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  • 101.
    Schelin-Hahne, Pernilla
    Karlstad University.
    Kommunikation ur ett pedagogiskt perspektiv: En studie om dialogen som pedagogiskt verktyg och arbetssätt2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This study examines the notion of communication and dialogue pedagogy but it also contains a literature survey and an observation of how communication works in the classroom. The study examines how teachers can use a developing dialogue as a tool in the pedagogic work. Children and teenagers need a secure and stable ground and as a contributory mentor for the pupils can the teacher with the dialogue help them with life questions and meaning of life. If you as a teacher use the dialogue as a tool in the teaching work you give the pupils confidence, respect and understanding for teaching as well as life. The dialogue pedagogy model is based on that teacher and pupil are subjects and it’s the knowledge that is the object. It means that teacher and pupil are equal and everything is a mutual exchange of experience and knowledge. Communication in the classroom has changed from being a monologue to become a more dialogue communication and the private has got more room. How the communication works in the classroom does not always depend on the teachers strategies, it also depends on the hierarchy in the class.

  • 102.
    Snäll, Julia
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Johansson, Robin
    Karlstad University.
    När Mumin kom till stan: En kritisk diskursanalys av insändare i en lokaltidning gällande etableringen av ett Muminland på Skutberget2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to analyze the discourse concerning the planned Moomin park in Karlstad in the

    letters to the editor of the local newspaper, Nya Wermlands-Tidningen. Today, Skutberget is a place for

    swimming, outdoor life and exercise. In 2017, Karlstad Municipality presented a feasibility study on a

    possible establishment of a Moomin park at the location. We analyzed 20 letters to the editor published

    during the period September 2017 to September 2018. We have, through a critical discourse analysis,

    examined what has been written about the subject in the letter to the editor section, in order to further see

    how it relates to Karlstad municipality's brand platform. Building a brand to promote your own city has

    become a central part for most Swedish municipalities when creating an image. In order to create a

    successful brand for your city, the municipality also needs the help of its residents, who are expected to

    spread a positive image of the city. This is called word-of-mouth. Anyone can write freely about their thoughts

    and opinions regarding local issues in the letters to the editor. A lot of people have expressed their views on

    the planned Moomin park and it is clear that there is a conflict regarding the project. We have found there

    are two sides of the conflict, one that says yes to the planned theme park and one that says no. Those who

    advocate a Moomin park make their opponents, such as other local residents and various interest groups,

    out to be negative, narrow-minded and retrogressive. Those who strive to stop the construction of the park,

    however, choose to focus their criticism towards the municipality and the municipal politicians. The

    municipality as well as the politicians are accused of being undemocratic, greedy for power and false. Our

    analysis has shown that what is written in the letters to the editor does not agree with Karlstad municipality's

    brand building, regardless of the writers being positive or negative to the Moomin park. This is because

    Karlstads municipality describes the city as “open and welcoming” in their brand platform. The city has

    been working with their place branding for a long period of time and has been praised by several experts for

    their ability to create a positive image of the city. Previous research has shown that the residents must be

    able to identify themselves with the image of the city they live in, otherwise there is a risk that the

    dissatisfaction toward the municipality will increase. When the plans about a Moomin park became available

    to everyone, it may be possible that some of the residents no longer recognized themselves in the new

    image that the municipality communicated. This could explain why the conflict concerning the Moomin

    park and Skutberget has become as extensive as it has.

  • 103.
    strand, Caroline
    Karlstad University.
    Musik För Ögonen: Ett webbprojekt med fokus på estetik2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 104.
    Strandlund, Jonathan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Grahn, Sofie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Från kampanj till givakt: En intervjustudie om kommunikationens roll för en jämställd försvarsmakt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2017 the Swedish government decided that the defense should be based on both volunteerism and duty. The military service had then been dormant since 2010 and built entirely on volunteerism. From this political decision, the duty is now gender neutral, which means that the same opportunities and obligations apply to both men and women. The Swedish Armed Forces have an active desire for more women to carry out the military service - an organisation that historically has been strongly associated with masculine norms. 

