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  • 1.
    Ahlin, Klas
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier.
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier.
    Prerequisites for teaching mindfulness and meditation: Experienced teachers from different traditions share their insights2016Inngår i: Journal of Yoga & Physical Therapy, E-ISSN 2157-7595, Vol. 6, nr 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Several authors have suggested demands and requirements for teaching mindfulness and meditation. In the scientific literature there is however a lack of evaluation of mindfulness teachers and how to teach mindfulness meditation effectively. This study aims at providing deeper insight of the importance of the teachers in the field of mindfulness and meditation and it investigates how mindfulness and meditation teachers describe the prerequisites for teaching mindfulness and meditation.

    Method: The method of Thematic Analysis, TA, was utilized to analyse the data from semi-structured interviews conducted with twelve experienced teachers, from different mindfulness and meditation traditions. The participants are mindfulness and meditation teachers from either within the Buddhist, secular or both Buddhist and secular contexts.

    Results: The analysis resulted in three main themes and nine subthemes, such as for example the main theme; Teacher qualification with subthemes; Becoming teacher, Being teacher, Pedagogic skills and Social skills. The results suggest a flexible and pragmatic view on how mindfulness and meditation teaching should be provided. Instead of a fixed set of requirements for the teacher and the student, what makes mindfulness and meditation teaching effective has to do with the ability to recognize the potential in every unique situation with an understanding of the impermanent and interdependent relationship between teacher, student and context.

    Conclusion: Being and becoming a teacher is a continuous process and anyone can assume the role of mindfulness and meditation teacher. It is dependent on the students and the context. A formalized education is not a prerequisite but what is required is sufficient compassion and insight. For the teacher’s compassion and insight to ripen and for the student to learn, non-ideal conditions and suffering, is required and it is helpful with supportive fellow practitioners, teachers, especially if they themselves practice what they teach and share what they know.

  • 2. Ahtinen, Aino
    et al.
    Mattila, Elina
    Välkkynen, Pasi
    Kaipainen, Kirsikka
    Vanhala, Toni
    Ermes, Miikka
    Sairanen, Essi
    Department of Psychology, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Myllymäki, Tero
    Lappalainen, Raimo
    Mobile mental wellness training for stress management: feasibility and design implications based on a one-month field study.2013Inngår i: JMIR mHealth and uHealth, ISSN 2291-5222, Vol. 1, nr 2, artikkel-id e11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Prevention and management of work-related stress and related mental problems is a great challenge. Mobile applications are a promising way to integrate prevention strategies into the everyday lives of citizens.

    OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study was to study the usage, acceptance, and usefulness of a mobile mental wellness training application among working-age individuals, and to derive preliminary design implications for mobile apps for stress management.

    METHODS: Oiva, a mobile app based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), was designed to support active learning of skills related to mental wellness through brief ACT-based exercises in the daily life. A one-month field study with 15 working-age participants was organized to study the usage, acceptance, and usefulness of Oiva. The usage of Oiva was studied based on the usage log files of the application. Changes in wellness were measured by three validated questionnaires on stress, satisfaction with life (SWLS), and psychological flexibility (AAQ-II) at the beginning and at end of the study and by user experience questionnaires after one week's and one month's use. In-depth user experience interviews were conducted after one month's use to study the acceptance and user experiences of Oiva.

    RESULTS: Oiva was used actively throughout the study. The average number of usage sessions was 16.8 (SD 2.4) and the total usage time per participant was 3 hours 12 minutes (SD 99 minutes). Significant pre-post improvements were obtained in stress ratings (mean 3.1 SD 0.2 vs mean 2.5 SD 0.1, P=.003) and satisfaction with life scores (mean 23.1 SD 1.3 vs mean 25.9 SD 0.8, P=.02), but not in psychological flexibility. Oiva was perceived easy to use, acceptable, and useful by the participants. A randomized controlled trial is ongoing to evaluate the effectiveness of Oiva on working-age individuals with stress problems.

    CONCLUSIONS: A feasibility study of Oiva mobile mental wellness training app showed good acceptability, usefulness, and engagement among the working-age participants, and provided increased understanding on the essential features of mobile apps for stress management. Five design implications were derived based on the qualitative findings: (1) provide exercises for everyday life, (2) find proper place and time for challenging content, (3) focus on self-improvement and learning instead of external rewards, (4) guide gently but do not restrict choice, and (5) provide an easy and flexible tool for self-reflection.

