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  • 101. De Feyter, S
    et al.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Imans, F
    Viaene, L
    De Schryver, FC
    Evans, CH
    Observation of .alpha.-terthiophene excited dimer fluorescence in aqueous solutions of .gamma.-cyclodextrin1997In: Chem. Phys. Lett., 1997, 277, 44-50Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 102. de Knoop, L.
    et al.
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Petterson, H.
    Olsson, E.
    Extraction and local probing of individual carbon nanotubes2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 103.
    De Magistris, Federica
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Germgård, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Beghello, Luciano
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Paper Surface Centre.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Lestelius, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences, Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Effect of calendering on the compressibility of papers made with fibre of various properties2010Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The surface and bulk compressibility of a given paper influence its calendering, coating, surface sizing and printing properties. This study aims at a deeper knowledge of which variable affects the compressibility of paper sheets and how calendering effect different sheet properties. The pulps were characterized by their chemical compositions and physical properties. The bulk compressibility, the surface compressibility and the thickness were evaluated both before and after calendering

  • 104. De Schryver, FC
    et al.
    Boens, N
    Van der Auweraer, M
    Viaene, L
    Reekmans, S
    Hermans, B
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Gehlen, M
    Berghmans, H
    Berghmans, M
    Ameloot, M
    Excited-state probing of associative and covalent macromolecules1995In: Pure & Appl. Chem., 1995, 67, 157-165Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 105. De Schryver, FC
    et al.
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Gehlen, MH
    Van der Auweraer, M
    Boens, N
    Reekmans, S
    Negri, RM
    Wittouck, N
    Bernik, D
    Ameloot, M
    Faes, H
    Noukakis, D
    Luminescence spectroscopy and microdomains1994In: MICROCHEMISTRY: Spectroscopy and Chemistry in Small Domains; Masuhara H., De Schryver F.C., Kitamura N., Tamai N. (eds), Elsevier, Amsterdam, New York, Tokyo (1994), 415-430, 1994Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 106.
    de Vin, Leo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Enineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Feature-based process planning for sheet metal components revisited2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract

    The concept of form features in design and manufacturing is not new, but has in recent times received renewed attention in industry and academia. Manufacturing features play an important role in process planning. There are different ways to extract these manufacturing features from a product model, depending on how the model was generated. Problems related to feature extraction and reasoning include feature interactions and tolerances. For sheet metal components, some additional issues exist as the base material is flat sheet whereas the completed product is usually a three-dimensional structure. Feature abstractions can be used to avoid problems in manufacturing and increase flexibility in decision making. Compared to machining, some additional functions exist in sheet metal process planning such as flat wrap generation and nesting

