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  • 1.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för tjänsteforskning. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för företagsekonomi. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, SAMOT.
    Enquist, Bo
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Johnston, B
    CoCreating Customer Value Through Hyperrelaity in the Pre-purchase Service Experience2005Ingår i: Journal of Service Research, ISSN 1094-6705, E-ISSN 1552-7379, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 149-161Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 2.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för tjänsteforskning.
    Enquist, Bo
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för tjänsteforskning.
    Johnston, Bob
    Cocreating Customer Value through Hyperreality in the Prepurchase Service Experience2005Ingår i: Journal of Service Research, ISSN 1094-6705, E-ISSN 1552-7379, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 149-161Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article develops a new model depicting how organizations can help customers test out and experience a service prior to purchase and consumption or use. When customers buy a new car, for instance, they are allowed to test-drive it to get the feel of it. When customers wish to purchase services, it can be more difficult to provide customers with a “test drive.” In some service situations, service organizations can and do provide “test drives,” but it is suggested that such experiences take place in a simulated setting. This article introduces the notion of hyperreality, the simulated reality of a service experience. It also introduces the concept of the “experience room,” the place where the simulated experience takes place. Based on the existing literature, the authors apply six dimensions of experience rooms to demonstrate how organizations can cocreate value, in conjunction with the customer, through hyperreality in a preservice experience.

  • 3.
    Forkmann, Sebastian
    et al.
    Univ Alabama, USA.
    Henneberg, Stephan C.
    Queen Mary University London, UK.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, SAMOT. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet.
    Driver Configurations for Successful Service Infusion2017Ingår i: Journal of Service Research, ISSN 1094-6705, E-ISSN 1552-7379, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 275-291Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturers across many industries use service infusion to address the changing customer demands and improve their competitive position. However, understanding the drivers of successful service infusion is a complex process. Using business model and configuration theories, this study conceptualizes and analyzes the interplay of different driver domains for suppliers, customers, and their business relationships. In particular, we analyze how service offering, service pricing, service capabilities, and the service infusion process interact in affecting service infusion success and failure. 137 interviews relating to 25 business relationships are analyzed via configuration analysis, particularly fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). Results show that different equifinal configurations exist (i.e., different ways to succeed with service infusion). We also find that more is not always better. For example, service infusion success can be achieved without fully developed service capabilities. In addition, successful configurations are often very similar to those leading to failure. A dyadic analysis demonstrates that customer service capabilities are overall more important than those of suppliers. From these findings, we derive priorities for future research. In particular, our study points toward the need to better understand the interplay between service infusion drivers. Second, we advocate the augmentation of research perspectives in service infusion by taking into account the supplier, customer, and dyadic perspectives. Lastly, the importance of understanding drivers of service infusion failure is highlighted. For managers, our study shows the importance of relational audits as a starting point to deciding on how to infuse services in a business relationship.

  • 4.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    University of St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för tjänsteforskning. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för företagsekonomi. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, SAMOT.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för tjänsteforskning. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för tjänsteforskning. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för företagsekonomi. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, SAMOT.
    Match or Mismatch: Strategy-Structure Configuration in the Service Business of Manufacturing Companies2010Ingår i: Journal of Service Research, ISSN 1094-6705, E-ISSN 1552-7379, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 198-215Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A new trend seems to be emerging for multinational manufacturing companies to make a strategic reorientation into becoming service providers. For some companies, such as Kone and IBM, the revenues from services are 50% or more of their total sales. Despite the increasing interest in exploring various aspects of the service part of the business in manufacturing companies, existing research has not focused on the interdependencies between different service strategies and organizational designs. This article studies different service strategies in manufacturing companies and highlights the organizational design necessary for implementing each service strategy. The service strategies explored are aftersales service providers, customer support service providers, outsourcing partners, and development partners. Each service strategy is supported by organizational design factors related to the service orientation of corporate culture, the service orientation of human resource management, and the service orientation of organizational structures. This research concludes that a specific strategy-structure configuration is needed in order to succeed with a chosen service strategy

  • 5.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    BI Norwegian Business Sch, Dept Mkt, Nydalsveien 37, N-0484 Oslo, Norway..
    Snyder, Hannah
    BI Norwegian Business Sch, Dept Mkt, Nydalsveien 37, N-0484 Oslo, Norway..
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013). Linköping Universitet.
    Service Innovation: A New Conceptualization and Path Forward2020Ingår i: Journal of Service Research, ISSN 1094-6705, E-ISSN 1552-7379, artikel-id UNSP 1094670520908929Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Service innovations challenge existing offerings and business models, shape existing markets, and create new ones. Over the last decade, service research has shown increasing interest in the concept of innovation and should by now have reached maturity and created a strong theoretical basis. However, there is no coherent theoretical framework that captures all the facets of service innovation, and to move service innovation research forward, we must revisit the key assumptions of what an innovation is. To enable this, the present article addresses three fundamental questions about service innovation: (1) What is it and what is it not? (2) What do we know and what do we not know? and (3) What do we need to know to advance service research? By doing so, this article offers an updated and comprehensive definition of service innovation and provides a research agenda to suggest a path forward.

