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  • 101.
    Carlström, Eric
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg; Campus Vestfold, Borre.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Ostra, Gothenburg.
    Palm, Gunnar
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Khorram-Manesh, Amir
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Holmer, Björn
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Berner, Andreas
    Region Västra Götaland, Gothenburg.
    Örninge, Per
    Region Västra Götaland, Gothenburg.
    Luning, Hampus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Nilson, Finn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gelang, Carita
    Region Västra Götaland, Gothenburg.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Medical Emergencies During a Half Marathon Race - The Influence of Weather2019In: International Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0172-4622, E-ISSN 1439-3964, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 312-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to analyze the influence of weather conditions on medical emergencies in a half-marathon, specifically by evaluating its relation to the number of non-finishers, ambulance-required assistances, and collapses in need of ambulance as well as looking at the location of such emergencies on the race course. Seven years of data from the world's largest half marathon were used. Meteorological data were obtained from a nearby weather station, and the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) index was used as a measure of general weather conditions. Of the 315,919 race starters, 104 runners out of the 140 ambulance-required assistances needed ambulance services due to collapses. Maximum air temperature and PET significantly co-variated with ambulance-required assistances, collapses, and non-finishers (R (2) =0.65-0.92; p=0.001-0.03). When air temperatures vary between 15-29 degrees C, an increase of 1 degrees C results in an increase of 2.5 (0.008/1000) ambulance-required assistances, 2.5 (0.008/1000) collapses (needing ambulance services), and 107 (0.34/1000) non-finishers. The results also indicate that when the daily maximum PET varies between 18-35 degrees C, an increase of 1 degrees C PET results in an increase of 1.8 collapses (0.006/1000) needing ambulance services and 66 non-finishers (0.21/1000).

  • 102.
    Carver, Rebecca Bruu
    et al.
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Commun, Oslo, Norway..
    Castera, Jeremy
    Aix Marseille Univ, ENS Lyon, ADEF EA4671, Aix Marseille, France..
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Menezes Evangelista, Neima Alice
    Univ Fed Bahia, Inst Biol, Hist Philosophy & Biol Teaching Lab, Salvador, BA, Brazil..
    El-Hani, Charbel N.
    Univ Fed Bahia, Inst Biol, Hist Philosophy & Biol Teaching Lab, Salvador, BA, Brazil..
    Young Adults' Belief in Genetic Determinism, and Knowledge and Attitudes towards Modern Genetics and Genomics: The PUGGS Questionnaire2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 1, article id e0169808Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present the development and validation a comprehensive questionnaire to assess college students' knowledge about modern genetics and genomics, their belief in genetic determinism, and their attitudes towards applications of modern genetics and genomic-based technologies. Written in everyday language with minimal jargon, the Public Understanding and Attitudes towards Genetics and Genomics (PUGGS) questionnaire is intended for use in research on science education and public understanding of science, as a means to investigate relationships between knowledge, determinism and attitudes about modern genetics, which are to date little understood. We developed a set of core ideas and initial items from reviewing the scientific literature on genetics and previous studies on public and student knowledge and attitudes about genetics. Seventeen international experts from different fields (e.g., genetics, education, philosophy of science) reviewed the initial items and their feedback was used to revise the questionnaire. We validated the questionnaire in two pilot tests with samples of university freshmen students. The final questionnaire contains 45 items, including both multiple choice and Likert scale response formats. Cronbach alpha showed good reliability for each section of the questionnaire. In conclusion, the PUGGS questionnaire is a reliable tool for investigating public understanding and attitudes towards modern genetics and genomic-based technologies.

  • 103.
    Chang Rundgren, Shu Nu
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences. Stockholm University.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Evers, Mariele
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. Germany.
    Alexandersson, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Learning about flood risk: Comparing the Web-based and physical flood-walk learning environments2015In: Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, ISSN 1609-4913, E-ISSN 1609-4913, Vol. 16, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous of sustainable development related challenges are emerging today, e.g. flooding problems. Our group has developed ’the flood walk’ project since 2010 to convey flood risk knowledge in an authentic context. Considering the limitation of time and space to educate people the flood risk knowledge, we tried to transform the physical flood walk field trip into a Web-based virtual trip. In this study, we aim to examine whether the Web-based flood-walk environment can help participants to achieve the same learning outcome as its authentic counterpart. A total of 65 upper secondary school pupils participated in this study. The results illustrate that a physical experience is irreplaceable, and the importance of providing physical experiences for learners in both formal and informal education needs to be emphasised.

  • 104. Chapman, B.B.
    et al.
    Hulthén, K.
    Brönmark, C.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Skov, C.
    Hansson, L-A.
    Brodersen, J.
    Shape up or ship out: migratory behaviour predicts morphology across spatial scale in a freshwater fish2015In: Journal of Animal Ecology, ISSN 0021-8790, E-ISSN 1365-2656, Vol. 84, p. 1187-1193Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 105.
    Christenson, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Geography and Tourism. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Geography teacher students’ discussions when playing a spatial planning game with focus on sustainable urban planning.2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that games can facilitate learning of complex processes. This study investigates future geography teachers’ arguments when playing an urban spatial planning game. The game consists of a mat where small models represents residential buildings, institutions such as schools, hospital, police etcetera in a flood-prone area. A play master gives instructions to plan and develop the city. The game has a turning point, the city is exposed to severe flooding and afterwards the students are asked how to rearrange the city to become more resilient. The research questions include; when playing the game – A) what aspects does the students include when planning an urban area? B) what risks does the students identify? C) what preventive actions in order to increase the city’s resilience does the students identify after playing the game? A total of seven students participated in this study, all of whom studying to become upper secondary geography teachers. The game lasted for 40 minutes, was video recorded and transcribed. The inductive analysis focused on what aspects students considered in planning a city, both before and after the flooding for example to build further away from water and increase green areas, as well as what risks the students could identify. The results indicate that this type of game induce the students to, in a social setting, discuss and develop their understanding of sustainable urban planning and that this can be a valuable tool, both in school but also at the university level. 

  • 106.
    Christenson, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Socioscientific argumentation: Aspects of content and structure2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Socioscientific argumentation has shown to be a feasible educational framework for promoting citizenship and for cultivating scientific literacy. However, there are several aspects of this educational framework that have been shown to be problematic. Consequently, in this thesis I investigated various aspects of quality of socioscientific argumentation from both an upper secondary student and a teacher perspective. By using students’ written argumentation on socioscientific issues (SSI) I studied how they justified their claims. The results showed that different SSI led students to use different subject areas in their justifications. I also compared science majors with social science majors and found that the number of justifications provided by the students is related to their discipline background. In these two studies, a new content focused analytical framework for analyzing content aspects of socioscientific argumentation, the SEE-SEP model, was used and shown to be suitable for this purpose. However, to ensure that students are able to produce high-quality arguments I suggest that both content and structural aspects need to be considered. As a result of this, I have presented a framework based on research literature and the Swedish curriculum, for analyzing and assessing both these aspects of socioscientific argumentation. Moreover, I investigated how science and language teachers assess students’ socioscientific argumentation and found that the science teachers focused on students’ ability to reproduce content knowledge, whereas language teachers focused on students’ ability to use content knowledge from references, and the structural and linguistic aspects of argumentation.