  • 107. Duda, L.
    et al.
    Johansson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Reihl, B.
    Yeom, H. W.
    Hara, S.
    Yoshida, S.
    Angle-resolved photoemission studies of the 3C-SiC(001)(2 x 1) surface1999In: Surface Review and Letters 6, 1151 (1999)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 108. Duda, L.
    et al.
    Johansson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Reihl, B.
    Yeom, H. W.
    Hara, S.
    Yoshida, S.
    Electronic structure of the 3C-SiC(001)2 x 1 surface studied with angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy1999In: Surface Science 439, 199 (1999)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 109. Duda, L.
    et al.
    Johansson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Reihl, B.
    Yeom, H. W.
    Hara, S.
    Yoshida, S.
    Surface states of the 3C-SiC(001)-c(4×2) surface studied with angle-resolved photoemission2000In: Physical. Review B 61, R2460 (2000)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 110.
    Dzogbewu, Thywill
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, Bloemfontein, Central University of Technology, Free State, South Africa.
    Yadroitsev, Igov
    Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, Bloemfontein, Central University of.
    Krakhmalev, Pavel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Yadroitsava, Inna
    Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, Bloemfontein, Central University of.
    Du Plessis, Anton
    University of Stellenbosch.
    Optimal process parameters for in-situ alloyed Ti15Mo structures by Direct Metal Laser Sintering2017In: Solid Freeform Fabrication 2017: Proceedings of the 28th Annual InternationalSolid Freeform Fabrication Symposium – An Additive Manufacturing Conference, Austin: University of Texas , 2017, p. 75-96Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 111.
    Dzwilewski, Andrzej
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Anselmo, Ana Sofia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    The effect of light exposure on P3HT:PCBM films: a NEXAFS study2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple photolithography method was developed for patterning organic field effect transistors (OFETs) prepared from blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT, and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, PCBM.(1) This Photo-induced and Resist-free Imprint patterning (PRI) technique allows also the single solution step production of organic CMOS circuits.(2) It consists of two subsequent processing steps: 1) exposure: photo-irradiation of the P3HT:PCBM blend by visible laser light and 2) development: rinsing of the film in an organic solvent mixture that is selective for PCBM. As a result, two electronically different materials are obtained, i.e. the exposed and developed (ED) material, and the unexposed and developed (UD) material. The method is based on the modification of the PCBM component in the irradiated area, which becomes effectively insoluble in the solvent mixture, while the PCBM in the non-irradiated area is removed during development. Therefore, we expect that the UD material is pure P3HT, a hypothesis that is confirmed by the p-type conductivity of the ED region. Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) was used to determine the surface composition of these films. C K-edge NEXAFS spectra of pristine, photo-exposed, and developed blend films, as well as films of the pure components were measured at the synchrotron facility MAX-lab in Lund, Sweden. The spectra for P3HT and PCBM are significantly different and the components can be clearly distinguished in the blend spectra. From the relative intensities of the P3HT and PCBM peaks, the actual blend composition can be estimated, both on the surface, using partial electron yield (PEY), and deeper in the sub-surface region of the film, using total electron yield (TEY). From the similarity of the spectra of the UD blend sample and the pure P3HT sample, we conclude that the remaining material after washing the pristine blend is indeed P3HT, and the ED blend sample retains its two-component character. The surface composition of the blend films is significantly more polymer-rich than the bulk blend ratio used to prepare the film. Both for the pristine blend and the photo-exposed blend differences are observed between the PEY and TEY spectra, indicating the existence of a polymer-enriched surface. Such gradients in thin films of P3HT:PCBM blends have been observed by others using variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry,(3) NEXAFS,(4) and neutron reflectometry,(5) and also in other polymer:PCBM blends by dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (d-SIMS).(6)

    References (1) Dzwilewski, A.; Wagberg, T.; Edman, L. J. Am. Chem.Soc. 2009, 131, 4006. (2) Dzwilewski, A.; Matyba, P.; Edman, L. J. Phys. Chem. B 2010, 114, 135. (3) Campoy-Quiles, M., et al., Nature Materials 2008, 7,158-164 (4) Germack,D.S. et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 2009, 94, 233303. (5) Kiel, J.W. et al., Soft Matter 2010, 6, 641-646. (6) Björström, C.M. et al, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 2005, 17, L529-L534.

  • 112.
    Dzwilewski, Andrzej
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Anselmo, Ana Sofia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Light induced effects in PCBM:P3HT blend films2012In: Hybrid and Organics Photovoltaics Conference: Uppsala, Sweden, 2012 / [ed] Anders Hagfeldt, SEFIN, Castelló (Spain), 2012, p. 155-155Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 113.
    Dzwilewski, Andrzej
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Anselmo, Ana Sofia
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Zharnikov, Michael
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    X-ray absorption study of light induced effects in PCBM:P3HT blend films2011In: Photovoltaics at the nanoscale: Hasselt University (Belgium) 24-28 October 2011, Hasselt University, Belgium, 2011, p. 59-59Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 114. Dütemeyer, T.
    et al.
    Johansson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Quitmann, C.
    Reihl, B.
    Imaging of the electronic states on the Si(111)1×1-As surface using a display-type photoelectron analyzer2001In: Surface Science 482-485, 600 (2001)Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    e have measured the electronic structure of the arsenic-terminated Si(1 1 1)1×1As surface with angle-resolved photoemission using a display-type analyzer. The analyzer records energy-resolved angular distribution patterns of the photoelectrons in a solid angle of ?=43° and ?=360°, thereby covering the entire surface Brillouin zone at the binding energies measured here. Using this instrument we have mapped the entire two-dimensional dispersion of the lone-pair surface state, from the band maximum at to the global minima at the -points. In addition, the two-dimensional dispersions of the three upper valence bands are mapped, showing their threefold symmetry, using a photon energy of 21.2 eV. Our results are in good agreement with previous experiments and earlier quasiparticle band structure calculations

