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  • 1.
    Ghosh, Ruchira
    et al.
    Ulster University, UK.
    Kansal, Arun
    TERI School of Advanced Studies, India.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper (from 2013).
    Urban water security assessment using an integrated metabolism approach – case study of the National Capital Territory of Delhi in India2019Inngår i: Resources, E-ISSN 2079-9276, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 1-15, artikkel-id 62Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Water is a non substitutable resource and a social good, which governments must perforce provide to its citizens in the right quantity and quality. An integrated urban metabolism model is useful in understanding the status quo of an urban water and sanitation system. By defining and measuring the values of relevant hydrological performance indicators-deliverables of the model referred to-a thorough knowledge of the present performance and the gaps, which need to be plugged en route to a sustainable urban water infrastructure, can be obtained, as demonstrated in this paper. This then forms the bedrock for decision-making and policy formulation for change to be introduced top-down as well as advice, which would enable the much needed bottom-up support to policies. The authors have chosen Delhi as the case study city, but would like to point out that this application can be reproduced for any other town/city/region of the world. The water balance within the chosen system boundaries shows that the annual unutilized flows, amounting to 1443 million cubic meters, dominate the metabolic flows of water in Delhi, and the annual groundwater withdrawal, which exceeds 420 million cubic meters, is much greater than the recharge rate, resulting in a rapid depletion of the groundwater level. There is an urgent need thereby to improve the rate of infiltration of stormwater and reduce the rate of runoff by focusing on increasing the share of permeable surfaces in the city, as well as to consider the wastewater streams as potential sources of water, while not forgetting demand side of management measures, as the pressure on the urban water system in the city is likely to intensify with a combination of population growth, economic development, and climate change in the near future. The recommendations provided by the authors towards the end of the article, can, if suitable measures are undertaken and robust policies are implemented, result in Delhi's enjoying a water surplus in the short term, and progressively attain complete sustainability with regard to the utilization of its water resources.

  • 2.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper. Norwegian University of Science & Technology.
    A critique of the European Green City Index2014Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 57, nr 3, s. 317-328Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2009, Siemens (Germany) sponsored the research by the Economist Intelligence Unit (London), which resulted in the publication of the European Green City Index report, in which the environmental performance of 30 large cities in Europe was analysed. It provided city administrations with an idea of where they stood vis-a-vis their European counterparts. However, while adopting such performance evaluation methodologies, it is important to set targets and goals, and to be aware of pitfalls that may exist in the course of a blind pursuit of a higher Green Score. City administrations are usually segmented into different divisions and departments; often each division strives towards its own set of targets and goals, without being aware (or without being concerned, even if it is aware) of the overlaps, conflicts and synergies that may exist with the targets and goals of the others. The Green City Index needs to be considered together with an Urban Socio-Economic Index, which can be suitably structured with the inter-linkages with the indicators of the Green City Index explicitly described.

  • 3.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    ABC of Sustainable Development2015 (oppl. 1)Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development is a field of thought, learning, research and endeavour, which has entrenched itself in the 21st century. This book is certainly very very far from being the be-all and end-all of knowledge about sustainability and sustainable development, as readers will appreciate. This modest effort is something which I hope provides some food for thought…and then hopefully, purposeful action. This book is about 90 pages long, and is split up into 9 chapters, and dwells on the different aspects of sustainable development and the challenges associated with integrating these so that development is truly and holistically sustainable….Chapters begin with Learning Objectives which at once tells the reader what to expect from it, and some Exercises at the end, which one may wish to attempt, en route.

    As Prof Genon Giuseppe from Turin, Italy, in the Foreword to the book, says, ‘This book is useful to university curricula, aimed at grooming professionals capable of considering all the aspects of sustainable development and of course, can very well be integrated into a host of academic disciplines, as the author has pointed out in one of the chapters.’

    As Dr Håvard Bergsdal from Trondheim, Norway, says, in his review comments, ‘The book makes for good reading and serves as a useful summary for readers who are new to the topic of sustainability.’

