opinions are. Karlstad City Fiber Network wants stakeholders to perceive the brand building marketing records as playful, with a twinkle in his eye and inviting to dialogue while the direct information shall be straight and free of jargon. The organization wishes that stakeholders see them as a safe choice as well as local and accessible for inhabitants of Karlstad. Karlstad City Fiber Network sees it as a great advantage to be taken of Karlstad Municipality, which also welcomes the urban network is municipal. Through focus group interviews with Karlstad City Fiber Network stakeholders, the inhabitants of Karlstad, it has emerged that the speech bubbles is not recognized, but it is only when the speech bubbles is put into a context, such as newspaper or newsletter that it can be linked to anything that advocates the municipality of Karlstad and dialogue. It is concluded that corporate visual identity is the link between the visual and the context of an organization's marketing. Stakeholders see Karlstad City Fiber Network as a credible organization that is simple yet eye-catching newsletters, but believe that their marketing is somewhat vague and confusing.

  • 102.
    Abrahamsson, Elise
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Johansson, Sofia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Information Systems and Project Management.
    Den perfekta motivationen?: En studie om att påverka ideella arbetares motivation2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studies syfte är att undersöka de faktorer som motiverar ideella arbetare i evenemangsprojekt samt hur projektledare resonerar och reflekterar kring att motivera ideella arbetare. Studien ämnar att ta reda på hur projektledare från fyra olika evenemangsprojekt gör för att motivera ideella arbetare. Resultatet kan bidra till att framtida projektledare får tips kring vilka verktyg de kan använda för att skapa motivation hos sina ideella arbetare.

    Studiens huvudfrågor med tillhörande underfrågor är:

    • Hur agerar projektledare för att skapa motivation hos de som arbetar ideellt i evenemangsprojekt?

    - Vilka delar i projektledarens agerande är de mest framgångsrika gällande att skapa motivation?

    • Hur tänker projektledare kring motivation hos ideella arbetare?

    - Vad motiverar ideella arbetare i evenemangsprojekt?

    Resultaten i studien kommer från den kvalitativa metoden informant- och respondentintervju. Intervjuerna hålls med fyra olika projektledare, en från varje organisation samt två ideella arbetare från varje organisation. Dessa resultat analyseras sedan med hjälp av teorier kring motivation och ledarskap från bland andra Maslow, Herzberg och Deci och Ryan. I slutet på uppsatsen sammanställs resultat och analys till en lista på nio konkreta råd för hur framtida projektledare kan agera för att skapa och behålla motivation hos ideella arbetare.

    Studien visar bland annat att ideella arbetare främst motiveras utav inre motivation när de söker sig till ett ideellt arbete. Men att de under projektet kan variera mellan både yttre och inre motivation och att motivationen är påverkbar från ledarens sida. Ledaren kan bland annat motivera de ideella arbetarna genom att vara närvarande i arbetsuppgifterna och genom att skapa en personlig relation till sina ideella arbetare. Andra sätt att motivera sina ideella arbetare kan vara att skapa en sammanhållning i projektgruppen, genom att situationsanpassa sitt ledarskap och genom att vara tydlig när det gäller information och projektets mål.

  • 103.
    Abrahamsson, Emilia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Persson, Ebba
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Riskhantering i evenemangsprojekt: Wooops!2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study was aimed to find answers how the event industry is working with risk management and which secondary effects risk management generates. The study was also aimed to find answers whether the event managers think risk management is profitable. The reason we decided to study this subject is because the event industry is one of the largest growing markets. Event of different category attracts a lot of people and the risks increases when masses gather at the same spot. Theory and previous research shows that not every event project implements an appropriate risk management, even though risks are many and its consequences can be devastating.

    We have done qualitative interviews with persons working with event projects to get a perception of how they work and their opinion of risk management. We have concluded that the studied event firms are working with risk management in every event projects but generally event managers use different risk management techniques. The study revealed that all the studied event firms focus on security during event projects implementation, rather than risk affecting the projects planning phase. Secondary effects of risk management are many and a recurrent effect is the awareness among project staff. All the informants are convinced that risk management always is profitable.

  • 104.
    Abrahamsson, Emilia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Renhult, Elena
    Fräsch och strukturerad med attityd: Ett examensprojekt om tidningslayout2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractPresentation of the problem: The goal with this graduation project is to produce a new visual concept for the student newspaper Campus, this will be expressed in the form of page templates. The page templates will have a visual concept that appears through graphical elements. The client's wishes were that the student newspaper should be audience appropriate, attractive, inviting, reliable, modern and functional to work with.Theory: In order to implement the wishes and in a good way produce a consistent visual concept, we took a starting point in theory of graphic design. This theory has taken many of its principles from aesthetic theory, and therefore have we also used aesthetics to provide a deeper theoretical aspect. The principles we used in graphic design is; how to create a unity in the layout by using basic elements such as text, images, and white space. We have also looked at alignment-, form-, color-, contrast-, typography- and placement principles. The principles we have applied from aesthetics are color repetition, color contrasts, balance, visual harmony and depth.Method: The empirical studies consisted of a qualitative content analysis of student newspapers, followed by a focus-group study with respondents from the Campus newspaper target group. The purpose of the two studies was to, via a content analysis, get a general picture of the design language that is used on the market today. This, combined with theory, helped us to create a visual expression that stands outside the general form. It was done in four different dummies, these dummies were discussed by the focus-group.Results: Our first empirical study showed how student newspapers are designed today. With support of theory, the functioning principles was sorted out and used in the four dummies. During the focus-group analysis, opinions about the dummies were presented. We could therefore see what the respondents wanted in the page templates. Together with the client's wishes and analysis from the empirical studies, a new concept developed. It will be perceived as clean and structured together with attitude.

  • 105.
    Abrahamsson, Erika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Gröna tak - potentialen för dagvattenreglering i Karlstad: Simuleringar i Mike Urban2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As urban areas become more populated and denser, stormwater management becomes an important matter. Since natural areas are becoming exploited and green areas in cities are removed the stormwater flow increases due to the conversion of impermeable surfaces into hard surface areas. The increase in stormwater flow can cause flooding if the pipeline system is insufficient.

    Change in climate caused by anthropogenic emissions will expose our communities to difficult challenges. Urban flooding from sewers is one of them, and may become more frequent in parts of the world where precipitation is predicted to increase in the future. In order to develop our cities in a sustainable manner and create resilience, the urban drainage system has to be a part of this development. Many of the techniques related to sustainable urban drainage systems, like storage reservoirs and open channels, require access to land space. However, about 40-50 % of the impermeable surfaces in cities consist of roof. Consequently, an interesting alternative to decrease stormwater flow is green roof due to its ability to reduce and attenuate the flow.

    The aim of this thesis is to demonstrate the benefits of green roof’s stormwater management through simulations in Mike Urban. The simulations are made over two neighborhoods in Karlstad with future climate changes. The simulations indicated that green roof in these neighborhoods show good potential to lower the risk of flooding and the numbers of flooded wells by a 10- and 2-year rain is decreased by 42 and 58 %.