  • 115. Dütemeyer, T.
    et al.
    Quitmann, C.
    Kitz, M.
    Dörnemann, K.
    Johansson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Reihl, B.
    Photoelectron Imaging using an Elliptical Display Analyzer2001In: Review of Scientific Instruments 72, 2638 (2001)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 116.
    Ekengren, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Estimating inclusion content in high performance steels2008Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 117.
    Ekengren, Jens
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Extreme value distributions of inclusions in six steels2008Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 118.
    Ekengren, Jens
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Kazymyrovych, Vitaliy
    Burman, Christer
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    RELATING GIGACYCLE FATIGUE TO OTHER METHODS IN EVALUATING THE INCLUSION DISTRIBUTION OF A H13 TOOL STEEL2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inclusions play a crucial role for the fatigue properties of high strength steel, but to find the

    largest inclusions by microscopy measurements large areas have to be examined. In this study ultrasonic gigacycle staircase fatigue testing has been used to find large inclusions in an H13 tool steel. The inclusions have been examined in SEM and their size

    distribution modeled using methods from extreme value statistics. The inclusion distribution obtained from the fatigue crack surfaces is compared to distributions acquired by microscopy study of cross sections as well as ultrasound immersion tank measurements and to the corresponding staircase fatigue data via the Murakami \sqrt{Area} model. It is shown that the fatigue method more effectively finds large inclusions than the other methods. It is also shown that the correlation between predictions of inclusion sizes by the \sqrt{Area} model from stress levels and fatigue initiating inclusions is weak for this material

  • 119.
    Enghag, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Forsman, Jonas
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Linder, Cedric
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    MacKinnon, Allan
    Faculty of Education, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada, V5A 1S6.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Using a disciplinary discourse lens to explore how representations afford meaning making in a typical wave physics course2013In: International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, ISSN 1571-0068, E-ISSN 1573-1774, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 625-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We carried out a case study in a wave physics course at a Swedish university in order to investigate the relations between the representations used in the lessons and the experience of meaning making in interview–discussions. The grounding of these interview–discussions also included obtaining a rich description of the lesson environment in terms of the communicative approaches used and the students’ preferences for modes of representations that best enable meaning making. The background for this grounding was the first two lessons of a 5-week course on wave physics (70 students). The data collection for both the grounding and the principal research questions consisted of video recordings from the first two lessons: a student questionnaire of student preferences for representations (given before and after the course) and video-recorded interview–discussions with students (seven pairs and one on their own). The results characterize the use of communicative approaches, what modes of representation were used in the lectures, and the trend in what representations students’ preferred for meaning making, all in order to illustrate how students engage with these representations with respect to their experienced meaning making. Interesting aspects that emerged from the study are discussed in terms of how representations do not, in themselves, necessarily enable a range of meaning making; that meaning making from representations is critically related to how the representations get situated in the learning environment; and how constellations of modes of disciplinary discourse may be necessary but not always sufficient. Finally, pedagogical comments and further research possibilities are presented.

