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  • 1.
    Jaldell, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan.
    Ryen, Linda
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan.
    Sund, Björn
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Are national injury prevention and research efforts matching the distribution of injuries across sectors?2015Inngår i: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 21, nr e1, s. e113-e115Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2011, 88% of all unintentional injury fatalities occurred in home and leisure environments in Sweden, while transportation fatalities accounted for 10% and work/school injuries for 2%. The corresponding proportions among non-fatal injuries were 75, 12 and 13%, respectively. However, 83% of the national governmental expenditure on unintentional injury prevention in 2011 was allocated to transportation safety, 7% to home and leisure, and 10% to the work sector including schools. Likewise, around 85% of the governmental research budget aimed for unintentional injury research was allocated to the transportation sector, 9% to home and leisure environments, and 6% to the work and school sector. Our results reveal a striking lack of correspondence between problem profile and governmental countermeasures.

  • 2.
    Sund, Björn
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013). MSB; Örebro University.
    Developing an analytical tool for evaluating EMS system design changes and their impact on cardiac arrest outcomes: Combining geographic information systems with register data on survival rates2013Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, ISSN 1757-7241, E-ISSN 1757-7241, Vol. 21, artikkel-id 21:8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a frequent and acute medical condition that requires immediate care. We estimate survival rates from OHCA in the area of Stockholm, through developing an analytical tool for evaluating Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system design changes. The study also is an attempt to validate the proposed model used to generate the outcome measures for the study.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: This was done by combining a geographic information systems (GIS) simulation of driving times with register data on survival rates. The emergency resources comprised ambulance alone and ambulance plus fire services. The simulation model predicted a baseline survival rate of 3.9 per cent, and reducing the ambulance response time by one minute increased survival to 4.6 per cent. Adding the fire services as first responders (dual dispatch) increased survival to 6.2 per cent from the baseline level. The model predictions were validated using empirical data.

    CONCLUSION: We have presented an analytical tool that easily can be generalized to other regions or countries. The model can be used to predict outcomes of cardiac arrest prior to investment in EMS design changes that affect the alarm process, e.g. (1) static changes such as trimming the emergency call handling time or (2) dynamic changes such as location of emergency resources or which resources should carry a defibrillator.

  • 3.
    Sund, Björn
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013).
    Bonander, Carl
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för personsäkerhet (from 2013). Göteborgs universitet.
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Jaldell, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Do home fire and safety checks by on-duty firefighters decrease the number of fires?: Quasi-experimental evidence from Southern Sweden2019Inngår i: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 70, s. 39-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Fire and rescue services Syd, in the south of Sweden, started to conduct home fire and safety checks on a large scale in 2010. The goal was to reduce the damages from residential fires. Method: We estimate the effects of the intervention on the incidence of residential fires and evaluate its economic effect. We use a difference-in-kinks design to analyze time-varying intervention effects and conduct a cost–benefit analysis for the economic evaluation. Results: The results demonstrate that fires and developed fires decrease by a maximum of approximately 6% and 8% per year (assuming 100% causality)and that the intervention has positive economic effects, with the benefits estimated to be maximum 8–11 times higher than the costs. Practical applications: The results should be valuable as input when deciding whether to implement home fire and safety checks elsewhere.

  • 4.
    Sund, Björn
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013). Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, Sweden.
    Jaldell, Henrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Security officers responding to residential fire alarms: Estimating the effect on survival and property damage2018Inngår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 97, s. 1-11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Decreasing the response time to residential fires leads to more people being saved, fewer injuries, less property damage and a lesser environmental impact. One way of reducing the response time to fires is to allow the municipal fire and rescue services to cooperate with other actors. This study evaluates a potential agreement between the fire and rescue service of a Swedish municipality (Helsingborg) and a private security officers' firm. A geographic information system (GIS) simulation is used to estimate the reduced response times. The result is combined with a statistically estimated measure of the risk of fatality for marginal changes in the response time to find the effect on survival rates and property damage. The results show that the response time is 52 s on average faster using security officers for residential fires. Combining this gain in response time with the relation to fatalities and adjusting for the fact that security officers are less effective imply a decreased death rate by 0.0105 or 1.3% per year. The project has positive economic effects with the benefits estimated to be 1.4 (saved lives) and respectively 2.3 (saved lives and property damage) times higher than the costs.

  • 5.
    Sund, Björn
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Svensson, Mikael
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Estimating a constant WTP for a QALY-a mission impossible?2018Inngår i: European Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 1618-7598, E-ISSN 1618-7601, Vol. 19, nr 6, s. 871-880Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Economic evaluations are an important input to decision-making and priority-setting in the health care sector. Measuring preferences for health improvements, as the demand-side value (willingness to pay) of gaining a quality-adjusted life year (QALY), is one relevant component in the interpretation of the results from health economic evaluations. Our article addresses whether willingness to pay for a QALY (WTP-Q) is sensitive to the size of the health differences and the probability for improvement. We use data from a contingent valuation survey based on 1400 respondents conducted in the spring of 2014. The results show that the expectation of sensitivity to scope, or higher WTP to the larger expected quality of life improvement, is not supported. We find WTP-Q values that conform reasonably well to previous studies in Sweden.

  • 6.
    Sund, Björn
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan. MSB, Karlstad; Örebro University.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Örebro University.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Toulouse School of Economics, France.
    Demographic determinants of incident experience and risk perception: Do high-risk groups accurately perceive themselves as high-risk?2017Inngår i: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 1, s. 99-117Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes demographic determinants of incident experience and risk perception, as well as the relationship between the two, for eight different risk domains. Analyses were conducted by merging the results of a Swedish population-based survey, which includes approximately 15,000 individuals, with demographic and socio-economic register data. Being male was associated with higher incident experience yet a lower risk perception for nearly all risk domains. Lower socioeconomic status was associated with higher incident experience for falls, and being a victim of violence but lower incident experience for road traffic accidents. Lower socioeconomic status was also associated with higher risk perception for falls. On aggregate, ranking the different domains, respondents’ risk perception was in almost perfect correspondence to the ranking of actual incident experience, with the exception that the risk of being a victim of violence is ranked higher than indicated by actual incident experience. On a demographic group level, men and highly educated respondents perceive their risks to be lower than what is expected considering their actual incident experience. 

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