     

    The complexity of teaching socioscientific argumentation makes it difficult to teach and assess comprehensively. In order to promote quality and include both content and structural aspects, I suggest that a co-operation among teachers of different disciplines is beneficial.

  • 107.
    Christenson, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Teacher Education and Anthropocene2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Education in general and teacher education in particular is believed to play a key role for a sustainable world. In recent years, there has been discussion on the need to reorient teacher education towards sustainable development. These discussions elucidated that teacher education is no longer about just a mastery of content knowledge and skill in a particular discipline that one is trained for, and necessitates the need for the development of key competences and skills. Yet it is not well documented how teacher education programmes in different nations have successfully transformed and integrated sustainable development into the core of teacher education programmes. What can teacher education contribute in terms of providing directions to rethink humans’ relationship with the planet in today’s Anthropocene era? What kind of (fresh) approach to teacher education is required in the Anthropocene/in 21stcentury? How can teacher education responds/is responding to the challenges posed by the Anthropocene? The discussion is anchored around two particular teacher training programmes, i.e. primary school teacher training at the University of Gothenburg and Karlstad University, and presented as a comparison format. Both of these programmes includes one single objective related to sustainable development in thestudy plan for teacher education for primary school respectively. During the fourth semester students can choose one specialization and in two of these, technology and natural sciences and the specialization for social sciences includes one course objective dealing with sustainability perspectives respectively. We conclude that sustainability perspectives are very limited during all of the courses for future primary teachers at both Karlstad University and the University of Gothenburg.

  • 108.
    Christenson, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Teaching climate change: Teachers views, methods and good examples2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching climate change, teachers views, methods and good examples

    Climate change (CC) is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity and it is of great importance that education enables students with the knowledge and skills needed for making informed and evidence-based decisions. In this pilot study we examine teachers methods and views of teaching CC. A survey included questions about the teachers’ experience of teaching the topic of climate change and their views on teaching this specific content was distributed to 84 secondary teachers. 28% of the teachers consider geography to be the subject most responsible for teaching CC, 77% report that the aim is to teach the pupils an environmentally friendly behavior. The most used teaching methods are teachers lecturing (used by 89% of the teachers), group discussions (87%) and teacher moderated whole class debates (55%). 44% reported that they have sufficient knowledge for teaching CC, 26% feel that they have enough knowledge about howto teach CC but only 12% believe they have enough time for their teaching. Although CC is perceived as an interdisciplinary issue, relatively few of the teachers reportedly use interdisciplinary work. Both the high level of lecturing and lack of interdisciplinary work can be an consequence of a (over) loaded curriculum. To cooperate with other subjects can be difficult, often the subjects are not only separated by time (different schedules) but also in space (different classrooms). We conclude by giving examples of innovative ways of facing the challenge of teaching CC using innovative pedagogical tools.

  • 109.
    Christenson, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Teaching sustainability using a spatial planning game – Risk Ville2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is one of the greatest contemporary challenges facing humanity and consequently weneed to equip science teacher students with knowledge and understanding of the causes andconsequences of a changing climate. Societies resilience depends on its citizens’ capability to respondto risks. It is through education that learners can be subject to the responsibility of reacting to challengingsocial issues in connection to risks, e.g. associated with a changing climate, which is linked to responsible citizenship. Hence, education is a key component in the important work of transfer of risk knowledge andrisk reduction.At the Center for Climate and Safety at Karlstad University, Sweden, we use a game, Risk Ville, forlearning about issues related to building societies resilient to risks related to climate change. We use thisgame in teacher education to illustrate the complexity and promote discussions on how to handle theconsequences of a changing climate. In an ongoing research project, we investigate the potential forlearning about risks and sustainable community planning in relation to climate related hazards (e.g.flooding) when teacher students are playing Risk Ville by analyzing the students discourse. Preliminaryfindings show that the teacher students are using a wide range of different resources of knowledge butalso that values paly a large role their decision making when playing the game.

  • 110.
    Christenson, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Rundgren, Shu-Nu Chang
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    A cross-disciplinary approach to teaching socioscientific issues: A study of the co-operation between language and science teachers teaching about global warming2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To combine the teaching of scientific concepts with the challenging problems of socioscientific issues (SSI) has been shown to be effective on engaging students in discussions and in developing students’ skills in decision-making and critical thinking. Research has revealed that teaching SSI in science education is a challenging task for science teachers alone suggesting a co-operation with teachers of the humanities, proposing that these teachers might be better at managing debates and other pedagogical methods related to a SSI driven instruction. However, to our knowledge no one has yet investigated the outcomes of a co-operation between language teachers, who regularly in their courses teach topics like argumentation, debate and how to write an argumentative text, and science teachers. Hence, the aim of our study is to investigate how the co-operation of teachers from different disciplines (language and science teachers) can contribute to upper secondary school students’ argumentation skills about global warming. A total of ten teachers from the subjects of Swedish (mother tongue), English, biology, physics and chemistry will participate in this study together with two classes of science major students in their first year of upper secondary school, which they teach. Data will be collected from both the teachers by interviews at the end of the teaching sequence and from students making a pre- and post-test of written argumentation about global warming, as well as interviews. Since this study is an ongoing project, we are still collecting data. We foresee that we will find that the teachers as well as the students can provide us with insights on how they perceive a cross-disciplinary teaching with focus on SSI, and also that we will be able to follow some progression in students argumentation through the pre- and post-test. Our findings on the learning outcome and how teachers and students perceive a cross-disciplinary teachers’ cooperation on SSI will be presented at the ERIDOB-conference. We believe that the results from our study will provide valuable insights on how to develop future SSI-teaching by using a cross-disciplinary approach and how the involvement of language teachers may be of help to the science teachers in doing this.