  • 120.
    Enghag, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Forsman, Jonas
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wikman, Susanne
    Andersson, Steffan
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Linder, Cedric
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Student evaluations of themselves as disciplinary practitioners2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 121. Engquist, I.
    et al.
    Lestelius, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Liedberg, B.
    Microscopic Wettability of Ester and Acetate Terminated Self-Assembled Monolayers1997In: Langmuir, Vol. vol 13, p. 4003-4012Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 122. Engquist, I.
    et al.
    Liedberg, B.
    Lestelius, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Hydrogen Bond Interaction between Ester Terminated Self-Assembled Monolayers and Adsorbed Water Molecules and Its Implications for Cluster Formation1995In: Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. vol 99, p. 14198-14200Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 123.
    Ericsson, Leif
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Blazinic, Vanja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Effects of the morphology on the photodegradation of TQ1:PC70BM film: an AFM-IR studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 124.
    Ericsson, Leif
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Grützelius Hirvonen, Helena
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Controlled distribution of ZnO nanoparticles on Si/SiO2 surfaces2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Controlled distribution of ZnO nanoparticles on Si/SiO2 surfacesIn recent years the properties and applications of ZnO nanomaterials has been extensively examined, partly due to the potential of ZnO as UV and visible light emitter and detector. Much of the previous work concern synthesis and growth of ZnO in different forms. In this survey, we have primarily studied commercially available nanoparticles and how they can be distributed on surfaces, aiming for future applications in e.g. photovoltaic devices. Later custom synthesised ZnO particles will be used in collaboration with Prof. Gunnar Westin at Uppsala University.ZnO nanoparticles, non-coated and organo-silane coated, with an average size of 70 nm from Alfa Aesar GmbH & Co KG, Germany, have been used in different dispersions for application on surfaces and the aim has been to achieve a controllable distribution of particles. In order to achieve this, different substrate preparations, solvents for dispersion and application methods have been used. Characterisation of the particle distribution has been done with Optical Microscopy (OM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The chemical and the crystallographic properties of the particles have also been investigated using Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD).The substrates used are Si(001) with different preparations to create hydrophobic or hydrophilic surfaces. Nanoparticles were applied to the substrates using drop-coating and spin-coating. Several different solvents, including water, 1,2-PMA and chloroform, have been used for dispersions, yielding the possibility to use vapour pressure and solubility parameters to control the distribution. Separated particles are observed in all of the examined samples below a certain ZnO concentration. The amount of separated particles is dependent on the surface used, the solvent and the preparation procedure. A trend that can be followed from micro-scale to nano-scale is that smaller agglomerates correspond to more separated particles. Particles of different forms have been identified for later characterization.

  • 125.
    Ericsson, Leif
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Zakharov, Alexei A.
    Characterization of nano-ZnO using SPELEEM and STM2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Characterization of nano-ZnO using SPELEEM and STMLeif Ericsson1, Kjell Magnusson1 and Alexei Zakharov21) Karlstad University, Sweden, 2) MAX-lab, Lund University, SwedenFuture functional applications of nanostructured ZnO, a wide bandgap semiconductor, include optical, electronic, optoelectronic, photovoltaic and piezoelectric devices. Much of the previous research has mainly concerned synthesis and growth of ZnO in different forms. In a previous survey, we have studied commercially available nanoparticles (Alfa Aesar GmbH, Germany) with an average size of 70 nm, in dispersions spin coated on SiO2/Si(001) surfaces. Using 2-10 mg/ml in ethanol and using ultrasound, we have prepared surfaces with a varying number of separated individual nanoparticles. These particles have been characterized with SEM and AFM, to reveal variations in morphology and size, and degree of agglomeration.In the present study, we have used Low-Energy Electron Microscopy (LEEM) and Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM), the latter using synchrotron radiation, to further characterize the ZnO nanoparticles in terms of crystallinity, chemical state and electronic properties. The experiments have been done at MAX-lab, Lund, Sweden, at Beamline I311, using a system supplied by ELMITEC GmbH, Germany. In addition to microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy from selected areas down to 1,3 micrometer, micro-XPS, has been used, yielding detailed spectroscopic information with this degree of lateral resolution.After a low-temperature anneal at 500 °C, LEEM images from 25 micrometer show strong (0,0)-reflections from separated areas of sizes down to less than 100 nm, in accordance with expectations for the size of the ZnO particles. Different electron energies show reflections from different grains due to orientation of the nanoparticles. Further annealing at 650 °C improves the LEEM image, yielding evidence for a fair degree of crystallinity and surface cleanliness in accordance with peak intensities from micro-XPS.The chemical state and electronic properties of both ZnO particles and SiO2/Si(001) substrate were studied with micro-XPS and PEEM, yielding well-resolved peaks from Zn 3d and Si 2p, which were used to create PEEM images with a perfect complementarity between Zn 3d and Si 2p based images. micro-XPS from ZnO nanoparticle agglomerates, ZnO free SiO2/Si(001) surface as well as mixed areas has been collected, showing differences in binding energies.For characterization of atomic structure and electronic structure with yet higher lateral resolution, Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy, STM-STS, has been applied and preliminary result will be presented.