  • 106.
    Abrahamsson, Even
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Motivation till läsförståelse: Hur utvecklar man som lärare motivation hos elever till läsförståelse i svenskämnet?2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to examine how teachers can develop motivation within upper secondary students for reading comprehension in the school subject of Swedish. Some aspects are examined in relation to the purpose of this essay such as both of the target groups’ attitudes and views towards reading comprehension, reading and motivation as well as similarities and differences between them. This essay also shows what kind of reading habits upper secondary students and Swedish teachers have in and outside of upper secondary school. Gender is an underlying factor that is examined in relation to the previously mentioned target groups. Two surveys were handed out to upper secondary students and Swedish teachers. They had to reply qualitative and quantitative questions with a focus on motivation in relation to reading comprehension based on different perspectives. The result showed that there are different ways, such as literary variation and an engaging approach, teachers can use to develop motivation within upper secondary students for reading comprehension in the school subject of Swedish. Both of the target groups believe that an active participation amongst each other in the classroom is important in order to express motivation towards reading comprehension and reading. The majority of them has a positive attitude towards both of the areas with the opinion that it is important to read and understand different texts because as a reader you receive new thoughts and perspectives as well as an increased vocabulary. Furthermore, upper secondary students and Swedish teachers have different views on how they experience and if they are motivated towards areas in the school subject of Swedish that involves reading comprehension and reading. One example is that both of the areas are important in order for students to develop positively for their future working life or future studies. The majority of both target groups are also able to see the positive sides of reading comprehension and reading despite varied reading habits in and outside upper secondary school, such as the fact that students prefer young adult literature while teachers enjoy non-fiction.

  • 107.
    Abrahamsson, Even
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Ungdomsspråk: Elevers och lärares attityder till samt användning av ungdomsspråk i och utanför skolans verksamhet med fokus på muntlig språkproduktion i svenskämnet2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this essay is to, based on different examples of youth language, examine upper secondary students’ and Swedish teachers’ attitudes to and usage of youth language in and outside upper secondary school with a focus on oral language production in the school subject of Swedish. This essay will also focus on if and how upper secondary students’ accomplishments in the school subject of Swedish are affected by their usage of youth language as well as what kind of view that upper secondary students and Swedish teachers have about this and about the opposite group’s usage of youth language. Two underlying factors, as in gender and age, will also be examined in relation to the previously mentioned target groups. Two surveys were handed out to upper secondary students and Swedish teachers. They got to answer qualitative and quantitative questions about attitudes to and usage of youth language. The result showed that upper secondary students use youth language more than Swedish teachers, both in and outside upper secondary school, for example through slang, curse words and discourse markers. Both of the target groups have different attitudes to youth language where Swedish teachers consider that it is limited while upper secondary students believe that it creates solidarity. Swedish teachers and upper secondary students also have different opinions about the fact that students’ usage of youth language might affect their accomplishments in the school subject of Swedish. However, the majority of both target groups believe that it has a negative influence. There are also similarities and differences between both target groups’ views on the counterpart’s usage of youth language. For example, the Swedish teachers believe that youth language can be innovative while upper secondary students express that it is embarrassing if their teachers try to use youth language in the classroom.

  • 108.
    Abrahamsson, Evonne
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Andersson, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    "Unga män som bryter mönstret": "Young Men who Break the Standard"2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about the project Sharaf’s heroes, which aims to change - the attitudes of young men with roots in honour culture. A qualitative method has been used, with four interviews with men who work within the organization. The aim of the study has been to increase the understanding of how work against honour related violence and oppressions can be dealt with, in order to decrease it. The focus in this study lies on the young men's own view on and experiences of honour culture and their work with the project Sharaf’s heroes. Our issues are as follows: What are Sharaf’s heroes and what is the purpose of the project? Which methods are used in their work? Which problems and obstacles will it be with the work in the project and which result has the project given so far? What does an honour culture consist of and what kinds of problems does it cause? Which role has young men living in honour culture and how can they work in order to change it?

     

    Our result shows that the project’s purpose of the project is that it will work as an aid organization in order to prevent and to change attitudes. Additionally, it will function as a knowledge bank for different authorities when it comes to honour related violence. The main method in the project is the dialogue group, where the work starts from underneath through the young generation's men. The result that the project has given so far shows that when the dialogue between children and parents start, a process begins which leads to change the current prevailing attitudes. The problems with the work in the project are above all that there is a lack of cooperation within the authorities, and that authority’s knowledge about honour related problems is inadequate.

     

    Keywords; Honour, Young men’s role, Sharaf’s heroes, Honour related violence and oppression, Socialization, Familystructure.

     

  • 109.
    Abrahamsson, Hillevi
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Schwerin, Maria
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Legalisering av sidotjänster: En studie av den nya Fastighetsmäklarlagen2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 110.
    Abrahamsson, Joffrey Levi
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Elizabeth Bennet's Intelligence: A Reading of Class and Gender Conventions And Transgressions in Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen, gender roles and gender expectations relate to class differences in a system of social convention which operates to delimit all of the characters - men and women, rich people and less privileged people - to a greater or lesser extent, in a way which reflects actual class and gender structures in England around 1800. The most important strain of social commentary on gender and class in the novel is constituted by the characterisation of Elizabeth Bennet. She is associated with intelligence in a way which is vital to her successful breach of gender and class conventions. This essay starts out from Susan Morgan’s ”Intelligence in Pride and Prejudice” and will extend her arguments in my reading of the novel to prove that Elizabeth’s intelligence allows her to transgress social conventions related to gender and class more successfully than other characters and arrive at a happy ending despite having defied social convention. A number of other characters also represent a breach of class and gender conventions. Lydia Bennet elopes with Mr. Wickham, which at the time was considered scandalous. Mr. Darcy tries to ignore his affection for Elizabeth but fails to do so. In comparison to the unconventionality of Elizabeth, who manages to overcome every obstacle by relying on her intelligence in a way which also benefits Darcy and secures a happy ending for him as well, their transgressions are not as successful.



  • 111. Abrahamsson, KH
    et al.
    Östberg, Anna-Lena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Eriksson, JS
    Hellström, MK
    Jönsson, K
    Wennström, JL
    Parodontal hälsa hos 19-åringar i Västra Götaland: En epidemiologisk tvärsnittsstudie2007Report (Refereed)
  • 112.
    Abrahamsson, Klas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Alkoholvanor inom det gymnasiala fordonsprogrammet2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The consumption of alcohol in Sweden has increased considerably within recent years. Among youths there has been a tendency towards drinking more frequently and increased volumes. Alcohol habits among students on the high schools auto mechanic line has been given a questionnaire to examine their experience of the immediate after effect of alcohol and how et effects their situation in school. It has been proven that participating students are drinking alcohol more frequently than the average among Swedish high school students and girls more often than boys. The general experiences of alcohol after effect are predominantly negative both physically and psychologically, but the students are not concerned of their alcohol habits having an effect on their school work.

  • 113.
    Abrahamsson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    Skapar gymnasielärare trygghet för eleverna i klassrummet?: En studie kring lärarens påverkan av trygghet i klassrummet2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mitt syfte är att visa att känslan av trygghet spelar större roll för undervisningsklimatet i klassrummet än disciplin. Vi bombarderas dagligen i media från olika tyckare som har åsikter om hur skolan skall skötas för att den ska bli bättre och hur misskött den är nu idag. Det är nästintill omöjligt att sålla i det stora informationsflödet och avgöra vad som är relevant för att ge eleverna bästa möjliga inlärningsklimat i skolan. Kan det vara så att en skola som ger eleverna en känsla av trygghet är den som ger bästa inlärningsklimatet? Genom att besöka några klassrum, studera hur lektionerna fungerade i verkligheten och sedan intervjua de berörda lärarna om deras syn på trygghet i klassrummet, fick jag bekräftelse på att så kunde vara fallet. Tyvärr är det så att disciplin är lättare att skapa än trygghet men då kan undervisningsklimatet bli lidande. Att ha en trygg miljö är ett bättre sätt att rusta eleverna för att möta den undervisning som de ska klara av under sin skoltid. Dessutom, om en elev har en egen grundtrygghet i sig själv när hon ska möta världen efter skolan så finns det en större chans att ungdomarna klarar sig bra. Utifrån resultat jag fick anser jag att en lärare som funderat på hur man skapar trygghet i klassrummet, arbetar som en demokratisk ledare och involverar eleverna i regelbyggandet och undervisningen, är den lärare som skapar ett bättre studieklimat.