  • 6.
    Kelleher, Carol
    et al.
    Univ Coll Cork, Cork Univ Business Sch, Cork, Ireland.;Univ Coll Cork, Inst Social Sci 21st Century ISS21, Cork, Ireland..
    O'Loughlin, Deirdre
    Univ Limerick, Kemmy Business Sch, Res, Limerick, Ireland..
    Gummerus, Johanna
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013). Hanken Sch Econ, Mkt, Helsinki, Finland.;Karlstad Univ, CTF, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Penaloza, Lisa
    KEDGE Business Sch, Dept Mkt, Talence, France..
    Shifting Arrays of a Kaleidoscope: The Orchestration of Relational Value Cocreation in Service SystemsIngår i: Journal of Service Research, ISSN 1094-6705, E-ISSN 1552-7379, artikel-id UNSP 1094670519882495Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The predominant value discourse among scholars characterizes value cocreation as involving multiple actors at the micro-, meso-, and macrolevels in service systems. This research contributes to the knowledge of the interdependencies among multiple resource-integrating actors and value outcomes by employing a relational perspective on value cocreation within the empirical context of family caregiving. The findings reveal how interdependent actors orchestrate value cocreation in service systems, how this impacts value, and how orchestration precipitates system adjustments, which form the recursive context of value cocreation over time. We differentiate and delineate three multi-actor orchestration mechanisms-assembling, performing, and brokering-through which nonreferent beneficiaries coordinate value cocreation on behalf of dependent referent beneficiaries. We term the mutually generalized oscillating multiform negative and positive well-being outcomes that emerge from orchestration among interdependent actors as relational value. In employing the metaphor of the kaleidoscope to emphasize system dynamism, our discussion of relational value cocreation deepens our understanding of how nonreferent beneficiary-led orchestration, founded on generalized mutuality and on behalf of referent beneficiaries with reduced agency, enhances and balances multiform, oscillating and positive and negative well-being outcomes in service systems. This will help service practitioners facilitate orchestration and optimize value for all.

  • 7.
    Patricio, Lia
    et al.
    INESC TEC and Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Portuga.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013).
    Fisk, Raymond
    Texas State University, San Marcos, TX, USA.
    Upframing Service Design and Innovation for Research Impact2018Ingår i: Journal of Service Research, ISSN 1094-6705, E-ISSN 1552-7379, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 3-16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Service design and innovation are receiving greater attention from the service research community because they play crucial roles in creating new forms of value cocreation with customers, organizations, and societal actors in general. Service innovation involves a new process or service offering that creates value for one or more actors in a service network. Service design brings new service ideas to life through a human-centered and holistic design thinking approach. However, service design and innovation build on dispersed multidisciplinary contributions that are still poorly understood. The special issue that follows offers important contributions through the examination of service design and innovation literature, the links between service design and innovation, the role of customers in service design and innovation, and service design and innovation for well-being. Building on these contributions, this article develops a future research agenda in three areas: (1) reinforcing and expanding the foundations of service design and innovation by integrating multiple perspectives and methods; (2) advancing service design and innovation by improving the connection between the two areas, deepening actor involvement, and leveraging the role of technology; and (3) upframing service design and innovation to strengthen research impact by innovating complex value networks and service ecosystems and by building a cornerstone for transformative service research.

  • 8.
    Skålén, Per
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för tjänsteforskning.
    Aal, Kotaiba Abdul
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för tjänsteforskning.
    Cocreating the Arab Spring: Understanding Transformation of Service Systems in Contention2015Ingår i: Journal of Service Research, ISSN 1094-6705, E-ISSN 1552-7379, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 250-264Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the transformation of service systems through actors' resource integration and value cocreation in contention. It is based on a netnographic study focusing on the use of information and communications technology (ICT) tools by online activists during the Arab Spring. The transformation of service systems is conceptualized on the basis of existing service research and on the theory of strategic action fields. Focusing on Syria, the findings suggest that activists transformed four interdependent service systemsthe media, the social movement, health care, and the financial service systemsduring the Arab Spring by means of integrating resources and cocreating value within several ICT tools. A key contribution to transformative service research is the fact that the positive transformation of service systems derives from the conflict between two types of actors, namely, incumbents and challengers. This article also contributes to our knowledge of triggers of service system transformation, what motivates actors to transform service systems, how service system transformation is enabled by actors' integration and use of ICT tools serving as opportunity spaces, and the transformative roles actors adopt. In addition, this article contributes to the conceptualization of service systems and to the understanding of resource integration and value cocreation.