  • 126. Eriksson, U.
    et al.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Engström, G.
    Rigdahl, M.
    Strukturelle und rheologische Unterschiede zwischen CMC- und stärkehaltigen Streichfarben auf Kaolinbasis1991In: PTS-Streicherei Symp., PTS-Vortragsband Nr. 02/91, 97 (1991), 1991Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 127. Eriksson, U.
    et al.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre.
    Rigdahl, M.
    Strukturelle und rheologische Unterschiede zwischen CMC- und stärkehaltigen Streichfarben auf Kaolinbasis1991Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 128. Erts, D.
    et al.
    Lohmus, A.
    Lohmus, R.
    Olin, H.
    Pokropivny, A.V.
    Ryen, L.
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Force interactions and adhesion of gold contacts using a combined atomic force microscope and transmission electron microscope2002In: Applied Surface Science, Vol. 188, no 3, p. 460-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 129. Eschle, M.K.
    et al.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Grätzel, M.
    Construction of the Energy Diagram of an Organic Semiconductor Film on SnO2:F by Surface Photovoltage Spectroscopy1998In: Opt. Mater. 9, 1-4 (1998) p. 138-144Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 130. Evans, C
    et al.
    Partyka, M
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Naphthalene Complexation by .beta.-Cyclodextrin: Influence of Added Short Chain Branched and Linear Alcohols2000In: J. Incl. Phenom. Mol. Recog., 2000, 38, 381-396Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 131. Evans, CH
    et al.
    De Feyter, S
    Viaene, L
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    De Schryver, FC
    Bimolecular Processes of .alpha.-Terthiophene in a .beta.-Cyclodextrin Environment: An Exploratory Study1996In: J. Phys. Chem., 1996, 100, 2129-2135Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 132. Eves, B.J.
    et al.
    Festy, F.
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Palmer, R.E.
    Scanning probbe energy loss spectroscopy: Angular resolved measurements on silicon and graphite surfaces2000In: Applied Physics LettersArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 133.
    Festy, F.
    et al.
    The University of Birmingham.
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. The University of Birmingham.
    Laitenberger, P.
    The University of Birmingham.
    Palmer, R.E.
    The University of Birmingham.
    Imaging surfaces with reflected electrons from a field-emission STM: image contrast mechanisms2001In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, no 34, p. 1849-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrons backscattered from a scanning tunnelling microscope operating in the field emission mode have been collected to produce images of a rough Si(111) surface. We have obtained a spatial resolution of about 40 nm in such images. Comparison between backscattered electron images and topographic images reveals that edge enhancement and shadowing are important contrast mechanisms.

  • 134. Fogden, Andrew
    et al.
    Ström, Göran
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Fokus på ytan2004In: SPCI Sv. Papperstidning nr 12/2004Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 135.
    Fredriksson, Gunnel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Electrical Discharge and How it Affects Tool Steels1994Report (Other academic)
  • 136.
    Fredriksson, Gunnel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Electrical Discharge Machining and its influence on Forming Tools1997Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 137.
    Fredriksson, Gunnel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Electrical Discharge Machining and the properties of Tool Steels1996Report (Other academic)
  • 138.
    Fredriksson, Gunnel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Influence of EDM: Post treatments and coatings on mechanical porperties of cold work steels1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a presentation of results from the laboratory tests of the project Electrical Discharge Machining of Tools in Cold Work Applications. Two high speed steels, two cold work ingot cast and forged steels, and one powder metallurgical cold work steel at hardness from 51 to 66 HRc were included in the study. In the first part of the report differences between the various tool steels in how they respond to electrical discharge machining (EDM) are discussed. Surface alterations, defect distributions, static and fatigue strength are included as well as wire and die sinking EDM, both rough and fine. In the second part some post EDM treatments are examined. The effect of tempering and shot peening after EDM on mechanical properties of the tool steel is shown and a comparison of mechanical polishing and electrochemical polishing (ECP) is given. Since cold work tool steels are being used at increasing hardness, the third part is a study where the hardness of two tool steels has been varied in order to see how important this is to the effect of EDM on mechanical properties of the steel. In the last part the combination of EDM, mechanical or electrochemical polishing and thin ceramic surface coatings are studied, one CVD and one PVD coating