  • 114.
    Acat, Adar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Bilden av islam: en studie av läromedel förr och nu2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 115. Acedo, L.
    et al.
    Santos, A.
    Bobylev, Alexander
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mathematics.
    On the derivation of a high-velocity tail from the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equation for shear flow2002In: J. Statist. Phys, Vol. 109:5-6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 116.
    Achberger, Christine
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Chen, Deliang
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Rayner, David
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Persson, Gunn
    SMHI.
    Future rainfall and flooding in Sweden: an integrative project to support climate-adaptation actions2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 117.
    Ackeberg, Hanna
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Mattiasson, Matilda
    Karlstad University.
    Marknadsundersökningar som bevis i marknadsföringsmål: en undersökning om bevisvärde och tillförlitlighet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom marknadsrätten förekommer det att näringsidkare använder olika former av otillbörliga affärsmetoder för att nå framgång på marknaden. Det kan bl.a. röra sig om renommésnyltning som innebär att företag obehörigen anknyter till ett annat företags produkt, logotyp, kännetecken eller liknande för att på sådant sätt göra en ekonomisk vinning. En annan form av metod är att företag använder efterbildningar som är vilseledande för konsumenter och som lätt kan förväxlas med ett annat företags kända och särpräglade produkter. Ett liknande förfarande är vilseledande om det kommersiella ursprunget som innebär att en konsument får uppfattning om att en viss produkt är en annan än hen från början avsett att köpa på grund av produktens kända ursprung, kvalitet eller liknande. En näringsidkare som blivit utsatt för någon av dessa otillbörlighetsgrunder är i behov av att visa hur stor kännedom en relevant omsättningskrets har om företagets produkter eller kännetecken. Ett lämpligt hjälpmedel för att uppnå detta är att använda en marknadsundersökning, då det genom en sådan undersökning blir möjligt att mäta ett direkt vetande om en produkt eller ett kännetecken. Det saknas lagstiftning som reglerar hur en marknadsundersökning bör utformas för att utgöra ett tillförlitligt bevis. Det blir därmed Marknadsdomstolens uppgift att bedöma undersökningarnas bevisvärde i de mål sådana åberopats. Utifrån domstolens bedömningar kan det konstateras att det råder en oklarhet om vilket bevisvärde en marknadsundersökning har. I flertalet fall har undersökningar bedömts ha antingen ett lågt bevisvärde eller inget bevisvärde alls på grund av att de främst varit behäftade med brister. De vanligaste bristerna har visat sig vara i marknadsundersökningens metod, rapport och urval. För företagen kan detta skapa problem då det kan bli en ekonomisk börda att de fått lägga ner stora summor pengar på att låta genomföra undersökningarna, som senare inte tas hänsyn till av domstolen. Eftersom det råder ett oklart läge kan det uppstå osäkerhet för företagen vad som gäller angående marknadsundersökningar. Det är därmed av betydelse att undersöka hur en marknadsundersökning bör utformas för att kunna utgöra ett tillförlitligt bevis i marknadsföringsmål. Detta genom att undersöka vilket bevisvärde domstolen tillmäter marknadsundersökningar i sina bedömningar. För att möjliggöra denna undersökning har den rättsdogmatiska metoden använts, med rättspolitiska inslag, tillsammans med juridisk och samhällsvetenskaplig litteratur, samt intervjuer med praktiker på området. En tillförlitlig marknadsundersökning kräver att undersökningsresultatet återspeglar vad den relevanta omsättningskretsen har för uppfattning om det som är föremål för undersökningen. Det behöver även framgå vad marknadsundersökningen har för syfte och att syftet faktiskt uppnås genom undersökningen. Det bör undvikas att ställa ledande frågor till respondenterna då ett tillförlitligt resultat kräver spontana svar. I marknadsrättsliga tvister kan med fördel en personlig intervju eller postal intervju användas då dessa möjliggör användandet av visuella hjälpmedel. Avslutningsvis bör nämnas att det är viktigt att domstolen får ta del av hur hela marknadsundersökningsprocessen gått till. 

  • 118.
    Adamczyk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Trondheim, Norway.
    Søndenå, Rune
    Department for Solar Energy, IFE, Kjeller, Norway.
    Stokkan, Gaute
    Sintef Materials and Chemistry, Trondheim, Norway.
    Looney, Erin
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.
    Jensen, Mallory
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.
    Lai, Barry
    Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439, USA.
    Rinio, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Di Sabatino, Marisa
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, NTNU, A. Getz vei 2B, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Recombination activity of grain boundaries in high-performance multicrystalline Si during solar cell processing2018In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 123, no 5, p. 1-6, article id 055705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we applied internal quantum efficiency mapping to study the recombination activity of grain boundaries in High Performance Multicrystalline Silicon under different processing conditions. Wafers were divided into groups and underwent different thermal processing, consisting of phosphorus diffusion gettering and surface passivation with hydrogen rich layers. After these thermal treatments, wafers were processed into heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer solar cells. Light Beam Induced Current and Electron Backscatter Diffraction were applied to analyse the influence of thermal treatment during standard solar cell processing on different types of grain boundaries. The results show that after cell processing, most random-angle grain boundaries in the material are well passivated, but small-angle grain boundaries are not well passivated. Special cases of coincidence site lattice grain boundaries with high recombination activity are also found. Based on micro-X-ray fluorescence measurements, a change in the contamination level is suggested as the reason behind their increased activity.

  • 119.
    Adamczyk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Trondheim, Norway.
    Søndenå, Rune
    Department for Solar Energy, IFE, Kjeller, Norway.
    You, Chang Chuan
    Department for Solar Energy, IFE, Kjeller, Norway.
    Stokkan, Gaute
    Sintef Materials and Chemistry, Trondheim, Norway.
    Lindroos, Jeanette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Rinio, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Di Sabatino, Marisa
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Trondheim, Norway.
    Recombination Strength of Dislocations in High-Performance Multicrystalline/Quasi-Mono Hybrid Wafers During Solar Cell Processing2018In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 215, no 2, article id 1700493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wafers from a hybrid silicon ingot seeded in part for High Performance Multicrystalline, in part for a quasi-mono structure, are studied in terms of the effect of gettering and hydrogenation on their final Internal Quantum Efficiency.The wafers are thermally processed in different groups – gettered and hydrogenated. Afterwards, a low temperature heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer cell process is applied to minimize the impact of temperature. Such procedure made it possible to study the effect of different processing steps on dislocation clusters in the material using the Light Beam Induced Current technique with a high spatial resolution. The dislocation densities are measuredusing automatic image recognition on polished and etched samples. The dislocation recombination strengths are obtained by a correlation of the IQE with the dislocation density according to the Donolato model. Different clusters are compared after different process steps. The results show that for the middle of the ingot, the gettering step can increase the recombination strength of dislocations by one order of magnitude. A subsequent passivation with layers containing hydrogen can lead to a decrease in the recombination strength to levels lower than in ungettered samples.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-11-07 16:03
  • 120.
    Adams, Paul C.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013). University of Texas at Austin, USA.
    Geographies of media and communication II: Arcs of communication2018In: Progress in Human Geography, ISSN 0309-1325, E-ISSN 1477-0288, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 590-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some of the most perceptive contributions to the geographic study of media and communication have been in areas of landscapes studies and geohumanities. To bring landscape and geohumanities insights together more explicitly with communication and media, this progress report draws on George Revill’s concept of an ‘arc of sound’, expanding the concept’s scope to an arc of communication – a dynamic trajectory connecting one vantage point to another through various translations and shifts. It is a mix of integration and translation that forms its own space, place and time, integrating elements of embodied performance, multiple sensory modalities, temporality, absence and excess. Arcs of communication often depend on collaboration and can produce transformations of identity. The concept of the arc of communication enables discovery of numerous threads connecting landscape studies to geohumanities while deepening geographical understandings of media and communication.