  • 4. Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Analysis of stocks and flows in Indian households, associated with water consumption2013Inngår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 472-481Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5. Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Changes in material flows, treatment efficiencies and environmental load-shifting in the wastewater treatment sector Part II: Case study of Norway2009Inngår i: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 30, nr 11, s. 1131-1143Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper (from 2013).
    Classroom survey to gauge how the three pillars of sustainability are prioritised for the urban water and wastewater system2017Inngår i: Vatten, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 73, nr 1, s. 33-37Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Cost-benefit analysis: Leakage reduction by rehabilitating old water pipelines: Case study of Oslo (Norway)2012Inngår i: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 277-286Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 8.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Cricket -  a little more2015Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 9.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper (from 2013).
    Critique of selected peer-reviewed publications on applied social life cycle assessment: Focus on cases from developing countries2019Inngår i: Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, ISSN 1618-954X, E-ISSN 1618-9558, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 413-430Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The social aspect of sustainable and ‘clean’ production/manufacturing technologies is researched and understood by means of Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA), a Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA) tool, which is still in its infancy. In this paper, a search for all peer-reviewed publications on applied Social LCA, which have appeared in scientific journals, between O’Brien et al (1996) and the latest one at the time of writing (April 2018), was carried out, using Scopus as the repository and using “S-LCA” OR “SLCA” OR “Social LCA” OR “Social Life Cycle Assessment” as search-phrases in title, abstract and keywords of publications, separately.  Overall, 213 publications were unearthed, and the trend shows that there has been a near-exponential increase over time. A little over 55% of these publications – 121 to be precise - were applications of S-LCA – often in combination with environmental-LCA and life cycle costing analysis, in an LCSA. This paper discusses the contributions of a selected subset of these 121 publications to the body of S-LCA knowledge, with the focus being restricted to applications in developing and transition economies of the world, on the premise that there is a more urgent need to understand social aspects of production and manufacturing in these parts of the world.  A SWOT analysis of S-LCA has been carried out towards the end. There is a consensus among many researchers that while LCC and E-LCA have matured a lot over time, S-LCA, the newest of the trio, is evolving slowly to become a harmonised tool which can serve as an effective complement to the aforesaid two, in life cycle sustainability assessments of products and processes in industry.         

  • 10.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Economic impact of upgrading biogas from anaerobic digesters to biomethane for use as transportation fuel: Case study of Bekkelaget Wastewater Treatment Plant in Oslo, Norway2014Inngår i: Sewage Treatment plants: Economic evaluation of innovative technologies / [ed] Katerina Stamatelatou, Konstantinos P. Tsagarakis, London, UK: IWA Publishing, 2014, 1Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper.
    Environmental Life-Cycle Analysis: A primer2016 (oppl. First)Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This little book is a primer. The target readership here is not necessarily only for engineers, but also for those studying to be lawyers, political scientists, administrators, business managers, etc. Lucid language, analogies and cartoons help to impress upon readers that environmental-LCA is not rocket-science.

    The reader is taken through the steps to be assiduously followed while performing an E-LCA. You understand the importance of defining the goal and the scope of your analysis before starting, and realise that E-LCA is data-intensive. Also covered are topics like attributional/consequential LCA, rebound effect and problem shifting, and allocation of environmental impacts. Attempting the exercises which appear at the end of every chapter will enable the reader to gain in confidence. As Prof Arun Kansal says in the Foreword to the book, ‘It explains the basic philosophy of LCA and argues, by providing examples, in its favour as a standard method for environmental decision-making.’ Dr Geoffrey Guest, in his Afterword, refers to the book as a ‘unique, light-hearted though philosophically-deep introductory piece on E-LCA.’

     