  • 9.
    Tarasi, Crina O
    et al.
    USA.
    Bolton, Ruth N
    USA.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning. Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway .
    Walker, Beth A
    Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway .
    Relationship Characteristics and Cash Flow Variability: Implications for Satisfaction, Loyalty and Customer Portfolio Management2013Ingår i: Journal of Service Research, ISSN 1094-6705, E-ISSN 1552-7379, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 121-137Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Service firms seek customers with high revenues, profits, or lifetime value. However, they frequently ignore variations in consumption that lead to cash flow variability and adversely influence service operations and financial performance. This study shows that variation in individual customers' consumption or spending on services can be decreased in ways that are actionable by most managers, without decreasing revenues or profits. First, customer satisfaction has a ``double-whammy'' effect: lower cash flow variability and higher cash flow levels. This finding is important because firms can increase satisfaction in many ways. Second, customers who participate in loyalty programs have more variable cash flows, but not higher average cash flows. Hence, firms should design loyalty programs to improve customer satisfaction or intangible benefits (e.g., membership recognition), rather than offering economic incentives. Third, customers who purchase many different offerings, or allocate a large share of their purchases to the firm, have higher cash flow variability and higher average cash flows. Firms can optimize the customer portfolio by combining customers with high variability with customers who have different, offsetting cash flow patterns. Fourth, personal characteristics, such as age and income, also influence cash flow variability. Empirical findings are robust across two settings: telecommunications and financial services. The study describes sensitivity analyses of how different service and relationship marketing strategies influence a firm's business outcomes. The article concludes with insights into how to integrate service management principles, which emphasize consistency or low variability in processes, with customer relationship management principles that emphasize growing relationships and cash flows.

  • 10.
    Trischler, Jakob
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013).
    Pervan, Simon J.
    Swinburne University of Technology.
    Kelly, Stephen J.
    Massey University.
    Scott, Don R.
    Southern Cross University.
    The value of codesign: The effect of customer involvement in service design teams2018Ingår i: Journal of Service Research, ISSN 1094-6705, E-ISSN 1552-7379, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 75-100Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Codesign allows a design team to combine two sets of knowledge that are key to service design: Customer insights into latent user needs and in-house professionals’ conversion of promising new ideas into viable concepts. While some studies highlight the potential of codesign, others are more skeptical pointing to a lack of clarity over how the involvement of customers affects the design process and outcomes. This article addresses this knowledge gap by reporting on a real-world comparison of design concepts generated by codesign teams with those generated by an in-house professional team and a team solely made up of users in the course of a library service ideation contest. The comparison indicates that codesign teams generate concepts that score significantly higher in user benefit and novelty but lower in feasibility. However, these outcomes are only possible in cohesive teams that develop design concepts collaboratively. In contrast, in teams where individuals dominate, conflict, less collaboration, and diminished innovation outcomes are more likely. The findings add to a better understanding of the value of codesign and shed light on the complex relationship between design team composition, intrateam factors, and innovation outcomes. Service designers obtain recommendations for selecting customers, assembling teams, and managing intrateam dynamics to enhance codesign success.

  • 11.
    Wägar, Karolina
    et al.
    Hanken School of Economics, Vaasa, Finland.
    Roos, Inger
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Ravald, Annika
    Hanken School of Economics, Vaasa, Finland.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för tjänsteforskning. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan.
    My Customers Are in My Blind Spot: Are They Changing and I cannot See It?2012Ingår i: Journal of Service Research, ISSN 1094-6705, E-ISSN 1552-7379, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 150-165Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is clearly recognized that service providers often have an incomplete and fragmentary understanding of their customers' relationship behaviors. Although it is clear that this incomplete understanding has serious implications for customer relationship management, and might even constitute a strategic risk, there have been no explicit attempts to analyze the phenomenon. The authors therefore introduce and develop the concept of the blind spot as a metaphor referring to situations where a service provider's visual field is obscured. The authors examine the phenomenon of blind spots in a temporal and a relational context, determine their consequences, and outline the implications for customer relationship management. A number of blind spot scenarios are presented in order to illustrate how blind spots obstruct the service provider's ability to make correct interpretations of customer relationships, and thereby also correct estimations of relationship stability. The conceptualization of blind spots as outlined in this article sheds light on the underlying mechanisms that drive customer behavior in terms of relationship stability and hence offers a deeper understanding of the dynamic nature of customer relationships. From a managerial point of view, proper monitoring systems and routines for analyzing relevant customer information play essential roles in understanding and managing blind spots.

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