  • 3.
    Anclair, Malin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier.
    Cognitive behavioural therapy and mindfulness for health-related quality of life: Comparing treatments for parents of children with chronic conditions: A pilot feasibility study2017Inngår i: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health, ISSN 1745-0179, E-ISSN 1745-0179, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 1-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research on parents of children with chronic conditions has shown that this parent group frequently suffers from psychological problems such as deteriorating life quality and stress-related disorders. Objective: The present feasibility study focuses on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) and life satisfaction of parents of children with chronic conditions. Method: The study was conducted using a repeated measures design and applied either group-based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT; n = 10) or a group-based mindfulness programme (MF; n = 9). The study participants were wait-listed for six months. Results:The results indicate improvements for participants in both treatment groups regarding certain areas of HRQOL and life satisfaction. After eight group therapy sessions, parents in the two treatment groups significantly improved their Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores as well as their scores on the mental subscales Vitality, Social functioning, Role emotional and Mental health. In addition, some of the physical subscales, Role physical, Bodily pain and General health, showed considerable improvement for the MF group. When testing for clinical significance by comparing the samples with mean values of a norm population, the MCS scores were significantly lower at pre-measurements, but no significant differences were observed post-measurement. For the Physical component summary (PCS) scores, a significantly higher score was observed at post-measurement when compared to the norm population. Moreover, the results indicate improvement in life satisfaction regarding Spare time, Relation to child and Relation to partner. Conclusion: The study concludes that CBT and mindfulness may have a positive effect on areas of HRQOL and life satisfaction.

  • 4.
    Anclair, Malin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013).
    Lappalainen, Raimo
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Muotka, Joona
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013).
    Cognitive behavioural therapy and mindfulness for stress and burnout: a waiting list controlled pilot study comparing treatments for parents of children with chronic conditions2018Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 32, nr 1, s. 389-396Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Parents of children with chronic conditions often experience a crisis with serious mental health problems for themselves as a consequence. The healthcare focus is on the children; however, the parents often worry about their children's health and future but are seldom offered any counselling or guidance.

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of two group-based behavioural interventions on stress and burnout among parents of children with chronic conditions.

    Design, participants and setting

    After a waiting list control period (n = 28), parents were offered either a cognitive behavioural (CBT, n = 10) or a mindfulness program (MF, n = 9).

    Results

    Both interventions decreased significantly stress and burnout. The within-group effect sizes were large in both interventions (CBT, g = 1.28–1.64; MF, g = 1.25–2.20).

    Conclusions

    Hence, the results of this pilot study show that treating a group using either CBT or mindfulness can be an efficient intervention for reducing stress levels and burnout in parents of children with chronic conditions.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013).
    Persson, Mari
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013).
    Psychoactive substances as a last resort—a qualitative study of self-treatment of migraine and cluster headaches2017Inngår i: Harm Reduction Journal, ISSN 1477-7517, E-ISSN 1477-7517, Vol. 14, nr 60Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Treatment resistant cluster headache and migraine patients are exploring alternative treatments online. The aim of this study was to improve comprehension regarding the use of non-established or alternative pharmacological treatments used by sufferers of cluster headaches and migraines.

    Methods: A qualitative thematic analysis of the users’ own accounts presented in online forum discussions were conducted. The forum boards https://shroomery.org/, http://bluelight.org, and https://clusterbusters.org/ met the inclusion criteria and were used for the study.

    Results: The analysis resulted in six themes: a desperate need for effective treatments; the role of the forum—finding alternative treatments and community support; alternative treatment substances; dosage and regimens; effects and treatment results; and adverse effects. The results provide an insight into why, how, and by which substances and methods sufferers seek relief from cluster headache and migraines.

    Conclusions: These patients are in a desperate and vulnerable situation, and illicit psychoactive substances are often considered a last resort. There appeared to be little or no interest in psychoactive effects per se as these were rather tolerated or avoided by using sub-psychoactive doses. Primarily, psilocybin, lysergic acid diethylamide, and related psychedelic tryptamines were reportedly effective for both prophylactic and acute treatment of cluster headache and migraines. Treatment results with cannabis were more unpredictable. No severe adverse events were reported, but it was observed how desperation sometimes spurred risky behavior when obtaining and testing various treatment alternatives. The forum discourse mainly revolved around maximizing treatment results and minimizing potential harms. 