  • 111.
    Christenson, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Rundgren, Shu-Nu Chang
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Educ, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Science and language teachers' assessment of upper secondary students' socioscientific argumentation2017In: International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, ISSN 1571-0068, E-ISSN 1573-1774, Vol. 15, no 8, p. 1403-1422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers and policy-makers have recognized the importance of including and promoting socioscientific argumentation in science education worldwide. The Swedish curriculum focuses more than ever on socioscientific issues (SSI) as well. However, teaching socioscientific argumentation is not an easy task for science teachers and one of the more distinguished difficulties is the assessment of students’ performance. In this study, we investigate and compare how science and Swedish language teachers, participating in an SSI-driven project, assessed students’ written argumentation about global warming. Swedish language teachers have a long history of teaching and assessing argumentation and therefore it was of interest to identify possible gaps between the two groups of teachers’ assessment practices. The results showed that the science teachers focused on students’ content knowledge within their subjects, whereas the Swedish language teachers included students’ abilities to select and use content knowledge from reliable reference resources, the structure of the argumentation and the form of language used. Since the Swedish language teachers’ assessment correlated more with previous research about quality in socioscientific argumentation, we suggest that a closer co-operation between the two groups could be beneficial in terms of enhancing the quality of assessment. Moreover, SSI teaching and learning as well as assessment of socioscientific argumentation ought to be included in teacher training programs for both pre- and in-service science teachers.

  • 112.
    Christenson, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Rundgren, Shu-Nu Chang
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Science and Swedish language teachers’ assessment of upper secondary students’ socioscientific argumentation2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish curricula, as well as researchers and policy makers worldwide, have recognized the importance of promoting and including sociscientific argumentation in science education to promote scientific literacy. However, to teach socioscientific argumentation in not an easy task for science teachers and among the difficulties is the assessment practice. In this small-scale qualitative study, we have, investigated and compared how science and Swedish language teachers, participating in a SSI-driven project, assess students’ written argumentation about Global warming. The Swedish language teachers have a long tradition of teaching and assessing argumentation and therefore it is of interest to identify possible gaps between these two groups. The results indicate that the science teachers focus on students’ ability to reproduce content knowledge within their respective subject that they have been teaching. The Swedish language teachers include students’ abilities to select and use content knowledge from trustable reference resources, in addition to the structure of the argumentation and the form of the language used. In fact, the Swedish language teachers’ assessment correlates more to previous research about quality in socioscientific argumentation and we suggest that a closer co-operation between these two groups can be beneficial to enhance the quality of assessing students’ socioscientific argumentation.

  • 113.
    Christenson, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Hindersson, Emelie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    Teaching climate change, teachers views, methods and good examples2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change (CC) is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity and it is of great importance that education enables students with the knowledge and skills needed for making informed and evidence-based decisions. In this pilot study we examine teachers methods and views of teaching CC. A survey included questions about the teachers’ experience of teaching the topic of climate change and their views on teaching this specific content was distributed to 84 secondary teachers. 28% of the teachers consider geography to be the subject most responsible for teaching CC, 77% report that the aim is to teach the pupils an environmentally friendly behavior. The most used teaching methods are teachers lecturing (used by 89% of the teachers), group discussions (87%) and teacher moderated whole class debates (55%). 44% reported that they have sufficient knowledge for teaching CC, 26% feel that they have enough knowledge about howto teach CC but only 12% believe they have enough time for their teaching. Although CC is perceived as an interdisciplinary issue, relatively few of the teachers reportedly use interdisciplinary work. Both the high level of lecturing and lack of interdisciplinary work can be an consequence of a (over) loaded curriculum. To cooperate with other subjects can be difficult, often the subjects are not only separated by time (different schedules) but also in space (different classrooms). We conclude by giving examples of innovative ways of facing the challenge of teaching CC using innovative pedagogical tools.

  • 114.
    Christenson, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Rundgren, Shu-Nu Chang
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    A Framework for Teachers’ Assessment of Socio-scientific Argumentation: An example using the GMO issue2014In: Journal of Biological Education, ISSN 0021-9266, E-ISSN 2157-6009, no 2, p. 204-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Socio-scientific issues (SSI) have proven to be suitable contexts for students to actively reflect on and argue about complex social issues related to science. Research has indicated that explicitly teaching SSI argumentation is a good way to help students develop their argumentation skills and make them aware of the complexity of SSI. However, assessing the quality of students’ arguments on SSI is evidently difficult for many teachers. This article aims to facilitate teachers’ assessment of the quality of students’ arguments on SSI by introducing a new assessment framework that represents a low degree of complexity and exemplifying it by applying it to students’ written SSI argumentation concerning genetically modified organisms (GMO). The new assessment framework considers both the quality indicators presented in the research literature and curricular guidelines for the science courses in Swedish secondary and upper secondary school. The framework focuses on both the content and the structure that can be revealed in students’ SSI argumentation and is meant to function as a tool for identifying quality indicators that could serve as the basis for grading.

  • 115.
    Collin, Teemu
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Ice cover and spatial distribution of trout (Salmo trutta) in a small stream2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Winter has been generally considered as a bottleneck period for salmonid populations, but recent studies show it might be more context related. The purpose of this study was to examine how surface ice changes spatial distribution of juvenile one-year-old brown trout in a small boreal stream. I hypothesized that the presence of surface ice will allow a more even distribution of trout over the entire width of the stream while in the absence of ice, trout will be more heavily associated with near-edge habitats. I also hypothesized trout will be more evenly dispersed at night over the width of the stream even in the absence of surface ice. My results show a strong positive correlation between icecover and spatial distribution. In the presence of surface ice trout use the whole width of the stream, while in the absence of ice the middle regions of the stream were almost completely devoid of fish. My results also show there was no difference in the spatial distribution between night and day in the presence of ice cover, but in the absence of ice cover trout were more tightly associated with the stream edge during day whereas at night they were more evenly dispersed over the entire width of thestream.

  • 116.
    Comoglio, Claudio
    et al.
    Politecn Torino, Dept Environm Land & Infrastruct Engn, Turin, Italy..
    Vezza, Paolo
    Politecn Torino, Dept Environm Land & Infrastruct Engn, Turin, Italy..
    Parasiewicz, Piotr
    S Sakowicz Inland Fisheries Inst, Olsztyn, Poland.;Warsaw Univ Life Sci, Warsaw, Poland..
    Suska, Katarzyna
    S Sakowicz Inland Fisheries Inst, Olsztyn, Poland.;Warsaw Univ Life Sci, Warsaw, Poland..
    Petela, Jacek
    S Sakowicz Inland Fisheries Inst, Olsztyn, Poland.;Warsaw Univ Life Sci, Warsaw, Poland..
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Habitat suitability models as tools for implementing the "ecohydraulic trinity"2016In: 11TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ECOHYDRAULICS, UNIV MELBOURNE, MELBOURNE SCH ENGINEERING , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Habitat suitability models are being widely used for the simulation, under different spatial and temporal scales, of the instream habitat availability for aquatic and riparian species or communities. Their great potential can be also exploited for designing natural like fish-passes in the implementation of the so-called "ecohydraulic trinity": environmental flows (e-flows) assessment, re-establishing river continuity and designing river restoration measures. Indeed, nature-like fish passes can provide both e-flow releases and suitable habitat not only for fish, but for the entire aquatic community. We discuss from a theoretical point of view the potential of the integrated application of these modelling tools with particular regard to the microhabitat and mesohabitat scale approaches (e.g., PHABSIM, Bovee et al., 1982, MesoHABSIM, Parasie wicz et al., 2013). Advantages and limitations of each approach are highlighted and the application domain of each modeling approach is assessed. Results show, on the one hand, the advantages of the mesohabitat scale when channel slope and morphological complexity increase. Whereas, on the other hand, the microhabitat scale demonstrates effectiveness to evaluate potential habitat for motionless organisms, such as, freshwater pearl mussels. Limitations are related to the application of established hydraulic simulation models in the case of coarse substrate, limited water depth and gradient higher than 2%.