  • 139.
    Fredriksson, Gunnel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Inverkan av temperatur, dielektrikum och elektrodmaterial på ytegenskaperna hos gnistarbetat varmarbetsstål1992Report (Refereed)
  • 140.
    Fredriksson, Gunnel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Materialutveckling beträffande formningsverktyg för prototyp och småserier1992Report (Other academic)
  • 141.
    Fredriksson, Gunnel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Metoder för ytjämnhetsmätning1988Report (Other academic)
  • 142.
    Fredriksson, Gunnel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Hogmark, S.
    Crack Growth in Cold Work Tool Steels - Influence of Surface Condition, Microstructure and Hardness1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 143.
    Fredriksson, Gunnel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Bergström, Jens
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Hogmark, S
    Fatigue resistance and surface properties of EDMed cold work tool steels1996Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 144.
    Fredriksson, Gunnel
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Hogmark, S
    Influence of dielectric and temperature in electrical discharge machining of hot work tool steel1996In: Surface Engineering 11Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 145. Gehlen, MH
    et al.
    De Schryver, FC
    Bhaskar Dutt, G
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Boens, N
    Van der Auweraer, M
    Intermicellar Mobility of Probe and Quencher in Reverse Micelles Studied by Fluorescence Quenching1995In: J. Phys. Chem., 1995, 99, 14407-14413Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 146. Gensch, T
    et al.
    Hofkens, J
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Faes, H
    Creutz, S
    Tsuda, K
    Jérôme, R
    Masuhara, H
    De Schryver, FC
    Transmission and confocal fluorescence microscopy, and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy combined with a laser trap: Investigation of optically trapped block copolymer micelles1998In: J. Phys. Chem. B, 1998, 102, 8440-8451Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 147.
    Ghavanni, Farzan
    et al.
    Chalmers, Dept Microtechnol & Nanosci, BioNano Syst Lab, Micro & Nanosyst Grp, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lopez-Damian, Maria
    Chalmers, Dept Microtechnol & Nanosci, BioNano Syst Lab, Micro & Nanosyst Grp, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rafeian, Damon
    Chalmers, Dept Microtechnol & Nanosci, BioNano Syst Lab, Micro & Nanosyst Grp, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Lundgren, Per
    Chalmers, Dept Microtechnol & Nanosci, BioNano Syst Lab, Micro & Nanosyst Grp, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Enoksson, Peter
    Chalmers, Dept Microtechnol & Nanosci, BioNano Syst Lab, Micro & Nanosyst Grp, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Controlling the initial phase of PECVD growth of vertically aligned carbon nanofibres on TiN2011In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 172, no 1, p. 347-358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore the growth of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, using lithographically defined Ni catalyst seeds on TiN. TiN is selected for being an electrically conducting diffusion barrier suitable for the realization of electronic devices. We show that the rate of Ni diffusion correlates to both the level of oxygen content in the TiN film and to the film resistivity. The synthesis of the nanofibers was characterized using electron microscopy with an emphasis on three growth parameters: substrate temperature, plasma power, and chamber pressure. We propose that a catalyst surface free from carbon deposits throughout the process will induce diffusion-limited growth. The growth will shift towards a supply-limited process when the balance between acetylene, as the effective carbon bearing gas, and atomic hydrogen, as the main etching agent, is skewed in favor of acetylene. This determines whether the dominating growth mode will be vertically aligned tip-type or disordered base-type, by affecting the competition between the formation of the first graphitic sheets on the catalyst surface and at the catalyst-substrate interface

  • 148. Gidlöf, V.
    et al.
    Lestelius, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Kruse, B.
    Critical print quality factors during digital printing on paperboard ' a subjective evaluation2005In: Accepted for publication in the Journal of Packaging Science and Technology, 2005Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 149. Girlanda, Orlando
    et al.
    Hallbäck, Nils
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.
    Östlund, S.
    Tryding, J.
    Defect sensitivity and strength of paperboard in the out-of-plane tension and shear2005In: Journal of Pulp and Paper Science, 31(2), 100-104 (2005)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 150. Grehk, T.M.
    et al.
    Götelidh, M.
    Karlsson, U.O.
    Johansson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Gray, S.M.
    Magnusson, Kjell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    The clean and Cs-exposed Si(111)3x3:B surface studied with photoemission1995In: Phys. Rev. B52, 11165 (1995)Article in journal (Refereed)
1234567 101 - 150 of 636
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