  • 6.
    Beckman, Linda
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013).
    Hellström, Lisa
    Department of School Development and Leadership, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    von Kobyletzki, Laura Beate
    Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Department of Dermatology, Malmö, Sweden.
    Cyber bullying among children with neurodevelopmental disorders: A systematic review2019Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Children and young adults with neurodevelopmental disorders (ND) are at increased risk of bullying compared to typically developing peers. It is still unclear to what extent they are involved in cyber bullying. This systematic review aimed at studying the prevalence of cyber bullying as perpetrators, victims, or both (“bully-victims”) among students with ND in a school setting and in need of special education. The Web of Science, Scopus, ERIC, PsycINFO, PubMED, and Cochrane databases were searched including a manual search of reference lists, until February 24, 2018. Eight studies conducted in Europe, North America, the Middle East, and Australia were included reporting a prevalence of cyber-victimization among students with ND of 0%–41%, a prevalence of cyber-perpetration of 0%–16.7%, and a prevalence of bully-victims of 6.7%. Three out of five studies using control groups showed that students with ND might be more involved in cyber bullying overall compared to typically developing students. Students in segregated school settings report slightly higher prevalence rates of cyber bullying compared to students with ND in inclusive school settings, especially among girls. When comparing prevalence rates among studies using the same definition, we found similar prevalence rates. There was a tendency towards students with ND being more involved in cyber bullying compared to typically developing students, but this needs to be confirmed in future studies that should include control groups with typically developing students as well as validated and standardized measurements of cyber bullying and ND diagnoses. © 2019 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  • 7.
    Bjurbäck, Linda
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier.
    Beslutsfattande: Experimentell studie i konsumentpsykologi gällande beslutsfattande i kognitivt belastat tillstånd2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    En experimentell studie har genomförts på Karlstads universitet. Genom en oberoende mätning genomfördes tester på 149 deltagare varav 75 män och 74 kvinnor deltog. Studien hade som huvudsyfte att undersöka hur kognitiv utarmning påverkade beteendet vid beslutsfattande. Deltagarna randomiserades i tre olika betingelser. Varje betingelse bestod av tre olika heuristiks varav den första var Good-enough, det vill säga att deltagaren fattade ett beslut gällande en produkt som var bra nog men inte mer än det. Den andra heuristiken var Specifik, deltagarna i denna grupp fick i uppgift att hitta en specifik produkt. Den tredje heuristiken var Take-the-best, deltagarna fick i uppgift att genomföra ett produktval som de ansåg var den bästa produkten. Efter dessa val genomfördes ett strooptest på samtliga deltagare, för att sedan genomföra ytterligare två beslut utan heuristiker och endast med riktlinjen vad de själva kan tänkas köpa. Den aktuella studien kunde påvisa en signifikant skillnad mellan grupperna. Resultatet tyder på att den grupp som utsatts för störst kognitiv utarmning och således belastning var den grupp som tog längst tid på sig för att genomföra ett beslut.

     

    Nyckelord: Kognitiv utarming, belutsfattande, beteende, heuristiker, konsumentpsykologi

  • 8.
    Bäccman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier.
    Fredrik, Hjärthag
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier.
    Almkvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier.
    Improved resilience and well-being in a Swedish Naval Force after a counter piracy operation off the coast of SomaliaManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Draxler, Helena
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Hiltunen, Arto
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    A modification of enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy for Anorexia Nervosa – a case study2012Inngår i: Clinical Case Studies, ISSN 1534-6501, E-ISSN 1552-3802, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 201-217Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study illustrates the treatment of an adult woman who was diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN). For approximately 10 years, the client had suffered from various forms of eating disorders and had had several unsuccessful encounters with the health care services. In this study, she was treated with a modification of enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-E). CBT-E is a relatively new treatment guide with a transdiagnostic perspective on eating disorders. In all, the treatment consisted of 14 sessions where most sessions were held on a weekly basis. Thereafter, a maintenance and follow-up was conducted via email and with the aid of self-help literature. Treatment time lasted for 8 months followed by a follow-up of 4 months. In this study, the content of each session is described, as are the modifications that were made. The modifications were made to increase motivation and self-esteem, as well as perceived control of eating, which, in itself, is a contribution to increased efficiency and a clarification of important treatment components. Apart from a description of treatment interventions, the study shows the weight gain and other clinically significant components regarding eating disorders that concern, among other things, self-esteem and general mental health. The results of this study demonstrate that this treatment, with the proposed modifications, has been highly effective for this client and hence provides a positive anticipation that this might be a more effective treatment in general for people with AN.