  • 117. Costello, Eugene
    et al.
    Svensson, EvaKarlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Historical archaeologies of transhumance across Europe2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 118. Costello, Eugene
    et al.
    Svensson, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Transhumant pastoralism in historic landscapes: Beginning a European perspective2018In: Historical Archaeologies of Transhumance across Europe / [ed] Costello, E. & Svensson, E., Taylor & Francis, 2018, p. 1-13Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pastoralism offers a vast field of study, and within it transhumant practices represent an important range of past and contemporary human mobility strategies. In its widest sense, transhumance may simply be described as the seasonal movement of livestock. The Oxford English Dictionary adds some environmental qualification to this by defining transhumance as “the action or practice of moving livestock from one grazing ground to another in a seasonal cycle, typically to lowlands in winter and highlands in summer”. The wide-ranging geographic and social implications of such a definition mean, of course, that the study of transhumant practices permits a very wide perspective on human society, touching on themes as diverse as livestock management, economic responsiveness, social mobility and competition for land. Furthermore, use of the relative words ‘lowlands’ and ‘highlands’ means that a considerable proportion of the earth’s surface may be considered as potential settings for transhumance. There are consequently many ways in which people might conceive of and define the practice, and there has not been one, but many transhumant pastoralisms in Europe during historical times

  • 119.
    Damsager, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Hundebid af mennesker: En analyse af behovet for et paradigmeskift i risikostyringen af hundebid2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Master thesis contains a risk assessment regarding the possibility for humans to be bitten by dogs in Denmark. As a part of this risk assessment the thesis contains an analysis of the effect of the introduction of legal bans of specific breeds in Denmark. Furthermore, the thesis contains an analysis of the societal context for the Danish legislation. This is done with back ground in models of risk management developed by James Reason and William Haddon Jr. The conclusion is that the Danish society continuously is vulnerable regarding the risk of humans being bitten by dogs – and that the ban of certain breeds have been without effect on the number of persons seeking hospital care for dog bites. The thesis demonstrates that the risk of human dog bites is highest in the private sphere and in the local area. The thesis reveal that the Danish state has failed to target the principal factors: context, situation and relation between man and dog in connection to situations where dog bites occur.

  • 120.
    Darkey, Dan
    et al.
    University of Pretoria.
    Ibsen, Hilde
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    "The path of the mother is trodden by the daughter": Stepping stones for entry into the middle class in South Africa2015In: Knowledge for a sustainable world: A Southern African-Nordic contribution. / [ed] Tor Halvorsen, Hilde Ibsen, Vhyvienne RP M´kumbuzi, Cape Town: African Minds , 2015, p. 105-124Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 121.
    Davidsson, Åsa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Big is beautiful! Klimatkris, lokal anpassning och drömmen om tillväxt: Global problematik illustrerad via tillväxtkommunen Karlstad2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Klimatanpassning och tillväxt är två intresseområden som kan konkurrera med varandra när vattennära områden ska bebyggas. Vattennära boende bidrar till stadens attraktivitet för att locka fler invånare och skapa tillväxt. Samtidigt är dessa områden utsatta för översvämningsrisk. Anpassning behöver därför ske för ökad säkerhet, eller byggande helt avstås från. Ett komplext problem som skapats genom globala påtryckningar att tillväxt ska strävas efter. Problematiken illustreras genom att använda Karlstad kommun som undersökt fall.

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka hur strategier för samhällsplanering och klimatanpassning utformats lokalt i en tillväxtkommun med översvämningsrisk.

    Studien genomfördes via kvalitativ innehållsanalys samt användande av ramverk för miljörättvisa. Textanalys genomfördes av kommunala styrdokument för samhällsplanering och klimatanpassning.

    Utifrån analys av resonemang i styrdokumenten kan konstateras att skapandet av en attraktiv stad för att uppnå tillväxt väger tyngre än anpassning. Ur rättviseperspektiv tas inte hänsyn till individers sårbarhet och förutsättningar, då lockandet av önskvärda samhällsgrupper istället prioriteras. Vattennära bostadsbebyggelse är en marknadsföringsmässig tillgång, även om översvämningsrisk finns.

    Resultatet från undersökningen kan användas för att förstå komplexiteten mellan att prioritera och skydda det samhälle som finns idag, samt skapa ett samhälle där tillväxten är god och anpassning inte konkurrerar med attraktivitet.

  • 122.
    De Loof, Haydee
    et al.
    University of Antwerp, Belgien.
    Walan, Susanne
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). University of Antwerp, Belgien.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013), Science, Mathematics and Engineering Education Research.
    High tech learning environments – Are teachers ready for the future?2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 123.
    de Paiva Affonso, Igor
    et al.
    Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Brazil; Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, Brazil.
    Cucolo Carling, Leticia
    Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Brazil.
    Massato Takemoto, R
    Núcleo de Pesquisas em Limnologia Ictiologia e Aqüicultura – Nupélia, Brazil.
    Carlos Gomez, Luiz
    Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Brazil; Núcleo de Pesquisas em Limnologia Ictiologia e Aqüicultura – Nupélia, Brazil.
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Light-triggered eye-fluke behavior may enhance parasite life-cycle progression2017In: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 340-341Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 124.
    Degerman, Erik
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural sciences.
    Tamario, Carl
    Linnaeus University.
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Lund University.
    Calles, Olle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Occurrence and habitat use of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in running waters: lessons for improved monitoring, habitat restoration and stocking2019In: Aquatic Ecology, ISSN 1386-2588, E-ISSN 1573-5125, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 639-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve the management of the Europeaneel (Anguilla anguilla) in freshwater, it isessential to define important lotic habitats. Electrofishingdata from 289 wadeable, hard-bottom sites in 69Swedish coastal rivers and streams, originally surveyedfor salmonid monitoring, were used to evaluatethe effects of sampling- and habitat-related factors oneel occurrence. Probability of eel occurrence, asinfluenced by sampling procedure (sampled area,number of consecutive runs and ambient watertemperature) and habitat characteristics (size ofcatchment, dominating bottom substrate, shade, watervelocity, mean depth), was evaluated for small (totallength B 150 mm) and large ([150 mm) yelloweels. Data were analysed in a mixed presence/absencegeneralized linear model with dispersal (distance tomouth from sampled site), habitat and samplingrelatedvariables as covariates. The two modelsexplained variation in occurrence to 81.5% for smalleel and 76.2% for large eel. Probability of eeloccurrence decreased with distance from the rivermouth, and increased with sampled area, number ofruns, water temperature, coarser substrate and size ofriver. We suggest that future eel habitat restorationshould focus on lower reaches of larger rivers withsuitable coarse bottom habitats. Stocking of young eelshould be carried out in comparable accessible habitatsin the upper reaches where eel densities are low.The results also strongly indicate that eel may besampled together with young salmonids with DCelectrofishing in wadeable habitats.