    From campaign to attention” is a qualitative interview study on the military conscripts’ experience of government communication, which aims to contribute to increased gender equality in the defense. The study aims to illustrate how communication that challenges stereotypes to change norms is received by men and women who carry out their basic education in the Armed Forces. 

    In order to find out the military conscripts’ view of the chosen authorities’ communication, we conducted ten qualitative interviews with military conscripts who are in the middle of their basic education. All respondents belonged to the armory regiment P4 in Skövde, Sweden. The material selected for the study consists of a campaign from the Recruitment Authority (2017) and two campaigns from the Swedish Armed Forces (2018).

    The theories from which the study is based on are Stuart Hall’s encoding / decoding theory, theories on framing and theories on advertising, stereotypes and mirror theories. These theories help the study to shed light on the different parts of the process when a message is packaged and coded and how they are finally interpreted by their recipients. 

    The study shows that the military conscripts believe that the authorities have chosen appropriate efforts to increase gender equality in the Swedish Armed Forces in the long term. They believe that the authorities communicate a broader picture of who can be a soldier, they consider contributing to reaching new target groups, including both women and men who do not identify with the historical norm of a soldier. 

    The respondents, however, highlight a gap between how the authorities communicate the distribution between men and women versus reality. Although the picture does not correspond to reality, they understand the purpose for which the authorities have chosen to show women to the extent they do.

    The study shows that government communication with such realistic images of military service as possible is the one that the target group interpret in the most efficient way and which is best appreciated. Our study also shows that the respondents do not automatically believe that the authorities' communication loosens the stereotypical image of a soldier simply because they show women instead of men. Instead, there are other factors (such as attributes or charisma) that contribute to the presentation being perceived as stereotyped.

  • 105.
    Ström, Pontus
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Olsson, Sanna
    Karlstad University.
    Snälla gilla oss: En kvantitativ studie om samband mellan företags kommunikation på Facebook och deras förtroende hos allmänheten2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between corporate communication on Facebook and public trust, and how this affects the spread of content and involvement (likes, shares and comments) on Facebook. It has not been possible to find any previous research about the relationship between communication and the spread of content on Facebook. The aim of this study is to find a link between these factors and the amount of public trust. There is similar research on government institutions, but there is no such research that focuses on companies. There is therefore a research gap to adress, which makes it interesting to analyze whether there is any connection inbetween these factors. This essay addresses the following questions:

    • Are there any differences regarding how companies with a different amount of public trust communicate through Facebook, and in that case what does these differences look like?

    • Is there a connection between the amount of public trust, the followers' involvement, and the spread of Facebook posts (in the form of likes, comments and shares)?

    • Is there a connection between the amount of public trust and publishing speed of Facebook posts?

    This essay is a quantitative study, which is limited to eight companies. Four companies with a high amount of trust and four companies with a low amount of trust were selected. These companies were chosen based on the list Förtroendebarometern 2017 and the Reputation Institute's survey Sweden RepTrak 2017. The companies with a high level of trust were IKEA, Volvo, ICA and SAS. The companies with a low level of trust were H&M, SJ, Tele2 and Nordea. All selected companies originate in Sweden.

    The results showed that companies with a high level of trust advertise their own products and brands more often, they publish more pictures and reply more often to comments. Companies with a low level of trust use videos or gifs more often in their posts. The results also showed that companies with low trust get posts with fewer likes, while those with a high level of trust get more likes in total, and more posts with higher numbers of likes. Companies with a high level of trust also receive more comments on their posts, and they respond to comments more often. The companies with low trust have a large number of posts that have never been shared, in contrast to the companies with a high level of trust. There is also a link between trust and publishing speed of Facebook posts. Companies with a high level of trust publish their posts twelve percent faster than those with low trust. In conclusion, it can be stated that there is a clear connection between corporate communication on Facebook and the amount of public trust. It is not public trust that affects how companies communicate, it is communication that affects the level of trust. 