  • 121.
    Adams, Paul C.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013). Department of Geography and the Environment, University of Texas at Austin, USA.
    Migration Maps with the News: Guidelines for ethical visualization of mobile populations2018In: Journalism Studies, ISSN 1461-670X, E-ISSN 1469-9699, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 527-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maps showing immigration into Europe are a potential source of journalistic bias. Limited time and funding to create maps of migration can lead to dependence on data from institutions dedicated to controlling migration, in effect promoting a logic of surveillance directed at immigrants rather than a logic of hospitality based on respect for human rights. There are organizational and logistical barriers to overcome if migration is to be portrayed in ways that support thoughtful, democratic, rights-based deliberation but efforts need to be made to map migration in ways that reveal the geographical experiences of individual immigrants including their movement paths and the risks they face. This article examines unusual maps of migration, drawing on examples from news media as well as from non-governmental organizations, research teams, book authors, private companies, and entertainment media based in several European countries. The examples provide a foundation for concrete recommendations regarding the responsible use of cartographic visualization as a component of immigration news.

  • 122.
    Adams, Paul C
    et al.
    University of Texas at Austin.
    Jansson, André
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Communication Geography: A Bridge Between Disciplines2012In: Communication Theory, ISSN 1050-3293, E-ISSN 1468-2885, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 299-318Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 123.
    Adamson, Frank
    et al.
    Stanford University.
    Åstrand, Björn
    Karlstad University.
    Privatization or public investment?: A global question2016In: Global education reform: How privatization and public investment influence education outcomes / [ed] F. Adamson, B, Åstrand & L. Darling-Hammond, Routledge, 2016, 1, p. 1-15Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 124.
    Adamson, Frank
    et al.
    Stanford University.
    Åstrand, BjörnKarlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.Darling-Hammond, LindaStanford University.
    Global education reform: How privatization and public investment influence education outcomes2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 125.
    Adamsson, Annika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    En Montessori-inspirerad pedagogik utmanar högpresterande elever matematiskt: En kvalitativ studie om vilka strategier lärare som använder en Montessori- inspirerad pedagogik i årskurs 1-3 anser utmanar och stimulerar högpresterande elever i matematik.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att ta reda på vilka strategier lärare som använder en Montessori-inspirerad pedagogik anser stimulerar och utmanar högpresterande elever i matematik samt om de upplevde några svårigheter eller problem med att undervisa högpresterande elever i matematik. För att undersöka det har sex kvalitativa intervjuer genomförts med lärare som har varit eller som är verksamma i årskurserna 1-3. Resultatet av intervjuerna visar att lärarna har en gemensam uppfattning om att en Montessori-inspirerad pedagogik utmanar och stimulerar högpresterande elever i matematik eftersom grundtanken i Montessori-pedagogiken är "eleven i centrum". Det här innebär att lärarna måste utgå från varje elevs förutsättningar, behov och aktuella kunskapsnivå. I resultatet framkommer också att lärarna använder sig av olika strategier i form av matematikbok från en högre årskurs, special- och fördjupningsområden, åldersintegrering och lärande med flera sinnen för att stimulera och utmana de högpresterande eleverna matematiskt. Det framgår också i resultatet att lärarna inte upplever några större problem eller svårigheter i undervisningen av högpresterande elever i matematik. De belyser ändå att den egna matematiska kompetensen, tidsbrist och eget kontrollbehov ibland kan utgöra hinder för att stimulera och utmana de högpresterande eleverna tillräckligt. Utifrån studien kan man dra slutsatserna att lärare som använder en Montessori-inspirerad pedagogik lägger stor vikt vid att hitta rätt strategi för rätt elev, vilket bidrar till att de högpresterande eleverna får utmaning och stimulans. De olika hindren som lärarna belyser skulle kunna minskas med fortbildning och samarbete mellan årskurserna. 

  • 126.
    Adamsson, Sophie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    "Att vara bred är en tillgång": En kvalitativ intervjustudie av fyra sångpedagogers syn på genreval i sångundervisningen på gymnasiet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine how individual singing lessons for high school students differ depending on to which extent the vocal coach is driven by their own interests concerning genre. The study is based on four semi-structured interviews where two vocal coaches have their home turf in classical music, and two vocal coaches have their home turf within the african american genres. The study is of comparative nature where the focus is on eventual similarities and differences between vocal coaches’ viewpoints within the two genres. The theoretical perspective of the study takes its stand in the socio cultural perspective and how cultural tools and surroundings affect teaching and learning.The result of the study shows that the vocal coaches have more conformed opinions than they have conflicting ones when it concerns informed choices in genre, how their own interests affect their teaching and the views on the curriculum in relation to the lesson and its content. The interviewees differ when it comes to how they plan lessons for beginners and how they themselves listen to music. In the discussion the themes that surface in the result are discussed from a socio cultural perspective. These themes are: informed and uninformed choices concerning genre, the curriculum as a tool in teaching and the teachers’ own personal interests concerning genre. The conclusion is that the different tools the vocal coaches use affect how they work in and surrounding their teaching of high school students. 

  • 127.
    Adamsson, Sophie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Artistic Studies.
    Kan jag låta sådär?: En observationsstudie med fokus på "edge" i sångmetoden "komplett sångteknik"2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to get a deeper insight of what it means to develop a new singing technique. To study this I have practiced edge ten minutes per day during a period of four weeks, five times a week. Three of these exercices have been videotaped. I have also used a logbook to document new experiences during the process. I have a socio-cultural perspective as a theoretical base in this study. In the result the different tools that were selected show how these were handled and how the process in learning has developed. The results show that the most central tools that were used were the body, the method book, the piano chair, the wall and a song. In the discussion I describe, from a socio-cultural perspective, what the conditions have been, and which tools I have used. 

  • 128.
    Adamsson, Tim
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Kravrekommendation: En undersökning för kravrekommendationer för Nya Intranätets forum på Karlstad Universitet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 129.
    Addelyan Rasi, Hamideh
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Moula, Alireza
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Puddephatt, Antony J.
    Canada.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University.
    Empowering newly married women in Iran: A new method of social work intervention that uses a client-directed problem-solving model in both group and individual sessions2013In: Qualitative Social Work, ISSN 1473-3250, E-ISSN 1741-3117, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 765-781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We set out to assess the processes by which a personal empowerment-oriented intervention based on learning spaces and the Rahyab problem-solving model can help newly married women in Iran to gain more control over their life situations. Learning to use the problem-solving model independently was an important component of this seven months’ educational program. A descriptive field study design based on qualitative methods was employed for data collection and analysis. The analysis of these processes showed how, through group and individual interventions, these women could influence their intimate relationships by altering their thoughts, their management of emotions, and their overt behavior. We invite more research on how empowerment-oriented interventions can be used to support newly married women as a part of family educational programs.