  • 125.
    Delin, Jasmine
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Ökar blåmesen (Parus caeruleus) sin födosöksaktivitet när de tillhör en flock?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 126.
    Eckstein, Rolf Lutz
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Danihelka, J
    Masaryk University, Czech republic.
    Holzel, N
    Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Germany.
    Otte, A
    Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Germany.
    The effects of management and environmental variation on population stage structure in three river-corridor violets2004In: Acta Oecologica, ISSN 1146-609X, E-ISSN 1873-6238, Vol. 25, no 1-2, p. 83-91Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 127.
    Eckstein, Rolf Lutz
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Karlsson, P S
    Uppsala University.
    Above-ground growth and nutrient use by plants in a subarctic environment: Effects of habitat, life-form and species1997In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 79, no 2, p. 311-324Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 128.
    Eckstein, Rolf Lutz
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Karlsson, P S
    Uppsala University.
    Weih, M
    Uppsala University.
    The significance of resorption of leaf resources for shoot growth in evergreen and deciduous woody plants from a subarctic environment1998In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 81, no 3, p. 567-575Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 129.
    Edelman, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Karlstad och vattnet: En studie av hur förhållningssättet till översvämningsrisk har förändrats i Karlstads kommun sedan 1950-talet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The location on the river delta of Klarälven, adjacent to lake Vänern, makes Karlstad one of the Swedish cities where a significant flood risk is present. The city has several major floods in its memory which has caused great material damage and economic losses, the latest of which occurred in the winter of year 2000/2001. The purpose of the study is to examine how the approach to flood risk has changed in the municipality of Karlstad since the 1950s, and how this change has affected the current situation regarding the city's vulnerability to flooding. To investigate this, a document analysis was conducted, where key documents in the media and from the municipality of Karlstad was studied. Furthermore, an interview study was conducted with respondents who currently are employed or previously have been employed in the municipality of Karlstad, who in various ways work with issues of flood risk.

     

    The result of the study shows that several changes have taken place since the 1950s in terms of the municipality's approach to flood risk, which for instance has led to preventative measures being taken to a greater extent than previously in the physical planning. The flooding that occured in the winter year 2000/2001, along with the governmental climate and vulnerability inquiry that was released in 2007, was described by the respondents as the starting point for this change. Since then, awareness and knowledge of flood risk has increased, not only among municipal officials, but also among politicians, local residents and developers.

  • 130.
    Edwartz, Johannes
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Weight losses of Green tea and Rooibos tea in an aquatic environment: The importance of leaching when estimating decomposition rates2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Leaching is one of the major processes occurring when organic litter is decomposed and is often completed within a few days when litter enters aquatic environments. It is important that leaching is addressed when studying microbial and invertebrate decomposition rates in order to avoid overestimations. The traditional litter bag method that has been used to measure decomposition rates in both terrestrial and aquatic environments has in recent years been challenged by the new and widely adopted tea bag index (TBI). Both methods, however, fail to bring a standardized methodology for separating and recognizing weight losses of litter due to leaching and biotic decomposition. Through a field experiment in two streams with different water discharge, this study has focused on exploring the leaching phase and post-leaching phase of the tea products used in TBI. The results unveiled that 20% of rooibos tea’s and 44% of green tea’s initial weight was lost to leaching within three days (72 hours) of the experiment. After the 72nd hour, both teas remained in a stabilized phase until the end of the experiment (120 hours). Water discharge had no significant effect on neither of the tea-weights during or after the leaching phase. This study recommends that weight loss through the leaching phase are taken into account in future studies and advocate the development of an updated TBI protocol where leaching losses are recognized. If not, overestimations of active decomposition rates will be made and may result in compromised conclusions.

  • 131.
    Ekman, Diana Stark
    et al.
    University West Sweden..
    Ekman, Robert
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Twenty-five years of bicycle helmet promotion for children in Skaraborg District, Sweden2012In: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, ISSN 1745-7300, E-ISSN 1745-7319, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 213-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to describe some of the results of a long-term bicycle helmet campaign for children in Skaraborg District, Sweden. The hospital discharge data for bicycle-related injuries occurring in children under the age of 15 were reviewed, to assess changes in patterns for head and other body injuries. The study shows that head injuries to children as a result of bicycle injuries were reduced between 94 and 99% in the study areas. The tremendous gains in safety for children who ride bicycles in Skaraborg District were the result of not only national policy changes that occurred in the latter half of this study period but also the result of local collaborations based on the Safe Communities model, which were organised during the first part of the study period.

  • 132.
    Ekstrom, Sara M.
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Aquat Ecol, Lund, Sweden..
    Regnell, Olof
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Aquat Ecol, Lund, Sweden..
    Reader, Heather E.
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Aquat Ecol, Lund, Sweden..
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Aquat Ecol, Lund, Sweden.
    Lofgren, Stefan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Kritzberg, Emma S.
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Aquat Ecol, Lund, Sweden..
    Increasing concentrations of iron in surface waters as a consequence of reducing conditions in the catchment area2016In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, ISSN 2169-8953, E-ISSN 2169-8961, Vol. 121, no 2, p. 479-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies report trends of strongly increasing iron (Fe) concentrations in freshwaters. Since Fe is a key element with a decisive role in the biogeochemical cycling of major elements, it is important to understand the mechanisms behind these trends. We hypothesized that variations in Fe concentration are driven mainly by redox dynamics in hydraulically connected soils. Notably, Fe(III), which is the favored oxidation state except in environments where microbial activity provide strong reducing intensity, has several orders of magnitude lower water solubility than Fe(II). To test our hypothesis, seasonal variation in water chemistry, discharge, and air temperature was studied in three Swedish rivers. Methylmercury and sulfate were used as indicators of seasonal redox changes. Seasonal variability in water chemistry, discharge, and air temperature in the Eman and Lyckeby Rivers implied that the variation in Fe was primarily driven by the prevalence of reducing conditions in the catchment. In general, high Fe concentrations were observed when methylmercury was high and sulfate was low, indicative of reducing conditions. The Fe concentrations showed no or weak relationships with variations in dissolved organic matter concentration and aromaticity. The seasonal variation in Fe concentration of the Ume river was primarily dependent on timing of the snowmelt in high- versus low-altitude areas of the catchment. There were long-term trends of increasing temperature in all catchments and also trends of increasing discharge in the southern rivers, which should increase the probability for anaerobic conditions in space and time and thereby increase Fe transport to the aquatic systems.