  • 106.
    Strömberg, Felicia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Bergström, Felicia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Upplev mer: Skapandet av reklamfilm för BUSS-TV2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The intended purpose of this project is to investigate how students travelling with Karlstadsbuss perceive and experience BUS-TV, and how a silent commercial film can be created to attract the attention of travelers in a mobile and dynamic environment. By displaying the film, Karlstadsbuss wishes to reach one of their main target groups; students at Karlstad University. The goal of the film is to inform students and increase their interest regarding the possibilities of traveling by bus; focusing on the local attractions in Karlstad.

     

    In order to gain insight into the purpose of this project, and to fulfill the employers wishes of designing a visually appealing commercial ad adapted for BUS-TV, the theoretical framework has been based on theories from visual rhetoric, narration, semiotics and perception. The project aim is to investigate how the structure of storytelling and its composition depict meaning, as well as how characters and physical elements can be portrayed to communicate a message and feelings through the use of body language, picture cut-outs, various camera angles, color, contrast and symbols. Furthermore, the project intends to investigate how subjects interpret and experience these various elements.

     

    The projects empirical process consists of a triangulative methodology with two qualitative surveys; focus based group-interviews and ethnographical observations. The participants of the focus groups belonged to the projects target group. The purpose of these interviews was to reach an understanding of the target group’s general understanding of and experience when traveling with Karlstadsbuss and BUS-TV, in order to be able to map out and produce a visually attracting commercial film. The ethnographical observations were performed in order to raise a better awareness of the subject’s activities on the bus, and more explicitly, their relation to BUS-TV.

     

    The project resulted in a 43-second long commercial film with moving images, intended to inform travelers about their possibilities of experiencing more with Karlstadsbuss. The commercial ad was produced without sound and the visual portrayal is based on research of how visual alertness and interest is captured. Information from the qualitative studies regarding content, associations with the employer’s brand and meanings about the visual elements such as color, contrast and composition have also contributed to the conformation of the ad.

  • 107.
    Syrén, Fredric
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Fabian, Schwarz
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Politisk fragmentering på grund av Facebooks filtrering: En studie om hur Facebook rekommenderar innehåll beroende på politiska preferenser2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is about Facebook’s role in political representation. The goal of the study is to examine the occurrence of filter bubbles on Facebook’s  recommendations-page. This page is called “Like pages” and provides Facebook-users with recommendations of new pages to like and is created by algorithms that take into account personal information of the user, which pages the user has liked earlier, friends on the network and other websites the user has visited. The two latter factors however have been left aside in this study, which focuses instead on personal information and interaction with Facebook-pages.

                          Besides the filter bubble-theory, this paper includes theories about “cyberbalkanization”, “echo chambers” and “selective exposure” in order to explain how information can influence and is influenced by people’s choices on the internet. The results of this research are discussed in the light of the large consequences which information has on internet users and society in general.

                          The experimental part of the study includes the creating of six fictitious Facebook-profiles with help of several statistics, in order to make the profiles as representative as possible. Those profiles then interact with different political pages from Sweden. That has an impact on the recommendations-page, which subsequently is studied with help of a quantitative content analysis to see what content the user gets back, based on her earlier interactions.

                          A central aim of this paper is to understand the global discussion about Facebook’s role as a political influencer in the US-election 2016, which has taken place during the same period of time as this paper has been written. When beginning this research, “filter bubbles” was something that was discussed in science and among media-interested. After the results of the election were final, the discussions about Facebook’s role as a propagator of fake-news culminated and the company was accused to have influenced voters. As a reaction to this, Facebook’s CEO Zuckerberg announced the company will find ways for stopping the distribution of fake-news on Facebook. Those consequences are already visible in this research and possible consequences on a political debate on Facebook are discussed. However, the changes that have been made on Facebook have not been communicated publicly in any way by the company. For this reason this study also discusses problems that can occur studying online-content and makes demands on a higher transparency of how Facebook’s algorithms work.