  • 10.
    Draxler, Helena
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013).
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013).
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013).
    Replicability of effect when transferring a supportive programme for parents exposed to intimate partner violence and their children from the US to Sweden2019Inngår i: Child Care in Practice, ISSN 1357-5279, E-ISSN 1476-489X, Vol. 25, nr 4, s. 367-382Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Transferring an evidence-based parenting programme for parents exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) and their children with emotional and behavioural problems reveals the extent to which cultural and social aspects can interfere with the programme’s effectiveness. Feasibility studies are of value in such circumstances, and the aim of the present feasibility study was to explore, on a small scale and in its natural context, whether the effects of the parenting programme, Project Support, were replicable when transferred to another country. In this study, the programme, which was originally designed for parents exposed to IPV and their children who had developed psychological symptoms in the United States, was evaluated in an equivalent population receiving Swedish social services. Parents (n = 35) self-assessed their parenting capacity and their children’s (n = 35) psychological symptoms. The results indicate that the parents improved their parenting capacity, and feelings of helplessness and fear regarding parenting their children decreased. Those feelings were also associated with the children’s psychological symptoms. The promising results are similar to the findings of previous research from the US, and further implementation and evaluation of Project Support in Sweden are indicated.

  • 11.
    Edebol, Hanna
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Global Assessment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Examining Objective Measures of Hyperactivity, Impulsivity and Inattention in Adults2012Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to examine objective laboratory measures of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adult persons and to develop measures for diagnosis and treatment using a psychometric instrument called the Quantified Behavior Test Plus. The instrument objectively quantifies cardinal symptom manifestations in adult ADHD using motion tracking devices and continuous performance testing. Paper I-IV suggest that ADHD predisposes adult persons to perform poorer on continuous performance tasks and to have higher levels of motor activity while performing these tasks as compared to other clinical as well as non-clinical groups. Performance by adults with ADHD is normalized following stimulant treatment which implicates therapeutic effects and measures of response to treatment and remission for ADHD is suggested.

    Paper I concludes that the psychometric instrument needs to be calibrated with regard to adult ADHD and emphasizes the importance of a composite measure for the disorder. Paper II generates two new measures, the Weighed Core Symptom scale (WCS) - a composite measure of adult ADHD ranging from 0 to 100, and Prediction of ADHD (PADHD) - a categorical variable of the diagnostic status with good predictive power. A majority of participants with ADHD has low points on WCS (indicating high levels of symptoms) and a majority of non-ADHD normative participants has high points on WCS (indicating low levels of symptoms). Paper III examines WCS and PADHD among complex clinical groups with shared symptoms vis-à-vis ADHD. Here, findings from Paper II are replicated since participants with ADHD present the highest level of global symptoms, followed by participants with bipolar II disorder and borderline personality disorder, participant with diconfirmed ADHD and finally, non-clinical participants has the lowest level of global symptoms. In Paper IV, the measures are proposed as indications of response to treatment and remission after titration with stimulant treatment and WCS indicates response to small changes in dose level.

    The major findings of the present thesis may be summarized as the construction of two new objective measures for ADHD in adult persons with practical implications for diagnosis and treatment. Hyperactivity is the most specific marker of ADHD in both men and women, followed by the cognitive markers of inattention and impulsivity. The composite measure, WCS, quantifies the global amount of ADHD symptoms and provides the most sensitive measure for the disorder. PADHD and WCS may not replace a thorough neuropsychiatric assessment and further studies promoting diagnostic subtype stratification is suggested. Future studies may want to consider these measures in outcome-based investigations of treatment efficacy as well as in the study of neuropsychological endophenotypes. Practical implications include clinical strategies to enhance objectivity during assessment as well as optimizing beneficial effects of treatment and attaining remission.

     

     

  • 12.
    Edebol, Hanna
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Helldin, Lars
    The NU-Health Care, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för psykologi. Division of Psychology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Objective measures of behavior manifestations in adult ADHD and differentiation from participants with Bipolar II disorder, Borderline personality disorder, participants with disconfirmed ADHD as well as Normative participants2012Inngår i: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health, ISSN 1745-0179, E-ISSN 1745-0179, Vol. 8, s. 134-143Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The present study evaluated two psychometric instruments derived from the objective measurement of adult ADHD using the Quantified Behavior Test Plus. The instruments were examined in ADHD versus a clinical group with overlapping symptoms including borderline personality disorder and bipolar II disorder, and another clinical group with participants assessed for but disconfirmed a diagnosis of ADHD as well as adult normative participants.