  • 130.
    Addelyan Rasi, Hamideh
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Moula, Alireza
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Puddephatt, Antony J.
    Lakehead University, Canada.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linkoping University.
    Empowering single mothers in Iran: Applying a problem-solving model in learning groups to develop participants' capacities to improve their lives2013In: British Journal of Social Work, ISSN 0045-3102, E-ISSN 1468-263X, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2000, a problem-solving model has been taught to the Society for Protecting the Rights of the Child, and teachers and  students of social work in two universities in Iran. Since 2006, with the initiation of UNICEF, social workers, psychologists  and even some psychiatrists in Iran have been learning this model. In 2008, a group of researchers created an empowerment-oriented  psycho-social group and private intervention project to assess whether a group of Iranian single mothers could use this model, which was traditionally used by professionals only, to effectively and independently meet challenges in their own lives. Our results show that all women used the model effectively and, consequently, made more deliberate decisions to improve their life situations. Some of the women succeeded in finding a job and many improved their family relationships. This study suggests that empowerment-oriented social work can help many clients to achieve their goals, and that this psycho-social intervention project can be a useful model for social work in Iran and many other societies.

  • 131.
    Ade, Adam
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Nilsson, David
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Önen, Mahabad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Varumärken: Hur bygger man varumärken?2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens konkurrenssamhälle är det viktigt att företagen bygger en identitet och att de kan särskilja sig gentemot konkurrenter. Det är där varumärken får sin betydelse och roll. Det är även viktigt för konsumenterna att kunna skapa sig en egen identitet genom att välja företagens olika produkter. Varumärken kostar mycket pengar och tar lång tid att bygga upp, så det är viktigt att företagen förvaltar det på rätt sätt. Vad kännetecknar då ett starkt varumärke och hur bygger man upp ett sådant?

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att utreda och analysera vilka komponenter som krävs för att bygga ett starkt varumärke. Vi valde att använda en kvalitativ metod och sju olika företag intervjuades. De modeller vi framför allt använde var Aakers och Melins modeller om hur man bygger starka varumärken.

    Resultatet visar att de komponenter som exempelvis Melin och Aaker framhåller om hur man bygger starka varumärken, även används av företagen. Exempelvis framhävs kontinuitet och konsekvens mycket i teorierna, och detta stämmer överrens med vad som framkom i intervjuerna. Det är också viktigt att man har en historia, en berättelse om hur företaget skapades, hur länge det har funnits och vad som har åstadkommits. Det är delvis sammankopplat med att det tar lång tid att bygga ett varumärke. Det tar tid att slå sig in på en marknad och etablera sig i konsumenternas medvetande, det vill säga öka sin varumärkeskännedom. Ytterligare en sak är att man måste ha en kvalité på sina produkter. Om produkten man säljer inte har tillräckligt god kvalité är det mycket svårt att bygga ett varumärke

  • 132.
    Adermark, Christopher
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Matematik i Kunskapsskolan2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 133.
    Adeva Rodil, Teresa
    Karlstad University, Division for Engineering Sciences, Physics and Mathematics.
    Edge effect on abrasive wear mechanisms and wear resistance in WC-6wt.% Co hardmetals2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wear of hardmetals is a complicated topic because the wear resistance and the wear mechanisms are influenced by microstructural factors. Although edge wear resistance has a vital importance, most of the researches made in laboratories are related to flat wear resistance using coarse abrasive paper. This situation produces problems with the prediction of abrasive wear behaviour and with the estimation of the lifetime of cutting edges of different kinds of tooling.

    Several studies have been done in order to clarify edge wear behaviour. It has been published correlations of the edge toughness to the load and to the bulk fracture toughness. In those publications coarse abrasive or Vickers indenter were used.

    In the present research, edge shaped specimens of WC-6wt%Co grades were investigated. In order to compare the obtained results for flat sliding and edge wear behaviour two test arrangements, pin on flat disc and edge on flat disc were employed. The specimens were tested using 120, 320, 800 and 2400 mesh SiC abrasive paper and the worn surfaces were investigated using SEM instrument to evaluate wear mechanisms. The edge wear was observed was discussed in relation to wear mechanisms investigated and correlated to the flat wear behaviour.

    The obtained results showed limited applicability of the results obtained with the pin on the flat disc test arrangement for prediction of the edge wear resistance, especially in the case when size of the abrasive particles is close to the WC grain size. However, both edge and flat wear results were similar in; 1) large WC grain sized hard metals wore more than fine grain sized against coarse abrasive paper whereas the reverse occurred against fine abrasives, and 2) wear mechanisms were mainly ploughing (or grooving) for fine grain sized hardmetals in all cases, whereas wear mechanisms changed from ploughing to binder removal and carbide pull-out going from coarse to fine abrasive paper.

  • 134.
    Adler, Camilla
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Från forskningsresultat om god undervisning till lärarens praktik: En kvantitativ studie om lärares uppfattning av god undervisning.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka lärares uppfattning om gynnsamma faktorer för elevers kunskapsutveckling med särskild tonvikt vid formativ bedömning och processer av skolutveckling som behöver initieras inom verksamheten.

    Undersökningens resultat kan utgöra grund för ett arbete på skolor där man önskar sträva efter att stärka lärares insikter och medvetenhet om det forskningen pekar ut som faktorer för framgångsrik undervisning.

    Undersökningen har genomförts som en kvantitativ enkätundersökning med lärarpersonalen på tre grundskolor i en och samma kommun i Västra Götaland. Enkäten undersöker lärares åsikter om faktorer som är viktiga för framgångsrik undervisning, samt hur samma lärare beskriver sin egen undervisning i förhållande till dessa faktorer.

    Undersökningen visar att det finns en stor samstämmighet mellan faktorer som utpekats som viktiga för elevers kunskapsutveckling och de beskrivningar som anges kännetecknande för den egna undervisningen i de allra flesta fall. Samstämmigheten är köns-, stadie-  och åldersöverskridande. De tre faktorer som lärargrupperna anser har mest betydelse för elevernas kunskapsutveckling är att ge feedback som har fokus på möjliga förbättringar, att undervisningen har ett tydligt syfte, samt att regelbundet följa upp att eleverna förstår innehållet.

    På ett område gäller inte samstämmigheten inom lärarkollektivet. Undersökningen visar en markant skillnad mellan lärare med få år i yrket respektive många år i yrket när det gäller beskrivningen av hur man använder sig av formativ bedömning i det egna undervisningsarbetet. Lärare med mer än 15 år i yrket anger i hög utsträckning att man använder sig av formativ bedömning, medan lärare med färre år i yrket i liten utsträckning anger detta.

  • 135.
    Adolfi, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Lekens betydelse för lärandet av matematik i förskolan: Pedagogers syn på vilken betydelse lek har för barns tidiga matematiska utveckling2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine how five teachers in a selected preschool work with play and mathematics. Also, this study examines how teachers believe that preschool affects children's mathematical learning today and in the future. The methods I have used are relevant research and literature on the subject. I have made qualitative interviews with five teachers. The study shows that the teachers think play is important for children when it comes to learn   mathematics, and they also think mathematics is everywhere in children’s play. All teachers believe that it is important that children get a basic ground for mathematical thinking in preschool, so it becomes a habit and a natural thing for them. It is also important that they get the basic concepts with them before they start elementary school. Many of the teachers mention that they want their children to look upon mathematics as something fun and exciting.