                          The analysis of the results show that Facebook before the changes has recommended its users pages with political content in a much higher extent than after the change, when the recommendations-page is mainly based on local-fixed Facebook-pages. The authors draw the conclusion that Facebook, before the changes, politicized a political active user, while a political inactive user is not presented for political material in the same extent. Even a filter bubble could be observed, based on block-political preferences of the user. The authors agree upon that the changes, Facebook made will have an impact on Facebook’s role as a political forum. Even if this study only focuses on the recommendations-page on Facebook, the changes that Facebook made can make Facebook to a less political platform and potentially affect the democracy in Sweden and all around the world.

  • 108.
    Sörensen, Julia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Språk och kommunikation hos barn med autism2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 109.
    Thörnstrand, Sandra
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Kvamme, Maja
    Karlstad University.
    Sant eller falskt på sociala medier: En kvalitativ studie om unga vuxnas åsikter, beteenden och attityder kring källkritik och nyhetsspridning på Facebook.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social media, example Facebook, has made it possible for people to easily be a part of news sharing and to produce news. As a result of this, there are opportunities for each and everyone to influence and to be more involved in news dissemination but at the same time there are risks involved. It has been shown to be common for misinformation to spread through social media where it rapidly reaches a large group of people, which can result in a false image of reality. In this study theories about Uses and Gratifications and source credibility have been brought together for an analysis. The purpose was to investigate what our respondents thought about the benefits of an active audience when it comes to sharing news, but also to investigate the negative sides of news sharing and the risks that follow. The study presents various needs that are satisfied with news sharing on Facebook. With a focus on Facebook the study also presents opinions, behaviors and attitudes about source credibility and news sharing amongst young adults. Young adults have shown to be very active on social media where they also consume a lot of their news intake – which is why we selected this group of people in our study. To find out what young adults think about our subject previously mentioned, we formed focus groups of participants in the ages of 18-29 where they discussed questions about the subject.

    This study’s most significant finding is that news sharing on Facebook is mostly about satisfying a need of attention – a need to show other people that one has knowledge about recent news and a need to be confirmed by others, in example via comments. Another discovery is that the participants in this study mean that the only way to value sources on social media is to compare different sources with one another. But it was shown that other factors are also important when they value sources on social media.

  • 110.
    Timm, Jimmy
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Karlstad University.
    Det här är en svart dag för Sverige: En komparativ studie i nyhetsdiskurs mellan Dagens Nyheter och Fria Tider i deras rapportering om knivådet i Västerås kontra skolattacken i Trollhättan2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this essay is to study how a right-wing populist alternative news medium, versus a more mainstream news medium, reports on two different news events. First off is the stabbings at the furniture store Ikea in Västerås, second is the attack on students at a middle school in Trollhättan by a masked adolescent armed with a sword. Both of which took place in the fall of 2015 in Sweden. Both events gained much attention from the news media, and sparked the already intense political debate on immigration issues. This due to the facts that the perpetrator at Ikea in Västerås was a refugee seeking asylum in Sweden, and the masked assailent in Trollhättan showed interest in right-wing extremist content on the internet as well as targeting students and faculty of immigration background.The theoretical framework consists of earlier research on populism, alternative media as well ason traditional journalism. We chose to work mainly with two distinguished theories within media and communication studies. The first theory is framing, based mainly on research done by Scheufele and Entman. The second theory is discourse, as defined by Foucalt and Fairclough. The method used for the study is a critical discourse analysis. This method together with the twotheories have been proven useful when studying political discourses and framing in political news articles similar to the ones we picked for our essay. The material used for this study consists off our news articles of which two are linked to each news event or “case”. Two of the articles are published by Fria Tider, a right-wing populist alternative news medium, while the other two by Dagens Nyheter, a well established and more mainstream oriented morning news paper. Different frames and discourses have been revealed in the material after our analysis, based on our schematics in an attempt to operationalise.The results points towards two widely different news discourses and ways of framing the news content. Fria Tider portrait the events in favour of their agenda of critical views on immigration and immigrants, whereas Dagens Nyheter acts as a counterpart with far more objective framing of the events. This study seeks to build a better understanding of today’s polarised media landscape, as well as the importance of independent journalism and news media in a society where the mass media experience cutbacks and convergence. A more explicit and honest public debate regarding immigrational issues is needed, to avoid further polarisation of the media landscape.