    Methods: The Quantified Behavior Test Plus includes Continuous Performance Testing and a Motion Tracking System with parameters related to attention and activity operationalized as the cardinal symptoms of ADHD and then summarized into a Weighed Core Symptoms scale with ten cut-points ranging from 0 to 100. A categorical predictor variable called Prediction of ADHD was used to examine the levels of sensitivity and specificity for the Quantified Behavior Test Plus with regard to ADHD.

    Results: The Weighed Core Symptoms scale separated ADHD and normative participants from each other as well as from the two clinical reference groups. The scale reported highest levels of core symptoms in the ADHD group and the lowest level of core symptoms in the normative group. Analyses with Prediction of ADHD yielded 85 % specificity for the normative group, 87 % sensitivity for the ADHD group, 36 % sensitivity for the bipolar II and borderline group and 41 % sensitivity for the group with a disconfirmed diagnosis of ADHD.

    Conclusions: The Weighed Core Symptoms scale facilitated objective assessment of adult ADHD insofar that the ADHD group presented more core symptoms than the other two clinical groups and the normative group. Sensitivity for the Quantified Behavior Test Plus was lower in complex clinical groups with Bipolar II disorder, Borderline disorder and in patients with a disconfirmed diagnosis of ADHD. The psychometric instruments may be further evaluated with regard to well-documented and effective treatment programs for ADHD core symptoms.

  • 13.
    Ek, Hans
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier.
    Psychological Factors Behind Truancy, School Phobia, and School Refusal: A Literature Study2013Inngår i: Child & family behavior therapy (Print), ISSN 0731-7107, E-ISSN 1545-228X, Vol. 35, nr 3, s. 228-248Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Truancy is a problem that normally leads to treatment interventions within different organizations. Within these organizations different perspectives on the causes and consequences of the above problem can be found. The purpose of this literature study is to map out and describe the current state of research within the fields of school refusal, truancy, and school phobia. The investigation was carried out in the form of a systematic review of the relevant research literature. Research shows that approximately 90% of all young people who refuse to go to school have some form of psychiatric diagnosis.

  • 14.
    Ellonen, Noora
    et al.
    University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Lucas, Steven
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala Sweden.
    Tindberg, Ylva
    Department of Women's and Children's Health and Centre for Clinical Research Sörmland, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013).
    Parents' Self-Reported Use of Corporal Punishment and Other Humiliating Upbringing Practices in Finland and Sweden: A Comparative Study2017Inngår i: Child Abuse Review, ISSN 0952-9136, E-ISSN 1099-0852, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 289-304Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden and Finland were the first countries to ban corporal punishment 30years ago. Since then, the prevalence of attitudes supporting the use of corporal punishment and the practice itself have decreased. This study examines the current frequencies of corporal punishment and other humiliating upbringing practices in Finnish and Swedish families. The analysis is based on survey data among 3170 Finnish and 1358 Swedish parents with children from newborn to 12years of age. Data were analysed using univariate tests (chi-square) and logistic regression. According to the analysis, a larger proportion of Finnish parents, and especially mothers, use humiliating upbringing practices compared to Swedish parents. This difference is not found with regard to corporal punishment. A larger proportion of Finnish parents push their children compared to Swedish parents, while a larger proportion of Swedish parents shake their children. In both countries, corporal punishment is more frequently used by fathers, boys are more often victimised than girls, toddlers are more often exposed to corporal punishment and school-age children are more often subjected to psychologically abusive practices. Corporal punishment and other humiliating upbringing practices are strongly correlated in both countries. The differences found between countries were not explained by socio-demographic factors.

  • 15.
    Englund, Johanna
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier.
    Dyslektikers upplevelser i vardagen: En fenomenologisk studie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att beskriva dyslektiker upplevelser vardagen då tidigare studier till största del har varit av en kvantitativ karaktär eller inte täckt av vardagsperspektivet. Detta för att ge en ökad kunskap och förstålese som sedan kan hjälpa dyslektiker, anhöriga och samhället i stort. För att uppfylla syftet valdes en kvalitativ metod utifrån ett fenomenologiskt perspektiv där data samlades in genom intervjuer och analyserades med hjälp av Interpretative Phenomenological Anaysis (IPA).