  • 136.
    Adolfsson, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Uppföljning av affärsnytta inom IT-projekt: En kvalitativ studie om möjliggörande av uppföljning.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    IT-projekt har ofta ett bakomliggande syfte att bidra med ökad affärsnytta, ökad flexibilitet, effektivare arbetssätt, eller ökad kundnöjdhet. Uppföljning av affärsnytta förpassas ofta till förmån för klassiskt definierade framgångsparametrar inom projektledning, tid, budget och resultat. Mycket fokus hamnar på tekniska aspekter kring införande av system och affärsnyttan glöms bort. Vissa anledningar till att uppföljning av affärsnytta bortprioriteras anses vara att det är för svårt, råder oklarhet kring ansvar, och att affärsnyttor är av övervägande ogreppbar karaktär. Affärsnyttorna berör ofta flera olika verksamhetsområden vilket medför svårigheter gällande identifikation och hög kostnad för att involvera berörda resurser. IT-projekt initieras däremot grundat på explicita greppbara värden med tillhörande kostnadskalkyl som visar hur verksamheten kommer få igen investerat kapital. När affärsnytta inte är explicit uttryckt, utan har en ogreppbar karaktär leder det till låg prioritet, då kunskap kring mätning och styrning saknas. IT-projekt innebär en stor investering i tid, pengar, personal och den förväntade affärsnyttan har stor genomslagskraft. Uppfyllelse av affärsnytta kan påverka hela företagets lönsamhet. Teorier gällande Benefits Management Process (BMP) utgör basen för denvetenskapliga plattformen och har kompletterats medrelevant forskning vid behov.

    Syftet med undersökning är att se vilka aktiviteter som behöver föregå för att möjliggöra framgångsrik uppföljning av affärsnytta inom IT-projekt så att måluppfyllelse kan säkerställas.Även undersöka om utformning av projektmål kan bidra till att underlätta uppföljnings aktivitet.Undersökningen genomförs som en kvalitativ studie där en verksamhet inom små och mellanstora företagssegmentet (SMF), undersökts då de bedriver ett aktivt IT-projekt gällande byte av affärssystem. Undersökningen resulterade i fem konkreta slutsatser som är av en förklarande och upplysande karaktär.

     

    Undersökningen visar att:

    • BMP möjliggör uppföljning av affärsnytta inom IT-projekt, men är inte en förutsättning.
    • BMP kräver ett omfattande åtagande för att bidra till ökat värde för en verksamhet.
    • En genomarbetad målformulering enligt akronymen SMART kan öka en verksamhets möjlighet till styrning och kontroll av dess projektmål.
    • Tydligare koppling till identifiering och mätningsmetoder krävs för att maximera värdet av att ta sig an BMP.
    • Systemleverantörs och kundrelationen behöver belysas inom BMP i takt med färre egna utvecklingsprojekt inom affärssystem initieras.

     

    Brister i teorin rör konkreta metoder för att mäta affärsnytta och hur Key Peformance Indictors (KPI) kan användas på ett effektivt sätt. Tillsammans med att forskningen inte redogör för hur en verksamhet kan arbeta med uppföljning av affärsnytta i en kund- och systemleverantörsrelation. Explicit uttryckt när en verksamhet genomför upphandling av affärssystem ifrån en systemleverantör. Detta rekommenderas ligga till grund för framtida undersökningar.

  • 137.
    Adolfsson, Antonia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Off grid boende: Dimensionering samt värdering av möjliga system för hantering av avlopp och energiförsörjning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bostadsbristen är ett ständigt faktum i Sverige idag och i takt med att boendepriserna ökar så ökar också intresset för att bygga sin egen bostad. Arkitektfirman Tengbom i Karlstad har startat upp ett projekt, Portable Empowerment, som bygger på visionen om att skapa en portabel bostad som ska kunna fungera som en lösning när ett plötsligt behov av bostäder uppstår. För att bostäderna ska kunna flyttas runt krävs det att lösningar för energi- och avloppssystem finns integrerade i bostaden och ska kunna flyttas med för att göra bostaden portabel. För att detta ska vara möjligt krävs det avlopps- och energisystem som är off grid.

    Off grid betyder att systemet inte är kopplat till kommunalt avlopp eller elnät. Det finns sedan länge sätt att lösa både avlopp och energiförsörjning off grid och några exempel där det tillämpas är husvagnen och den klassiska sommarstugan, men de är allt som oftast inte anpassade för bruk året runt. Målet med denna studie är att identifiera samt värdera avlopps- och energisystem som kan tillgodose behoven i en liten bostad som brukas året runt av två personer. Bostaden har sin utgångspunkt i de ritningar som tagits fram av Tengbom för deras projekt Portable Empowerment.

    För att identifiera system som kan tillgodose behoven i bostaden har modeller byggts upp och simuleringar skett där system lämpade för off grid inkluderats. Lösningarna har sedan jämförts med varandra med hjälp av värderingsmatriser där portabilitet, kostnad, miljö och användarvänlighet för varje system värderats.

    Resultatet av studien visar att det finns flera system för både energi och avlopp som kan tillgodose behoven i bostaden året om. Flera av systemen uppfyller kraven för en portabel bostad och det är med andra ord möjligt att uppfylla Tengboms vision om ett fullständigt portabelt boende. Jämfört med en ”vanlig” bostad som är ansluten till vatten- och elnät är dock off grid-lösningarna betydligt mer tidskrävande. Genom att installera ett eget system med lösningar för enbart den egna bostaden tar brukaren också på sig det fulla ansvaret, något som kan tänkas vara en belastning för vissa brukare och en frihet för andra.

    Ur ekonomisk synpunkt visar studien att på energisidan är det svårt att hitta ett off grid-system som är billigare än on grid-systemet där en luftvärmepump installerats. Däremot är anslutningen till ett kommunalt avlopp betydligt dyrare, mellan 100 000-150 000 kronor mer, än att anlägga till exempel en egen infiltrationsanläggning i anslutning till den egna bostaden.

    För att utveckla denna studie bör möjligheten att bygga off grid-byar undersökas. Genom att bygga upp ett samhälle om ett stort bostadsbehov skulle uppstå kan energi- och avloppsanläggningar delas. Anläggningarna har större kapacitet och genom att dela på dessa kan både ansvar och kostnad minskas.

  • 138.
    Adolfsson, Caroline
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Karlstad University.
    "...nu har jag inga miner kvar": En kvalitativ studie om restauranganställdas upplevelser av det emotionella lönearbetet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det emotionella lönearbetet kan innebära att sälja sitt leende, för att sprida en positiv och glad känsla hos de personer som bemöts. Enligt tidigare studier anses det vara ett krävande arbete, arbetstagaren blir en del av det företaget säljer. Det framkommer att arbetstagaren använder sig av olika strategier för att kunna hantera uppgifterna kring arbetet. Det visar sig att det finns outtalade krav och förväntningar från både kunder och arbetsgivare. Arbetet i en restaurang är en socialt etablerad roll och därmed finns förväntningar i uppträdandet hos den anställde. Att försöka uppfylla dessa förväntningar kan vara krävande och arbetstagaren kan uppfatta det som utmattande att behöva utföra ett emotionellt lönearbete. Det finns även uttalade krav kring hur arbetstagaren får uppträda och detta kan arbetsgivaren kontrollera via rutiner på arbetsplatsen eller andra kontrollverktyg som exempelvis mystery shoppers. 