  • 133.
    Ekström, Sara M.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Sandahl, Margareta
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences. Lund University.
    Kleja, Dan B.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Kritzberg, Emma S.
    Lund University.
    Reactivity of dissolved organic matter in response to acid deposition2016In: Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 1015-1621, E-ISSN 1420-9055, Vol. 78, no 3, p. 463-475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluvial export of organic matter from the terrestrial catchment to the aquatic system is a large and increasing carbon flux. The successful reduction in sulfuric acid deposition since the 1980s has been shown to enhance the mobility of organic matter in the soil, with more terrestrially derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) reaching aquatic systems. Changes in soil acidity also affect the quality of the DOM. In this study we explore the consequences this may have on the reactivity and turnover of the terrestrially derived DOM as it reaches the aquatic system. DOM of different quality (estimated by absorbance, fluorescence and size exclusion chromatography) was produced through extraction of boreal forest O-horizon soils from podzol at two sulfuric acid concentrations corresponding to natural throughfall in spruce forest in Southern Sweden around 1980 and today. Extraction was done using two different methods, i.e. field leaching and laboratory extraction. The DOM extracts were used to assess if differences in acidity generate DOM of different reactivity. Three reactivity experiments were performed: photodegradation by UV exposure, biodegradation by bacteria, and biodegradation after UV exposure. Reactivity was assessed by measuring loss of dissolved organic carbon and absorbance, change in fluorescence and molecular weight, and bacterial production. DOM extracted at lower sulfuric acid concentration was more susceptible to photooxidation, and less susceptible to bacterial degradation, than DOM extracted at a higher sulfuric acid concentration. Thus the relative importance of these two turnover processes may be altered with changes in acid deposition.

  • 134.
    Elin, Johansson
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Klarälvslaxsmoltens ålder och storlek: Idag jämfört med för 75-100 år sedan2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 135.
    Elmlund, Robin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Är nya lagen om mobilförbud i trafiken effektiv?: -En kvantitativ enkätstudie om attityder bland unga bilförare.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Mobile use in traffic is a previously known problem, which in many cases contributes to accidents, injuries and deaths. The underlying factors for this behavior are something that is both interesting, important and above all necessary to investigate. To investigate younger drivers' attitudes in relation to the new law on mobile bans in traffic and if the law is considered effective, is the purpose of this degree project. As mobile usage is expected to increase in the future, this has been interesting to investigate. To investigate the study's question "Do young drivers experience that the new law on mobile traffic in traffic is efficient enough?" A questionnaire has been produced, mainly among individuals between the ages of 18-26 being given the opportunity to participate. The questionnaire was then analyzed to map and give an increased understanding of this problem. Relevant theories have been chosen in relation to the problematic framework of the behavior of individuals as well as awareness. The background, in turn, is based on credible facts about road safety linked to mobile usage in both time and space. The essay has a quantitative spirit of both method and analysis, the method has been based on questionnaires and the questionnaire has then been quantitatively investigated quantitatively in an analysis tool on the computer. The essay is based on different theoretical perspectives and well-known data focusing on mobile usage and traffic related behavior, which has been selected based on my own interests. It is also a general and important subject to study as the fact that a driver's driving awareness and distraction can quickly contribute to serious accidents, injuries and deaths. Legislation in relation to mobile use behind the wheel affects the population in general. How much a team really affects a driver's behavior will be investigated with a view to gaining in-depth understanding and knowledge, to see if the law actually is enough. The survey shows that the majority of younger drivers are aware of the existence of the new law and believe it will be effective, but more research will be required to see how effective the law will be in the long run.

  • 136. Emanuelsson, Marie
    et al.
    Bergquist, Ulla
    Segerström, Ulf
    Svensson, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    von Stedingk, Henrik
    Shieling or something else?: Iron age and medieval forest settlement and land use at Gammelvallen in Ängersjö, Central Sweden2000In: Lund archeological review, Vol. 6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 137. Emanuelsson, Marie
    et al.
    Johansson, Annie
    Nilsson, Stefan
    Pettersson, Susanne
    Svensson, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Settlement, shieling and landscape: The local history of a forest hamlet2003Book (Refereed)
  • 138.
    Enefalk, Åsa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Effects of fine woody debris on juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) and drifting invertebrates2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In boreal forest streams, woody debris is an important habitat component. Stream invertebrates and salmonids such as brown trout benefit from in-stream wood. The studies presented in this thesis explore how drifting stream invertebrates respond to addition of fine woody debris, and how young-of-the-year (0+) brown trout behave in habitats with and without fine woody debris. The first paper reports results from a field experiment where fine woody debris was added to streams, and invertebrate drift was measured in order to detect impacts of the fine woody debris on drift density, biomass and taxon diversity. In the end of the season, the fine woody debris-affected drift samples showed higher density, biomass and taxon diversity than the control samples. In the second paper, I describe effects of fine woody debris on 0+ brown trout, studied in laboratory stream channels. Trout were tested in habitats without fine woody debris, with an intermediate fine woody debris density, and with a high fine woody debris density. Swimming activity and foraging time were significantly lower when fine woody debris was present than when it was absent. More time was spent sheltering at the high fine woody debris density than at the intermediate one. The increasing exploitation of fine woody debris for biofuel purposes should be considered in relation to the effects on brown trout and stream invertebrate habitat.

  • 139.
    Enefalk, Åsa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Fine stream wood: effects on drift and brown trout (Salmo trutta) growth and behaviour2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stream ecosystems and their riparian zones have previously been regarded as two different ecosystems, linked through numerous reciprocal subsidies. Today, ecologists agree that the stream and the riparian zone should be regarded as one system, the stream-riparian ecosystem, which is characterised largely by the subsidies between land and water. The terrestrial subsidies to the stream affect stream-living biota in several ways, some of which are well-known while others less so. The input of wood to the stream from the riparian zone is believed to play an important role in the population dynamics of stream-living fish. In this doctoral thesis, I explore effects of fine stream wood (FW, <10 cm diameter) on wild stream-living young-of-the-year brown trout (Salmo trutta) by reporting and discussing results from laboratory, semi-natural and field experiments. My results show that the local density of drifting prey is higher in the presence of FW than in its absence, and also that young-of-the-year brown trout decrease their diurnal foraging time and prey capture success when FW is added to their habitat. I show that trout decrease their swimming activity in the presence of FW, aggregate in FW bundles, and have lower growth rates than trout without FW access. Also, the degree of sheltering in FW bundles was higher during day than at night in a study performed at low water temperatures; moreover, the presence of an ectothermic nocturnal predator (burbot, Lota lota) did not affect the degree of sheltering in FW bundles by trout. Taken together, my results indicate that young-of-the-year brown trout with access to FW bundles spend considerable amounts of time sheltering in the FW, and by doing so they miss the opportunity for higher growth and foraging rates outside of the shelter. The most probable explanation for this behaviour is that growth is traded off against survival, i.e., the predation risk is higher outside of the shelter.