    Undersökningen bestod av fem stycken kvinnor i åldrarna 20-30 år som själva har blivit diagnostiserade med dyslexi där sysselsättning varierade mellan arbetssökande, studerande och fast anställda.

    Studiens analys resulterade i fyra teman: hantering av tillvaron, personliga behov, orättvisa och tillhörighet. Detta diskuteras utifrån tidigare forskning och teorier så som till exempel utvecklingspsykologins betydelse på individen, självkänsla, kognitiva förmågor och copingstrategier.

  • 16.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier. Försvarshögskolan, Ledarskapscentrum.
    Military Leaders and Trust2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to study trust in military leaders. Empirical data was gathered through interviews and questionnaires with military personnel mostly from Sweden, but also from four other European countries.

    Paper I illustrates that trust in military leaders can be theoretically understood in terms of a hierarchical system of categories, higher-level categories and two superior categories labelled Individual-related and Communication- and relationship-related characteristics.

    Paper II examines how trust between military leaders and their subordinates is related to negative critical incidents in international operations. The results show that trust can be affected by pre-existing influences, of both an individual and contextual nature. The level of trust that develops between leaders and subordinates appears to have an influence on perceptions and re-evaluations of leaders’ trustworthiness during and after involvement in critical incidents.

    In Paper III, an instrument, Destrudo-L, was developed to measure destructive leadership behaviours on five different dimensions: Arrogant, unfair, Threats, punishments, overdemands, Ego-oriented, false, Passive, cowardly, and Uncertain, unclear, messy.

    In Paper IV the relationship between constructive and destructive leadership behaviours and trust is examined. The results show that constructive leadership contributed most to trust in the immediate supervisor. A great deal of trust in immediate supervisors can be understood by evaluating both constructive and destructive leadership behaviours.

    This thesis contributes with context-specific knowledge on trust in leaders in a military context and knowledge of psychological processes and individual dispositions that shape and change the willingness to trust leaders. The main findings presented in this thesis are the identification of characteristics of the trustor, the trustee, and the context which influences trust in military leaders.

  • 17.
    Fors Brandebo, Maria
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan, Ledarskapscentrum.
    Sjöberg, Misa
    Försvarshögskolan, Ledarskapscentrum.
    Larsson, Gerry
    Försvarshögskolan, Ledarskapscentrum.
    Eid, Jarle
    Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Kjellevold Olsen, Olav
    Department of Leadership Development, Royal Norwegian Naval Academy, Bergen, Norway.
    Trust in a military context: What contributes to trust in superior and subordinate leaders?2013Inngår i: Journal of Trust Research, ISSN 2151-5581, E-ISSN 2151-559X, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 125-145Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to explore which components military personnel in peacekeeping operations perceive as contributing to trust in their superior and subordinate leaders during international or national operations or exercises. Data were collected among 591 military officers and cadets from Norway and Sweden using a questionnaire with open-ended questions. Two superior categories emerged: Individual-Related Characteristics and Communication- and Relationship-Related Characteristics. The former is made up of the higher-level categories Personal attributes and Experience and competence. The latter is derived from the higher-level categories Consideration and inspiration and Effective communication. In turn, all higher-level categories are underpinned by a number of subcategories (13 altogether). When comparing trust in superior leaders with trust in subordinate leaders, the results show that trust in superiors is characterised to a greater extent by Communication- and Relationship-related characteristics and also by Experience and professional knowledge. Trust in subordinate leaders is characterised to a greater extent by Personal attributes and Management competence.