  • 12.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper (from 2013).
    Environmental Life-cycle Analysis as a tool for sustainability studies: A complete learning experience.2019Inngår i: Problemy Ekorozwoju, ISSN 1895-6912, E-ISSN 2080-1971, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 79-85Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Environmental systems analysis of urban water systems - limited historical account of published work in scientific journals2015Inngår i: Vatten, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 71, nr 4, s. 209-222Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 14.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Future prospects of industrial ecology as a set of tools for sustainable development2012Inngår i: Problemy Ekorozwoju, ISSN 1895-6912, E-ISSN 2080-1971, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 77-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 15.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper (from 2013).
    Industrial ecology tools as decision-making aids for sustainable phosphorus recovery: A methodology paper   Industriell-ekologi verktyg som beslutsstöd för hållbar fosfor återvinning:  en metod-artikel2018Inngår i: Vatten, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 74, nr 3, s. 107-121Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    India, being the second largest importer, and the largest consumer of phosphate fertilisers in the world, needs to focus on securing its supplies not merely by providing subsidies to importers but also focusing on recovery and recycling of phosphorus from waste streams. In the process, the country can avail of concomitant benefits like wastewater reclamation and bio-energy generation, and improve the lot of the millions of farmers in the country. In this paper the authors have outlined a methodology based on industrial ecology tools – MFA (SFA), E-LCA, LCC and S-LCA - which they intend to adopt in the near-term to study, analyse and model the status quo and proposed interventions, from a sustainability perspective, which will become indispensable in the not-too-distant future for the country. The literature review which has been segmented on the basis of the application of the different tools to the study and analysis of resource recovery from wastewater, provides insights into what has been done thus far, and prepares the bedrock for a more detailed analysis.  

     

  • 16.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Interpreting sustainability using Robert Pirsig's quality levels: LILA-An Enquiry Into Morals2011Inngår i: Problemy Ekorozwoju, ISSN 1895-6912, E-ISSN 2080-1971, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 62-66Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 17.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper (from 2013).
    Life cycle costing: A primer2019 (oppl. 1)Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 18.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Norwegian University of Science & Technology, Trondheim.
    Malaysian Water tariff influences water-saving habits2011Inngår i: Journal - American Water Works Association, ISSN 0003-150X, E-ISSN 1551-8833, Vol. 103, nr 7, s. 32-34Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 19.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper.
    Overhauling Higher Education by Factoring Sustainability into University Curricula: Discussion Based on a Survey2016Inngår i: Metamorphosis of Architectural Education in (Post) Transitional Context / [ed] Mladen Burazor, Markus Schwai, Nermina Zagora and Senka Ibrišimbegović,, Sarajevo: University of Sarajevo , 2016, s. 101-115Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 20.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper (from 2013).
    Pinch analysis, as a technique for optimising resource utilisation and promoting environmental sustainability: A review of recent case studies from the developing world and transition economies2019Inngår i: Resources Environment and Information Engineering, ISSN 2661-3131, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 1-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pinch analysis, as a technique to optimise the utilisation of resources, traces its beginnings to the 1970s in Switzerland and the UK – ETH Zurich and Leeds University to be more precise. Over four decades down the line, this methodology has entrenched itself in research circles around the world. While the technique was developed, to begin with, for energy (heat) recovery, it has since then expanded to embrace several other fields, and enabled optimisation of resource utilisation in general. The motive behind this article is to perform a focused, selective review of recent case studies from the developing world and transition economies, having ‘pinch analysis’ in their titles and thereby as their ‘core, crux and gist’, during the period 2008-2018. The resources focused on, include heat energy, electrical energy, water, solid waste, money, time, land (surface area), storage space (volume), human resources, mass of resources in general and hydrogen, while a handful of publications have their focus on carbon dioxide (greenhouse gases in general) emissions. Multi-dimensional pinch analysis promises to be an effective tool for sustainability analysis in the years to come; most importantly in the developing world where social well-being and economic development are priorities in the years ahead, and they ought to be attained by a simultaneous truncation of the environmental footprint, in other words, an optimisation of resource utilisation as well as adverse environmental impacts. In other words, the focus ought to be on sustainable production (efficiency) and consumption (sufficiency). 

  • 21.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper (from 2013).
    Recovery of different types of resources from wastewater – A structured review.2018Inngår i: Vatten, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 74, nr 2, s. 1-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    As the population of the world increases, and economies continue to develop, energy, water, materials of different types, and nutrients for food production will be needed in ever-increasing amounts. The water-energy nexus is well-understood in research circles, but one could modify this paradigm to water-nutrients/materials-energy nexus in order to incorporate recovery of substances that can be recirculated to the anthroposphere. ‘Resources’ would thus include both energy and materials (elements, compounds and mixtures – both organic and inorganic). Research in, and implementation of, recovery of different types of resources – material and energy - from wastewater (municipal, agricultural and industrial) has been going on for quite some time now. It will not be wrong to say that the imperativeness and importance of research in this field has been earnestly appreciated by academia, industry, utilities and governments alike in many parts of the world, over the last decade. This paper is a literature review of selected publications from the period 2010-2018, from a wide range of journals, focusing on resource recovery from wastewater. The selected publications originate from 44 different countries (in six continents) of the world.