  • 111.
    Uppal, Charu
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies.
    Bollywood, the vendor of emotions and nostalgia: India in the lives of Indo Fijians2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 112.
    Wadman, Inger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Proppar i blodomloppet?: En studie om Konstfacks internkommunikation2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Konstfack University College of Arts, Crafts and Design is Sweden’s largest arts college with close to 900 students, but it is also a public authority and the workplace of more than 200 people, many of whom are part-time guest teachers with limited, uncertain employments. Striving to accomplish all the conflicting demands on the college as an authority, an arts college and a good employer is a major challenge, where communication with the staff is the key to success. The aim of this study is to find answers to the questions how employees perceive the organization’s internal communication and if the organization's internal communication manages to help employees feel participation in the organization as a whole and its’ activities. Previous studies in this field show that colleges are conservative when it comes to utilizing new technology and that employees’ identification with their organizations depends on a well functioning internal communication. The management at Konstfack University College of Arts, Crafts and Design has expressed a willingness of two-way communication with the staff and also shows an understanding of the special work situation for teachers. There are technical solutions available that would greatly facilitate interaction. The question is whether these technical prerequisites, like the intranet and e-mail, are being used adequately. This paper takes a theoretical starting point in the development of the changing view of communication from the transmission viewpoint, to the view of communication as a meaning making and meaning giving ongoing process, a development pushed forward not only by communication research, but also has political as well as commercial drivers. To investigate how employees at Konstfack University College of Arts, Crafts and Design experience the organization's internal communication, two complementary research methods were used; in-depth interviews as a qualitative method and a questionnaire as a quantitative method. The results of these studies provide support for the hypothesis that the organization's employees are experiencing great difficulty in navigating the information overload that the technical communication tools offer while, paradoxically, they also experience a lack of relevant information. At the same time, both the interviews and the result of the questionnaire also show that the organization’s employees have a strong sense of responsibility and a clear sense of identification with their workplace, especially with their closest organizational group. However, there is an imminent lack of interface between different parts of the organization and a widespread lack of knowledge concerning where to address questions. The current formal internal communication, the management’s planned information to the organization’s employees, which is currently largely characterized by one-way communication, needs to find new, more individualized means of communication in order to better benefit from the staff’s commitment and increase employees' sense of participation with the organization as a whole. More individualized two-way communication would also increase the organization’s efficiency and help it take one step closer to achieving another important goal, that of being a good employer.

  • 113.
    Wallace, Robert
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Media and Communication Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    Categories of Conceptions in Karlstad Community Classrooms: An analysis of educator interviews regarding new media technologies as teaching tools2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Från höstterminstarten 2011 har alla nya elever inom de kommunala gymnasieskolorna i Karlstad och Hammarö tillgång till en egen dator, en satsning som brukar gå under beteckningen en-till-en. Denna situation öppnar för en möjlighet att studera hur denna tekniska förändring också påverkar lärares upplevelse av teknikskiftet och hur lärarna uppfattar att tekniken förändrar skolvardagen. Under december 2011 intervjuades 47 lärare i engelska (du skriver rätt antal) utifrån en gemensam intervjuguide med öppna frågor kring erfarenheter, strategier och åsikter om hur det är att arbeta i klasser som omfattades av en-till-en-satsningen. Syftet med studien var att kategorisera lärarnas uppfattningar och hur de erfar denna nya situation; detta då med hjälp av en fenomenografisk analysmetod. Studien tar sin utgångspunkt i ett sociokulturellt perspektiv där lärandet ingår i en social kommunikativ process. Resultatet av analysen pekar mot att det går att dela in lärarnas syn på den nya situationen i tre huvudkategorier; erfarenhet av fenomen genom jämförelse; undervisning strategier i förhållande till fenomenet; fenomen i praktik. 