  • 18.
    Friedl, Jenny
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Huvud eller Hjärta?: Mönster i affektiva och kognitiva reaktioner i förhållande tillindividens prioriterade sätt att hantera information och situationeri en oförutsedd situation2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Studien undersökte hur deltagarna affektivt och kognitivt upplever en fallbeskrivning som simulerar en oförutsedd situation i en kontorsmiljö. Det beskrivna fallet handlar om en personalfråga och kräver ett omedelbart beslut eftersom en försening kanske inte bara påverkar arbetsprestationen och klimatet i organisationen, men också kan leda till att organisationen förlorar ett kontrakt med en långsiktig inkomst.Method/DesignStudien är en explorativ och oberoende design som genomfördes vid Karlstads universitet. Deltagarna var 72 studenter i två olika kurser, personal- och arbetsliv och psykologi. Data för denna undersökning samlades in genom en enkät som mätte deltagarnas kognitiva (Situationsuppfattning efter Kleins RPD-modellen, 1993) och affektiva reaktioner (PANAS, Watson, Clark, & Tellegen 1985) på fallbeskrivningen. Den affektiva och kognitiva reaktionen backades upp av två tester som mäter en persons priorierade sätt att bearbeta information (PMPI, Burns och D'Zurilla, 1999) och att hantera situationer (Personal Temperament efter MBTI-skala). Ytterligare ingick deltagarnas demografiska data såsom ålder, kön och utbildningsnivå samt frågor om deltagarnas erfarenheter med oförutsedda situationer.ResultatResultatet visar en signifikant skillnad mellan deltagarna i personal- och arbetsvetenskap och psykologi i sin kognitiva reaktion för den oförutsedda situationen. Deltagare med en högre positiv och negativ affekiv respons visade ett signifikant högre värde i sin rationell-analytisk informationsbearbetning. Det personliga temperament-testet visade sig att vara inte valide.SlutsatsMänniskor bearbetar och bedömar situationer genom två olika sätt: med sitt hjärta och sitt huvud. Inget sätt är överläget de andra, eftersom varje sätt har viktiga fördelar och nackdelar. Endast genom att kombinera båda sätten framgångsrikt kan vi fatta beslut som kommer att leda till positiva utfall.

  • 19.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Ettema, Dick
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, SAMOT.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för psykologi. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för tjänsteforskning. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, SAMOT.
    A happy work commute2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 20.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, SAMOT. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för tjänsteforskning. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, SAMOT. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013).
    Ettema, Dick
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för tjänsteforskning. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för psykologi. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, SAMOT. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013).
    How does travel affect emotional well-being and life satisfaction?2017Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 106, s. 170-180Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has investigated satisfaction with work commutes. We extend this research by investigating whether satisfaction with all daily travel (including work commutes, school, leisure, and shopping trips) is related to life satisfaction and emotional well-being. A random sample of 367 participants was recruited from three urban areas in Sweden (Karlstad, Goteborg, and Stockholm) varying from a small (appr. 90,000 residents) through a medium (appr. 550,000 residents) to a large population size (appr. 925,000 residents). In a questionnaire the participants reported retrospectively their satisfaction with all daily travel, life satisfaction, and emotional well-being. Direct and indirect effects of travel satisfaction on life satisfaction and emotional well-being were analysed with PLS-SEM. Results showed that satisfaction with daily travel directly influences emotional well-being and both directly and indirectly life satisfaction. It is also found that driving and active modes have more positive effects than public transport.

  • 21.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, SAMOT. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för psykologi. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för tjänsteforskning.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för psykologi. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för tjänsteforskning. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, SAMOT.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, SAMOT.
    Ettema, Dick
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Life Satisfaction and Satisfaction with the Work Commute2012Inngår i: Proceedings abstractbook ICTTP 2012: The 5th international conference on traffic and transport psychology, 29-31 August 2012, Groningen, The Netherlands, 2012, s. 38-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In a mail survey of 951 residents of three urban areas of Sweden, satisfaction with their most recent work commutes was measured using self-report rating scales developed in previous research. The ratings were aggregated to index measures of two affective (stressed versus relaxed, alert versus sleepy) and one cognitive (high versus low standard) satisfaction component. Positive correlations were demonstrated with a measure of affect balance constructed from self-reports from memory of frequency times intensity of daily negative affects experienced last month subtracted from frequency times intensity of daily positive affects experienced last month. The affect balance measure was in turn positively correlated with ratings of overall life satisfaction. The results also showed that feelings during the work commutes were predominantly positive or neutral. Explanatory factors include desirable physical exercise from walking and biking, as well as that short commutes provide a buffer between the work and private spheres. For longer work commutes, social and entertainment activities would either increase positive affects or counteract stress and boredom.

  • 22.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013).
    Waygood, E.O.D
    Mitra, R
    Transportation and Children’s Wellbeing: Future directions2019Inngår i: Transportation and Children's Well-Being / [ed] Owen Waygood, Margareta Friman, Lars Olsson & Raktim Mitra ., Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2019Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 23.
    Gustafsschöld, Denise
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier.
    Hunden som familjemedlem: En kvalitativ undersökning om hundägares uppfattning och tolkning av hundars personlighet2014Student paper second term, 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie genomfördes med syfte att undersöka hur hundägare uppfattar och förstår sina hundars personlighet. Urvalet bestod av hundägare i Karlstadområdet, vilka levde tillsammans med sin hund och inte var utbildade inom ”hund-ämnet”.