  • 22.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Sisyphean struggle or Pyrrhic victory ?2014Inngår i: Problemy Ekorozwoju, ISSN 1895-6912, E-ISSN 2080-1971, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 73-77Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 23.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper (from 2013).
    Social LCA - An introduction: The What, the How and the Why2019Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 24.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Sustainable Development as a single measure: Case study of some developing Asian countries2015Inngår i: Sovremennaâ Ekonomika: Problemy, Tendencii, Perspektivy, ISSN 2222-6532, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 31-42Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 25. Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Sustainable development: The four-fold path for governance2013Inngår i: Problemy Ekorozwoju, ISSN 1895-6912, E-ISSN 2080-1971, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 63-66Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 26.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Testing different rehabilitation options in the drinking water pipeline network in Oslo using the Dynamic Metabolism Model2014Inngår i: Vatten, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 70, nr 4, s. 215-224Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 27.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Norwegian University of Science & Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    The EU TRUST project: Coming together to seek common solutions for water utilities2012Inngår i: Journal - American Water Works Association, ISSN 0003-150X, E-ISSN 1551-8833, Vol. 104, nr 11, s. 52-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    TRUST is an acronym for Transition to the Urban Water Services of Tomorrow. Just into its second year, this four-year European Union project consists of a consortium that is split into eight work areas (which in turn are segmented into many work packages), focusing on different aspects of the project. These eight work areas are not islands of expertise working in isolation in different countries in Europe, but cooperating and collaborating team members actively exchanging and sharing information among themselves to ensure that progress toward the end goals is ensured and expedited.

  • 28. Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Time for the intellect to take over from the mind2012Inngår i: Problemy Ekorozwoju, ISSN 1895-6912, E-ISSN 2080-1971, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 96-98Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 29.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Norwegian University of Science, Oslo, Norway.
    Triple bottom line approach to individual and global sustainability (Translated into Polish).2010Inngår i: Problemy Ekorozwoju, ISSN 1895-6912, E-ISSN 2080-1971, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 29-37Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial ecology is founded on analogies and lateral thinking, borrowing and adapting, and opening up the frontiers of imagination and innovativeness to make the road to sustainable development more tractable. Talking of the key role mankind needs to play to make sustainable development a reality, a wonderful analogy is uncovered – between holistic individual human development and the triple bottom line approach (economic, social and environmental) to sustainable progress of humanity as a whole on the surface of the earth. An individual starts off from gross materialism (body) but needs to aim for the right blend of physical, emotional and spiritual advancement in life. When all individuals do so, a lop-sided socio-economic techno-sphere will gradually metamorphose into a fully-evolved one. Paradoxically, individuals need to delve in and comprehend their spiritual selves, for the technosphere to fan out and embrace the earth of which it is just a small component.

  • 30. Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Typifying cities to streamline the selection of relevant environmental sustainability indicators for urban water supply and sewage handling systems2013Inngår i: Environment, Development and Sustainability, ISSN 1387-585X, E-ISSN 1573-2975, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 765-782Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 31.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Urban Water System metabolism assessment using WaterMet(2) model2014Inngår i: 12TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTING AND CONTROL FOR THE WATER INDUSTRY, CCWI2013 / [ed] Brunone, B; Giustolisi, O; Ferrante, M; Laucelli, D; Meniconi, S; Berardi, L; Campisano, A, Elsevier, 2014, Vol. 70, nr 1, s. 113-122Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 32.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Norwegian University of Science & Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Wastewater treatment in Norway: An overview2013Inngår i: Journal - American Water Works Association, ISSN 0003-150X, E-ISSN 1551-8833, Vol. 105, nr 5, s. 92-97Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenges of providing services to growing populations multiply, as demonstrated by the trials faced in Norway as it searched for effective ways of addressing a growing wastewater treatment problem.