  • 140.
    Enefalk, Åsa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Effect of fine wood on juvenile brown trout behaviour in experimental stream channels2016In: Ecology of Freshwater Fish, ISSN 0906-6691, E-ISSN 1600-0633, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 664-673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In-stream wood can increase shelter availability and prey abundance for stream-living fish such as brown trout, Salmo trutta, but the input of wood to streams has decreased in recent years due to harvesting of riparian vegetation. During the last decades, fine wood (FW) has been increasingly used for biofuel, and the input of FW to streams may therefore decrease. Although effects of in-stream FW have not been studied as extensively as those of large wood (LW), it is probably important as shelter for small-sized trout. In a laboratory stream experiment, we tested the behavioural response of young-of-the-year wild brown trout to three densities of FW, with trout tested alone and in groups of four. Video recordings were used to measure the proportion of time allocated to sheltering, cruising and foraging, as well as the number of aggressive interactions and prey attacks. Cruising activity increased with decreasing FW density and was higher in the four-fish groups than when fish were alone. Foraging decreased and time spent sheltering in FW increased with increasing FW density. Our study shows that juvenile trout activity is higher in higher fish densities and that trout response to FW is related to FW density and differs from the response to LW as reported by others. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  • 141.
    Enefalk, Åsa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Effects of fine wood on macroinvertebrate drift in four boreal forest streams2016In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 765, no 1, p. 317-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most studies of stream wood have focused on pieces a parts per thousand yen0.1 m diameter. However, this approach may overlook an important feature of small streams, where wood < 0.1 m can constitute the majority of wood pieces. We examined the effect of fine wood (FW) on local drift of stream macroinvertebrates. The study was carried out at seven sites in four boreal forest streams, from early June to mid-August 2011. This was done by anchoring bundles of FW at each site and measuring drift upstream and downstream of each bundle. We hypothesized that FW would increase drift density, biomass and diversity of aquatic invertebrates. Ten weeks after FW addition, aquatic drift density was higher downstream than upstream of FW bundles, while drift biomass and drift diversity did not differ significantly downstream and upstream of FW.

  • 142.
    Enefalk, Åsa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Juvenile brown trout response to fine woody debris in experimental stream channelsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in riparian vegetation due to forest harvesting may affect the input of fine woody debris, an important structural element, to streams. Woody debris has been shown to benefit trout populations. In-stream fine woody debris (FWD) has not been studied as extensively as large woody debris, but is probably important to smaller-sized trout. In a laboratory stream experiment we tested young-of-the-year wild brown trout, Salmo trutta, responses to three densities of fine woody debris (FWD). The trout were tested as singletons and four together. Swimming activity increased with increasing fish density and decreasing FWD density. Foraging decreased and time spent in FWD increased with increasing FWD density. Aggressiveness was lowest in intermediate FWD density. Our study shows that FWD impact on trout is related to fish rank, fish density and FWD density, and that juvenile trout response to fine WD is different from the response to large WD reported by others.

  • 143.
    Enefalk, Åsa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Huusko, Ari
    National Resources Institute, Finland.
    Louhi, Pauliina
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Fine stream wood decreases growth of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta)2019In: Environmental Biology of Fishes, ISSN 0378-1909, E-ISSN 1573-5133, Vol. 102, no 5, p. 759-770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the growth rate, gut fullness, diet composition and spatial distribution of brown trout was compared between artificial channels with and without fine wood (FW). Access to FW resulted in significantly lower brown trout growth rates over the study period from late summer to early winter as water temperatures declined from 17 °C to 1 °C. Access to FW resulted in minor differences in occurrence of the most common taxa found in brown trout diets, except for chironomid larvae which were found in c. 60% of the brown trout guts from control treatments but in only 30% of the guts from FW treatments in early winter. Diet consisted primarily of case-bearing and free-living Trichoptera larvae, Asellus, chironomid and Ephemeroptera larvae. Brown trout gut fullness was not significantly affected by access to FW bundles. Brown trout aggregated among FW but were more evenly distributed in channels lacking it. Our results suggest that juvenile brown trout use FW as a shelter at a wide range of water temperatures, and that this behaviour may result in reduced growth rates during their first fall and the onset of their first winter. We also show that prey availability and the composition of brown trout diet changes from late summer to early winter and that FW has a small but significant effect on brown trout diet composition.

  • 144.
    Enefalk, Åsa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Winter sheltering by juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta): Effects of stream wood and an instream ecothermic predator2017In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 62, no 1, p. 111-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In boreal streams, juvenile salmonids spend substantial amounts of time sheltering in the streambed and in stream wood, presumably as a means of protection against the physical environment and from terrestrial endothermic predators. Relatively little is known about sheltering by salmonids in response to instream ectothermic predators.We tested the effects of burbot (Lota lota) on the winter sheltering behaviour of PIT-tagged 0+ brown trout (Salmo trutta) in daylight and darkness. Sheltering in the streambed by trout was studied in the presence and absence of fine wood bundles.We found that the use of streambed and fine wood was lower in darkness than in daylight. Availability of fine wood significantly decreased sheltering in the streambed, and this effect was more pronounced in daylight than in darkness. The presence of a burbot significantly decreased sheltering in the streambed, had no effect on use of fine wood and resulted in a higher number of exposed trout.Our results indicate that juvenile brown trout decrease streambed sheltering in response to a burrowing, ectothermic predator.

  • 145.
    Engdahl, Isabell
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Klimatanpassning och lantbruket i Värmland: Klimatförändringarnas upplevda effekter på lantbruket och olika aktörers åsikter om klimatanpassning2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is a global and slow process that affects humans all over the world. Climate adaption within agriculture is important to reduce the risks that agricultures are exposed to because of climate change.  Through climate adaption you can improve the positive effects and take advantage of them optimally. How the climate change affects agricultures varies depending on regions and societies. The purposes of the study are to examine how different actors experience the impacts of climate change on the agriculture in Värmland. And what different actors think about climate adaption within the agriculture.   

    Through a survey and structured interviews with open-ended questions the purpose was to document experienced affects and opinions from different actors. Altogether nine respondents have been interviewed to answer the research questions and they represent farmers, organizations and authorities.