  • 114.
    Wessling, Chatarina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Lindholm, Rebecca
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Skomakarens barn: En fallstudie av Landstinget i Värmlands interna kommunikation om dess företagshälsovård2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning 

    Denna uppsats handlar om informationens resa från ledning ner till anställda i de yttersta leden inom en stor offentlig och byråkratisk organisation. Studiens syfte är att undersöka kommunikationsprocessen där informationen går vertikalt genom flera olika led samt att se om det finns några eventuella hinder längs vägen. Studien har genom tre frågeställningar lagt vikt på de eventuella hindren, vilka kanaler som är mest effektiva samt var ansvaret för informationen hamnar under resans gång. 

    Som exempel på en offentlig byråkratisk organisation har vi valt att undersöka Landstinget i Värmland som fallstudie. Den specifika information som har undersökts handlar om organisationens företagshälsovård, Landstingshälsan, med motiveringen att det är information som vänder sig till alla verksamheter och anställda inom organisationen. 

    Som metod har en triangulering valts med två professionsintervjuer en postenkät och en telefonenkät. På det viset har vi nått alla led i informationsflödet i form av Landstingshälsan, informationsstaben, chefer och anställda i de yttersta leden. Intervjuerna med informationschefen samt biträdande verksamhetschef vid Landstingshälsan var väldigt intressanta att jämföra. 

    Det visade sig att kommunikationsflödet inom Landstinget fungerade relativt bra men med vissa hinder längs vägen. Ett hinder som upptäcktes var främst informationsstabens inställning till informationen från Landstingshälsan där av namnet på uppsatsen. Ordspråket Skomakarens barn går oftast barfota syftar på vår slutsats om att information om förebyggande vård inte prioriteras inom Landstinget i Värmland egna organisation. Kommunikationen var även påverkad av hur informationen var utformad. Informationsöverflöd var även det ett tydligt problem bland chefsleden och de anställda. Ansvarsfrågan i sig var även det ett hinder i kommunikationsflödet då det inte var helt klart var ansvaret ligger. Eftersom Landstingshälsan inte är kommunikativt utbildade kan det inte krävas att de ska ha ansvaret för att informationens utformning är duglig.

    Nyckelord: Informationsflöde, internkommunikation, kommunikationskanaler, kommunikationsprocessen, organisationsstruktur. 

  • 115.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    & she was like "O_O": Animation of reported speech on Twitter2014In: Nordic Journal of English Studies, ISSN 1654-6970, E-ISSN 1654-6970, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 83-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study relates discourse-pragmatic aspects of the use of the quotatives say, be like, be all, and go to the question of the supposed or actual spoken-likeness of written computer-mediated communication (CMC). 1,800 tokens of reported speech, collected from Twitter, were analyzed in a “constructed dialogue” framework (Tannen, 2007). The results show that users of Twitter employ various CMC devices to animate and modally enrich reported speech, especially in speech reports with be like, be all, and go. They perform a style of communication that is reminiscent of conversational speech, even while having qualities that seem to belong uniquely to CMC.

  • 116.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    #srynotfunny: Communicative functions of hashtags on Twitter2014In: SKY Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 1456-8438, E-ISSN 1796-279X, Vol. 27, p. 127-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates various communicative functions served by hashtags in written communication on Twitter from a linguistic pragmatic perspective. A tweet containing a hashtag links to, and is integrated into, a timeline of other tweets containing the same hashtag. Thus, hashtags are by default categorizing or organizing; a user of Twitter may add the tag #food to their tweet to integrate it into a general conversation about this topic. However, this study demonstrates that hashtags are also used creatively to perform other communicative functions. In the data presented, hashtags are employed as complexly multifunctional linguistic devices for, among other things, structuring information, playing games, and engaging in reflexive meta-commentary. Notably, while pragmatic methodology is typically applied to speech, this study indicates that a traditional speech acts framework may be profitably applied to written communication in new media.

  • 117.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies.
    Twitter's affordances for animation of reported speech2014Conference paper (Refereed)
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