  • 33.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper.
    Water for All and other poems2015Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 34.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper (from 2013).
    Water pinch analysis: a review of recent peer-reviewed publications2018Inngår i: Vatten, ISSN 0042-2886, nr 3, s. 147-152Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    As the population of the world increases, the demand for resources of different types will also grow. Water is one such resource. Pinch analysis, as a technique to optimise the utilisation of resources, had its origin in heat recovery and thereby the optimisation of fuel usage in the 1970s during the oil crisis. Since then, it has expanded to encompass a vast swathe of resources – both material and otherwise. Water pinch analysis is one offshoot of this tool (the implementation is labelled as pinch technology). This short article is a focused and selective review of recent publications having ‘pinch analysis’ in their titles and as their ‘core and gist’, during the period 2008-2018, and having water pinch analysis as either the sole focus or one of the foci.

  • 35.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper. Norwegian University of Science & Technology.
    WaterMet2: A tool for integrated analysis of sustainability-based performance of urban water systems2014Inngår i: Drinking Water Engineering and Science Discussions, ISSN 1996-9473, E-ISSN 1996-9481, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 63-72Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the "WaterMet2" model for long-term assessment of urban water system (UWS) performance which will be used for strategic planning of the integrated UWS. WaterMet2 quantifies the principal water-related flows and other metabolism-based fluxes in the UWS such as materials, chemicals, energy and greenhouse gas emissions. The suggested model is demonstrated through sustainability-based assessment of an integrated real-life UWS for a daily time-step over a 30-year planning horizon. The integrated UWS modelled by WaterMet2 includes both water supply and wastewater systems. Given a rapid population growth, WaterMet2 calculates six quantitative sustainability-based indicators of the UWS. The result of the water supply reliability (94%) shows the need for appropriate intervention options over the planning horizon. Five intervention strategies are analysed in WaterMet2 and their quantified performance is compared with respect to the criteria. Multi-criteria decision analysis is then used to rank the intervention strategies based on different weights from the involved stakeholders' perspectives. The results demonstrate that the best and robust strategies are those which improve the performance of both water supply and wastewater systems.

  • 36.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper (from 2013).
    Where science fails, outdated religion provides clues2017Inngår i: Problemy Ekorozwoju, ISSN 1895-6912, E-ISSN 2080-1971, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 119-122Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Solutions to challenges, and answers to questions are often to be found in what he normally overlook, downplay and reject and deny. The Ask and it will be given to you; seek and you will find; knock and the door will be opened to you of the Holy Bible refers to seeking there where one normally would not expect to find anything. The caste-system which prevailed in ancient Hindu society (and still does, though not as prominently as before) does have some hidden lessons for the modern Hindu (in India or in the wider Indian diaspora), which could be very valuable for sustainable development.

  • 37.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Azrague, Kamal
    SINTEF Bldg & Infrastruct, Water & Environm Res Grp, N-7465 Trondheim, Norway.
    Bell, Stig
    Municipal Oppegard, Water Wastewater & Renovat Sect, N-1412 Sofiemyr, Norway.
    Eikebrokk, Bjornar
    SINTEF Bldg & Infrastruct, Water & Environm Res Grp, N-7465 Trondheim, Norway.
    Triple bottom line assessment of raw water treatment: Methodology and application to a case study in the municipality of Oppegard in south-eastern Norway2015Inngår i: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 36, nr 15, s. 1954-1965Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 38.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Brattebo, Helge
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Analysis of chemicals and energy consumption in water and wastewater treatment, as cost components: Case study of Oslo, Norway2011Inngår i: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 189-202Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Adopting a systems-approach to an urban water and wastewater system, while applying a triple bottom line strategy to management, entails a careful analysis of all the sub-systems and components thereof with a view to improving service levels, optimising expenditure, augmenting investments, and also reducing the life-cycle environmental impacts associated with setting up, maintaining and operating the system. The scope for optimising expenses is system-wide, though it varies from one sub-system to another, depending on inherent lock-ins and external factors beyond the direct control of the water and wastewater utility. Optimising the consumption of energy and chemicals and improving the cost-efficiency thereof, is always on the agenda of water treatment plants (WTPs) and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This paper analyses the consumption of and the expenditure on chemicals and energy at Oslo's WTPs and WWTPs over time. Energy and chemicals for water and wastewater treatment, on an average account for 10.8% of the total operational expenses in the water supply sub-system and 13.7% for the wastewater handling sub-system. There is a perceptible increase in this share from 5.2% in 2004 to 14.9% in 2009 for water and 12.3% to 14.2% for wastewater. Chemicals cost more than energy for the WWTPs, while it was the other way round for the WTPs. The total real cost of energy and chemicals per cubic metre, in year-2007 currency, was between 4 and 5.2 Euro cents for the WTPs, and between 1 and 4.5 Euro cents for the WTPs. The total (WTP + WWTP) per-capita real costs of energy and chemicals, expressed in year-2007 currency, rose from around 10 Euros in year 2000 to about 12.2 Euros in year 2007.