  • 139.
    Adolfsson, Caroline
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Omplaceringsskyldigheten: Vid uppsägning av personliga skäl relaterat till sjukdom2015Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 140.
    Adolfsson, Claes
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Asp, Sebastian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Ett främjande verktyg: En kvantitativ studie om institutionaliserad feedback2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay examines the members' relationship with feedback within two institutions, the Department of Geography, Media and Communication (GMK) and the Department of Educational Studies (IPS) at Karlstad University. Feedback is a communication tool used to promote organizational development. This individual development is essential for a university's business because of its members knowledge and skills are one of its most important assets. The importance of this kind of communication is manifested in the university's institutionalization of feedback and how it is integrated into the work routines. The problem area is comprised of how these institutions differ in the structure in relation to the classical hierarchical business structure, with a clear ranking between boss and employee, focusing on the role of feedback in this type of organization. Research that focuses specifically on this type of structure within an organization is currently underrepresented and therefore creates a research hole. The purpose of the paper is to examine the two mentioned institutions with a focus on feedback, its institutionalization and its integration into the work routines, and how the members relate to this process. To investigate the impact of this institutionalization of feedback, the following three questions were created:  How is criticism conducted within an organization where feedback is institutionalized?  How does the view of feedback differ from these institutions compared with companies with a classical hierarchical organizational structure? How does organizational culture affect the ability but also the willingness to criticize and to give and receive feedback? In order to answer these questions, relevant prior research in the area has been identified. The different theories chosen relate to five different factors: Channel selection, leadership, relationships, organizational culture and feedback, all of which are directly linked to the research area. Examples of these theories are Information Richness Theory (IRT) that emphasizes how different communication channels should be applied. Leader membership exchange theory (LMX) and Conceptual model of employee questions emphasize how personal relationships affect communication and how leadership structure within an organization affects feedback. An additional central component of how members relate to feedback is the organizational culture. This culture can be broken into three different categories; identification, trust and dedication. They all have an impact on the feedback process and should therefore be taken into account. Research related to feedback can also be found in the previous research section. The application of a survey gave the opportunity to draw general conclusions about the population. The questions in the questionnaire are anchored in the previous research and are operationalized in relation to the three research questions. The collected data showed that the institutionalization of feedback has a predominantly positive effect on members' relation to this. The members of the institution generally have strong and prosperous relationships with their colleagues and leaders. Members feel that they can freely express their views regardless of their professional position, and these views are respected, which is a consequence of the strong trust they have for their colleagues and leaders. Identification to the institutions is generally strong, which affects the members' commitment and the willingness to develop. Feedback requires a channel that can transmit complex information, which will simultaneously enable two-way communication and be personalized to achieve the desired effect. This relates to the institutions and feedback is transmitted primarily orally. This result shows that a thoughtful attitude to feedback has a major impact on the organization's activities.

  • 141.
    Adolfsson, Claes
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Strömberg, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Stenberg, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Millennials och baby boomers attityder till fake news: Generationernas upplevelser av nyhetsmediers sanningshalt2017Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to find out the generations millennials and baby boomers approach to the media's veracity and political neutrality. This was done using the following questions: What attitudes does Millennials and Baby Boomers have to the news media's veracity? Are there differences and similarities there when we look at the variables gender and political position?

     

    To define the generations we used Cliff Zukins generation theory. There are several other theories with different definitions of generations, but we chose to limit ourselves to Zukins model because we considered this to be the most relevant to our purpose.

    To obtain additional information about the generation's positions on various issues, we have also assumed Paula M Poindexters research on the issue, and Göran Bolins definition of Manheims theory. Finally we used Jesper Strömbäcks definition of the agenda setting theory when it was accurate.

     

    We chose to conduct a survey in order to be able to reach as many respondents as possible. Because we wanted to compare two specific generations with eachother, we used a quota sampling. The answers gave us an overall picture of the different generational attitudes toward the news media.

     

    The results showed that generational affiliation did not affect public confidence in the news media. When we added the gender variable, the result is different, the younger generation of women had significantly higher confidence than men in the same group. Both the younger and the older men had a more critical view of the news media content than women. This shows that gender is a significant variable in the issue of trust.

     

    Political opinion also turned out to be an important variable. The biggest difference was shown in the generation of baby boomers where three quarters of the red voters had a fairly strong confidence in the news media. Those who vote blue in this generation had a significantly lower confidence.

     

    The main difference depending on generational affiliation was shown in the question of how easy it is to spot fake news. Millennials believed it was much easier to determine authenticity in news than baby boomers. Only two percent of the older generation felt that it was easy to spot, the corresponding figure in the younger generation was 12 percent.

     

    The majority of all respondents stated that they believe in a large or fairly large future increase of false news. This result did not affect the respondents' views on how easy it is to see if the news is false.

     

    The conclusion we can draw is that the generational affiliation does not affect the question of confidence in the news media, however, it does have an affect in how easy it is to determine if news is true or false.When measuring confidence towards the news media, political opinion was the most important variable.

  • 142. Adolfsson, ET
    et al.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Smide, B
    Wikblad, K
    Type 2 diabetic patients' experiences of two different educational approaches: A qualitative study2008In: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 45, no 27, p. 986-994Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 143.
    Adolfsson, Karin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Albinsson, Stina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Friår - av vilken anledning?: Kopplingar mellan anledningar till friår och livsformerna2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökningens syfte är att se vilka anledningar individen har till att välja friår och hur det kopplas samman med livsformerna de lever. Syftet har också varit att se individens upplevelse av friåret och vad de använt friåret till. Undersökningen bygger på kvalitativa intervjuer med sex friårslediga. Intervjuerna har handlat om individens upplevelse av friåret och tiden före det.

    Friår är en arbetsmarknadspolitisk åtgärd med målsättning att ge arbetstagare en längre ledighet från sitt arbete. Arbetslösa får samtidigt en chans att komma in på arbetsmarknaden. Friåret innebär att vara ledig från sitt arbete i tre till tolv månader för att kunna göra något annat utanför arbetsplatsen. För att kunna undersöka av vilka anledningar individen har friår och hur det kopplas med de olika sociala strukturer som villkorar människors vardag. Vi har studerat om livsformsanalysen kan användas till att beskriva, förklara och förstå skillnaderna i människors vardag. Livsformerna är sociala strukturer som villkorar människors vardag. De olika livsformsbegreppen som vi har använt oss av är arbetarlivsformen – husmorslivsformen, karriärenslivsform – representationshustrunslivsform och självständighetens livsform – medhjälperskans livsform. Det är dock vanligt att leva en blandning mellan två eller flera livsformer, det kallas en blandform.

    Vi har kommit fram till att livsformerna till viss del kan kopplas samman med hur intervjupersonerna lever under sitt friår och av vilken anledning de har friår. Det visar sig i att de som använder friåret till att starta ett företag lever till stor del självständighetens livsform. Att använda friåret till utbildning kan kopplas samman med karriärens livsformer. Vidare kan vi se att karriärenslivsform kan kopplas samman med att pressen på arbetet är stor och då är rekreation under friåret vanligt. Många kvinnor lever blandformer och det gör att de har svårt att kombinera de olika arbets- och kärleksformerna. De använder friåret till att ta hand om sin familj och sig själva.