    The study show that actors experience fluctuations in the weather and the climate, they think climate adaption within the agriculture is important. Rain and moisture are observed to affect the agriculture in larger scales than before, but climate change can also have positive effects like longer growing seasons and the ability to grow new crops.  Some respondents perceive that there are uncertainties about climate change which obstruct climate adaption in the agriculture. According to several respondents information is important to improve the climate adaption, but at the same time other factors like economics, politics and laws influence how climate adaption are administered within agricultures.   

     

    Keywords: Climate change, climate adaption, agriculture, actors

  • 146.
    Engel-Hills, Penelope
    et al.
    Cape Peninsula of Technology.
    Ibsen, Hilde
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Vulnerable to violence: Empowering Women in Cape Town, South Africa2017In: Proceedings to the 2017 SANORD conference, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 147.
    Englund, Liselotte
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Recension av Soilikki Vettenranta: Krig og katastrofer i media: de unges møte med brutale nyheter 2017In: Nordicom Information, ISSN 0349-5949, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 117-120Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 148.
    Englund, Liselotte
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Dep of Journalism, Media and Communication, University of Gothenburg.
    The eye of the disaster: Journalists' work and media coverage at traumatic events2018 (ed. 3)Book (Other academic)
  • 149.
    Englund, Liselotte
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Arnberg, Filip K
    Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, National Centre for Disaster Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Survivors’ experiences of journalists and media exposure: A retrospective qualitative study 15 years after a ferry disaster2018In: Disaster Prevention and Management, ISSN 0965-3562, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 573-585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The media is an important part of disaster management, yet little is understood about their interplay with the disaster survivors. The purpose of this paper is to examine disaster survivors' long-term retrospective views of their experiences with journalists and the media coverage.Design/methodology/approachIn total, 22 Swedish adult survivors (of 49 eligible) from a ferry disaster in the Baltic Sea, in which only 137 of the 989 people onboard survived, were interviewed after 15 years about their experiences of meeting journalists in the immediate aftermath and the media coverage in a long-term perspective. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    Findings

    Survivors from the Estonia ferry disaster described a wide array of experiences from their contacts with the disaster journalists and being exposed in the media. From their experiences, four categories were extracted. The categories were common for both their media contacts and their media exposure: strain, support, rationality and evasion. The survivors' experiences were both negative and positive.

    Research limitations/implications

    These accounts of disaster survivors' experiences from an event 15 years ago provide an interesting comparison for future studies of contemporary disasters.

    Originality/value

    This study provides important perspectives on the role of disaster coverage in the media and documents how disaster survivors retrospect on the media as both a burden and a resource.

  • 150.
    Englund, Liselotte
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Rönning, Helge
    Universitetet i Oslo, Institutt for medier og kommunikasjon.
    Stenersen, Johanna
    Örebro universitet.
    Andersson, Kjerstin
    SADEV.
    Magnusson, Annika
    SADEV.
    Westberg, Sofia
    SADEV.
    Strategi för information och kommunikation – genomförande och effekter av verksamhet finansierad via Sida: SADEV REPORT 2012:22012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 22 december 2011 fick Institutet för utvärdering av internationellt utvecklingssamarbete (SADEV) i uppdrag att utvärdera genomförande och effekter av den informations- och kommunikationsverksamhet som finansieras via Sida (UF2011/76109/UD/USTYR).

    Regeringsuppdraget har genomförts i samarbete med Karlstads universitet, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap. Projektledare och huvudförfattare är fil dr Liselotte Englund.

    Utvärderingen belyser informations- och kommunikationsverksamhet som finansieras av Styrelsen för internationellt utvecklingssamarbete, Sida, i enlighet med regeringens "Strategi för informations- och kommunikationsverksamhet, inklusive genom organisationer i det civila samhället 2010-2014" (UD2008/35922/USTYR) – infokomm-strategin. Syftet är att ge underlag för den fortsatta utvecklingen av verksamheten, inklusive regeringens styrning inom Sveriges internationella utvecklingssamarbete, i detta fall med fokus på informations- och kommunikationsverksamheten. Avsikten är också att göra en övergripande beskrivning av den verksamhet som har bedrivits inom ramen för anslagsposten, och av hur Sida genomför strategin med fokus på urval, reglering och uppföljning.

    Målet att den svenska allmänheten ska ha "… god kunskap om situationen i utvecklingsländer samt svenskt bistånd och dess resultat samt frågor som för utvecklingens drivkrafter i utvecklingsländer" betraktas av de flesta som omätbart. Det bidrar i sin tur till att frågan om effekter i informations- och kommunikationsverksamheten blir svårbesvarad. Strategin ger inte mycket vägledning gällande vad som avses med effekter i sammanhanget.

    Metoderna att mäta kostnadseffektivitet är bristfälliga. Ett ofta använt mått är kontaktkostnad. Detta mäter emellertid oftast bara exponeringsgrad eller uppmärksamhet, och mer sällan kunskapsökning. Huruvida den bild av biståndet som getts genom olika kanaler är korrekt och bred är svårt att bedöma mot bakgrund av befintliga undersökningar och mätmetoder.

    Strategin betraktas av de flesta berörda som icke ändamålsenlig, varför det också blir svårt att genomföra den på ett ändamålsenligt sätt. Många av Sidas kriterier och regler är svåra att tolka, mäta och följa upp. Hierarkin mellan olika styrdokument är mycket oklar, och budskapen inte alltid synkroniserade.

    En jämförelse av informations- och kommunikationsverksamheten perioden före och efter strategins införande ger vid handen att verksamhetens mål var tydligare före strategin. Även om det framstod som mer mätbart att redovisa måluppfyllelse avseende det dåvarande målet "ökat engagemang" så genererade rapporterna oftast generella kvantitativa mått som "visat intresse", "fullbokat" eller "nått många". Dagens målskrivning, att den svenska allmänheten ska ha god kunskap, framstår dock som ännu mer svårtmätbar och riskerar att i hög grad generera projekt som inte definierar effekter utan enbart rapporterar i termer av räckvidd och exponering.

    Rapporten utmynnar i rekommendationer inom ett antal områden, vilka preciseras närmare i rapporten:

    • en omarbetad strategi för information
    • ansvarfördelningen mellan SIDA och CSO
    • klargörande i opinionsbildningsfrågan
    • tydliggörande av strategier, policyer och planer
    • organisering av handläggningen på SIDA
    • informationsinsatsernas art
    • mer kostandseffektiva insatser
    • målgrupper
    • innehållsanalyser av medieutbudet
    • ansökningsförfarandet - fyra nya finansieringsformer
    • ökat krav på instruktioner för SIDA:s verksamhet
    • tydligare kravprofil för slutrapportering
    • transparens, CSO-databasen och Openaid.se
    • ökad metodkompetens
    • översyn av satsningen "nya aktörer"
    • en ny utvärdering tidigast hösten 2013

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