  • 39.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Brattebo, Helge
    Norway.
    Assessment of environmental impacts of an aging and stagnating water supply pipeline network: City of Oslo 1991-20062012Inngår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 16, nr 5, s. 722-734Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aging urban infrastructure is a common phenomenon in industrialized countries. The urban water supply pipeline network in the city of Oslo is an example. Even as it faces increasing operational, maintenance, and management challenges, it needs to better its environmental performance by reducing, for instance, the associated greenhouse gas emissions. In this article the authors examine the environmental life cycle performance of Oslo's water supply pipelines by analyzing annual resource consumption and emissions as well as life cycle assessment (LCA) impact potentials over a period of 16 years, taking into account the production/manufacture, installation, operation, maintenance, rehabilitation, and retirement of pipelines. It is seen that the water supply pipeline network of Oslo has already reached a state of saturation on a per capita basis, that is, it is not expanding any more relative to the population it serves, and the stock is now rapidly aging. This article is part of a total urban water cycle system analysis for Oslo, and analyzes more specifically the environmental impacts from the material flows in the water distribution network, examining six environmental impact categories using the SimaPro (version 7.1.8) software, Ecoinvent database, and the CML 2001 (version 2.04) methodology. The long-term management of stocks calls for a strong focus on cost optimization, energy efficiency, and environmental friendliness. Global warming and abiotic depletion emerge as the major impact categories from the water pipeline system, and the largest contribution is from the production and installation phases and the medium-size pipelines in the network.

  • 40.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Brattebo, Helge
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Changes in material flows, treatment efficiencies and shifting of environmental loads in the wastewater treatment sector.: Part I: Case study of the Netherlands2009Inngår i: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 30, nr 11, s. 1111-1129Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The material that is separated from wastewater in wastewater treatment plants has to be transferred from the water phase to the atmosphere, lithosphere, and/or biosphere (and also the technosphere). After the initial discharges into the different environmental media (and the technosphere), there are further 'inter-sphere' leakages or redirections. However, these happen over protracted periods of time and have not been accounted for in this paper. The paper presents a case study on the wastewater treatment plants in the Netherlands, examines how the degree of separation of COD (BOD), nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals from the wastewater have increased over time, and studies the changes in proportions separated out to the atmosphere and lithosphere. The hydrosphere has benefited from a decline in the degree of eutrophication and marine/fresh water toxicity, owing to the favourable combination of higher degrees of separation, over time, and source control, especially in the industrial sector. Global warming is a major concern owing to the increasing conversion of COD to carbon dioxide (and methane). Heavy metal and nitrogen emissions have been curbed thanks to source reduction within industries. Technologies have, of course, enabled some mitigation of the problems associated with atmospheric (global warming and toxicity) and lithospheric (toxicity) pollution, though these are beyond the scope of this paper, which assumes a hypothetical worst-case scenario in this regard for the study period 1993-2005.