  • 144.
    Adolfsson, Marie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Borg, Therese
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    "När det skaver"- Skolsköterskans erfarenhet av psykisk ohälsa hos barn och tonåringar2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 145.
    Adolfsson, Monica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Lärares arbetssätt och material som kan hjälpa elever med dyslexi2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 60 credits / 90 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 146.
    Adolfsson, Oscar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Effekter av inkuberingstemperatur hos juvenil atlantlax (Salmo salar L.)2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Rising temperatures, because of climate change, will have major consequences for the world's fish populations, including the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. The greatest temperature changes are expected to occur during winter, which will affect S. salar since the eggs are developing during this time of year. Several studies have shown that elevated temperatures during embryogenesis cause morphological changes, in S. Salar, that are shown in later life stages. Some of these studies indicate that eggs incubated at high temperatures should generate parr with deeper bodies. To investigate whether high temperatures during the egg stage cause changes in body shape, parr from normal and high temperature incubated eggs, referred to as as “cold” and “warm” fish, respectively, were examined. A box-truss of euclidean distances between 10 landmarks on the fish body and a discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to determine which of the distances best discriminated between the two groups. The test showed a significant discrimination between cold and warm parr regarding body shape where cold parr had greater heads and warm parr were deeper over the tail region and showed greater distances between the pelvic fin and the front attachment of the anal fin. 67,3 % of all parr where correctly classified by the test. These results support those notions that indicates that the incubation temperature is important for the morphological development of S. salar although it does not support the hypothesis.

  • 147.
    Adolfsson, Oscar
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Blomqvist, Marcus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science.
    Vägghängd duschpall: Utveckling av duschpall för Etac Supply Center AB2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This degree project has been carried out by Oscar Adolfsson and Marcus Blomqvist, during the spring of 2010, both studying to become Bachelor of Science in Innovation and Design Engineering, at Karlstad University. The degree project includes 22,5 credits.The work is done on behalf of Etac Supply Center AB in Anderstorp. Etac is a company developing and manufacturing home health care products, with operation in Sweden, Norway, Denmark, England and Germany, and with sales worldwide. Bo Lindqvist, R & D manager has been the contact person at Etac.During the project the students has had a workplace at Semcon Caran AB in Karlstad. Semcon has also been helpful as a sounding board.The objective of the work has been developing a new, wall mounted shower chair, assigned for persons with difficulty to stand up while showering.Etacs requirement of the shower chair is that it should be able to support a user with a weight of 100 kg, the chair shouldn’t have any outrigger, optional should be armrests and backrest. The seat should be mountable in existing bathrooms, and act as a complement for the current shower seats sold by Etac. It’s very important that the result is good looking, and appealing to new target groups.In the start of this project, the students have been carrying through a benchmarking, mainly at the NordBygg fair in Stockholm. The students have been agreeing about the lack of products with both functionality and aesthetic appealing qualities.The result is adjusted to fit the most common wall constructions in Sweden.Four concepts have been developed, and among these four, one is the final result. The final result consists of two aluminium wall rails and a plastic seat. A plastic backrest, and armrest in both plastic and stainless steel are optional.During the work, the specifications on products like these, from the Swedish institute of assistive technology, concerning strength and risks of pinching has been observed.The project has resulted in CAD-files and a model in scale 1:3, manufactured by Etac.

  • 148.
    Adolfsson, Petra
    Karlstad University.
    Motivation till läsning: En fallstudie av fem lektioner i läsning i årskurs ett2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 149.
    Adolfsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Sylvaner, Joakim
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Förtätning som planeringsideal: En studie om relationen mellan förtätning och hållbarhet i Karlstads kommun2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Densification is a recurring approach in municipal urban planning. This means that local districts are tied to other parts, such as the center core. The densification is an ideal that arose in connection with the criticism of its opposite, sprawl. The sprawl has been considered a major inconvenience as it means that people and places are separated from one another and increases the distances. However, the theories goes apart. Far from all, considers that densification means sustainable development, such a development where all sustainability aspects get the same space. In recent decades, densification has become increasingly popular and today it is often the ideal for a sustainable city, but the question is whether it is truly sustainable or not?

     

    The previous research which forms the basis of the study has been obtained to gain increased understanding and objectivity to the pros and cons of densification. The purpose of the study is to give the reader and ourselves an understanding of how densification as a planning ideal affects Karlstad municipality's social and ecological sustainability as well as results of increased durability due to densification can be demonstrated by measurements and analyzes. The questions thus are of such a nature that they can answer our purpose. What advantages and disadvantages involves densification in the municipality, how and in what way is social and ecological sustainability calculated and can sustainability be legitimized in densification? The method used for collecting empirical results is qualitative. Thus, the selected methods are text analysis of municipal regulatory documents as well as an interview study with municipal officials and politicians.

     

    Based on earlier theories and research, our analysis of the empirical material shows results of that there are both advantages and disadvantages with densifying measures, and that the economic dimension prevail in decisions rather than the ecological and social aspects. Even if the answers to the questions in this analysis, shows both positive and negative consequences, it is not possible to conclusively say that they can be attributed to densification unless there are measurements and analyses on sustainable results. Every city is different, which also includes Karlstad. It is therefore, according to us, not entitled to claim that densification in Karlstad leads to sustainable development until the municipality can report results that can demonstrate that densifying measures in fact has strengthened the social and ecological as well as economic sustainability.

  • 150.
    Adolfsson, Rasmus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Utformning av en infästningsstandard: En utveckling av kvalitetsarbetet hos Nordmarkens Fasader AB2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the construction industry today is increasing the demands on its actors and procedures to ensurethe quality of the final product, the work on quality assurance has increased in a greater degree.Quality assurance involves a systematic approach that often follow a specific quality system orquality mark. That this is conducted is often demonstrated by a certain certification.Nordmarkens Fasader in Töcksfors is a manufacturer and installator of windows, doors, walls androofs in aluminum and glass. To ensure the quality of their products, they work for the P-markingsystem that later allows them to P-label their products. The P-mark is the Science Partners ownquality mark and proves, among other things, that the product complies with statutory or regulatoryrequirements but also in most cases higher standards demanded by the market.In their work, Nordmarkens Fasader follows a quality manual, which in its turn is modeled after therules for P-marking. This is the official summarized description of the P-marking and contains orrefers to all the documents and document types included in the quality system of NordmarkensFasader.For the products of Nordmarkens Fasader to be developed a further step in working towards a goodquality and function, they want to establish drawings that deal with attaching elements in the wall, inthe quality manual. All this to get better track of what happens to the product after manufacture.Something that makes this even more important is that they do not always handle assembly of theirproducts. A standard of attachments in this case would result in that they can influence whathappens after manufacture. To achieve this it was necessary for a standard of attachments ofelements to be designed and then also integrated in the quality manual.Because there are many wall types to choose from, the most common and most abundant of thesewas elected. It all resulted in a number of standard drawings showing where some of the products ofNordmarkens Fasader should be attached in the selected wall. For this to be put into use in everydaylife it also had to be integrated into the quality manual. In addition to these standard drawings, themanual were changed while new documents also were created in this. All to achieve the best resultswith the quality work at Nordmarkens Fasader.This work will serve as a basis for future work on attachment drawings, in the quality manual, asthere is interest in bringing in multi-wall types in this.

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