  • 41.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Brattebo, Helge
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Energy consumption, costs and environmental impacts doe urban water cycle services: Case study of Oslo (Norway)2011Inngår i: Energy Journal, ISSN 0195-6574, E-ISSN 1944-9089, Vol. 36, nr 2, s. 792-800Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 42.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Brattebo, Helge
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Environmental impact analysis of chemicals and energy consumption in wastewater treatment plants: Case study of Oslo, Norway2011Inngår i: Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, ISSN 1606-9749, E-ISSN 1607-0798, Vol. 63, nr 5, s. 1081-1031Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 43.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Brattebo, Helge
    Norway.
    Looking for order in urban water and wastewater pipeline networks2012Inngår i: ACE : Architecture, City and Environment, ISSN 1887-7052, E-ISSN 1886-4805, Vol. 7, nr 20, s. 13-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 44.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Hydraul & Environm Engn, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Brattebo, Helge
    orwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Energy & Proc Engn Dept, Ind Ecol Programme, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Studying the demand-side vis-a-vis the supply-side of urban water systems - Case study of Oslo, Norway2014Inngår i: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 35, nr 18, s. 2322-2333Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 45.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Brattebo, Helge
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Testing the Power Law on urban water and wastewater pipeline networks2011Inngår i: Vatten, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 67, nr 3, s. 153-160Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 46.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Brattebo, Helge
    NTNU, Norway.
    Sægrov, Sveinung
    NTNU, Norway.
    Behzadian, Kouroush
    University of Exeter, UK.
    Kapelan, Zoran
    Metabolism-modelling approaches to long-term sustainability assessment of urban water services2015Inngår i: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, s. 1-12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a discernible need for a holistic, long-term and sustainability approach in decision-making in water and wastewater utilities around the world. Metabolism-based modelling, which can quantify various flows within an urban water system (UWS), has shown its effective usability for a more comprehensive understanding of the impacts of intervention strategies and can be used by any water utility for future planning of UWS. This study presents the main principles of a holistic Sustainability Assessment Framework which can be simulated by using two analytical, conceptual, mass-balance-based models to quantify relevant key performance indicators (KPIs) associated with the metabolic flows of the urban water cycle. These two models are WaterMet2 (WM2) and dynamic metabolism model (DMM), developed recently under the aegis of the EU TRUST (Transitions to the Urban Water Services of Tomorrow) project. There are clear differences between the two models which make them useful in different contexts and circumstantial situations. DMM is a mass-balance consistent model which quantifies and presents annually-aggregated performance values for system wide energy consumption, emissions, environmental impacts and costs for the entire UWS though it is also possible to derive corresponding indicators for individual sub-systems (e.g. water distribution and wastewater transport). WM2 is the opposite of this, it is a distributed metabolism model which simulates water related and other resource flows throughout the UWS components with a higher resolution both spatially (e.g. multiple water resources and service reservoirs) and temporally (e.g. daily and monthly), and thereby is useful in contexts where utilities would like to focus on further details of the UWS metabolism with the aim to understand and solve specific problems. Overall, these two complementary metabolism-based approaches enable any water utility to quantitatively explore and understand the influences of different external drivers and intervention strategies on future performance profiles linked to any physical, environmental and economic criteria.

  • 47.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Chan, Arthur
    NTNU, Energy & Proc Engn Dept, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Brattebo, Helge
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Understanding the water-energy-carbon nexus in urban water utilities: Comparison of four city case studies and the relevant influencing factors2014Inngår i: Energy Journal, ISSN 0195-6574, E-ISSN 1944-9089, Vol. 75, nr 1, s. 153-166Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 48.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Dhakal, Shobhakar
    Natl Inst Environm Studies, Global Carbon Project, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    An international look at the water-energy nexus2012Inngår i: Journal of American Water Works Association, ISSN 0003-150X, Vol. 104, nr 5, s. 93-96Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 49.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Didi, Mohamed Ahmed
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Mujthaba, Ahmed
    Norwegian University for Science & Technology, Norway.
    Male makes the most of limited land and freshwater2011Inngår i: Journal - American Water Works Association, ISSN 0003-150X, E-ISSN 1551-8833, Vol. 103, nr 5, s. 44-50Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 50.
    Govindarajan, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Hydraul & Environm Engn, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Elmi, Rashid Abdi
    Economic-environmental analysis of handling biogas from sewage sludge digesters in wastewater treatment plants for energy recovery: Case study of Bekkelaget wastewater treatment plant in Oslo, Norway2013Inngår i: Energy Journal, ISSN 0195-6574, E-ISSN 1944-9089, Vol. 58, nr 10, s. 220-235Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
12 1 - 50 of 75
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