    Kvalitativa intervjuer användes för att samla in data, vilka sedan transkriberades och analyserades med hjälp av en tematisk analys. Resultatet tydde på att hundägare har svårt att skilja personlighetsdrag från beteenden, många människoliknande egenskaper tillskrevs hunden. Positiva egenskaper hos hunden motiverades utifrån hundens inre (dess personlighet eller sinnestillstånd) medan negativa egenskaper tenderade att förklaras genom yttre faktorer i hundens omgivning. 

  • 24.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Skoog, Thérese
    The mediational role of stress in the relation between optimism and burnout in competitive athletes2012Inngår i: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, ISSN 1061-5806, E-ISSN 1477-2205, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 183-199-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 25.
    Gärling, Tommy
    et al.
    Göteborg University.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT.
    A behavioural perspective on voluntary reduction of private car use2012Inngår i: Keep moving towards sustainable mobility / [ed] Bert Van Wee, The Netherlands: Eleven International Publishing , 2012, s. 109-134Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 26.
    Gärling, Tommy
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, SAMOT.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, SAMOT. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för psykologi. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för tjänsteforskning.
    Ettema, Dick
    Suzuki, Haruna
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för psykologi. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för tjänsteforskning. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, SAMOT.
    Preferences Aggregated for Sequences of Events2012Inngår i: International Journal of Psychology. Special Issue XXX International Congress of Psychology "Research Area: Consumer/Economic", Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, Vol. 47, nr 179, s. 113-114Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 27.
    Gärling, Tommy
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, SAMOT.
    Suzuki, Haruna
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Ettema, Dick
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för psykologi. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, SAMOT.
    Tillfredställelse med hela arbetsresan baserat på tillfredsställelse med dess delar2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 28.
    Hansson, Rickard
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier.
    Svenska upplevelser av spice: En kvalitativ studie av upplevelser av spice på ett svenskt internet forum2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 29.
    Hawar, Moradi
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet.
    Olsson, Anna-Karin
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013). NU Health Care Hospital, Karlstad University.
    Hjärthag, Fredrik
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013).
    Johansson, Madeleine
    NU Health Care Hospital.
    Olsson-Tall, Maivor
    NU Health Care Hospitaly.
    Helldin, Lars
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013). NU Health Care Hospital.
    Traditional Risk Factors Not Enough To Explain The Short Lifetime Expectancy In Patients With Schizophrenia2018Inngår i: Schizophrenia Bulletin, ISSN 0586-7614, E-ISSN 1745-1701, Vol. 44, s. S159-S159Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 30.
    Jansson-Fröjmark, Markus
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Harvey, Allison G.
    Psychology Department, Berkeley University.
    Norell-Clarke, Annika
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Linton, Steven J.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Associations between psychological factors and night-time/daytime symptomatology in insomnia2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Cognitive models of insomnia underscore cognitive mechanisms as important in the maintenance of insomnia. The aim of this study was to examine psychological factors in insomnia and the association between psychological mechanisms with night-time and daytime symptoms.

    Methods: In a cross-sectional examination, participants (n = 2327) from a randomly selected sample of the general population completed a survey on demographic parameters, night-time symptoms, daytime impairment, health outcomes, and psychological factors intended to index five cognitive processes (Harvey, 2002). Excluding those with a sleep disorder other than insomnia, the study sample consisted of 1890 participants.  

    Results: Relative to poor and normal sleepers, the insomnia group scored higher on worry, beliefs, physiologic arousal, monitoring/attentional bias, and safety behaviours relative to the other two groups, and the poor sleepers exhibited a similar pattern relative to the normal sleepers. High total wake time was associated with more worry, physiologic arousal, and safety behaviours (26.3% variance), low sleep restoration with more worry, unhelpful beliefs, and monitoring/attentional bias (28.2% variance), and low sleep quality with higher scores on all the psychological mechanisms (35.8% variance). Elevated daytime symptoms were related to more unhelpful beliefs and monitoring/attentional bias (44.3% variance).

    Conclusion: The findings show that psychological factors discriminate those with insomnia from those with poor or normal sleep. The results also indicate that psychological factors are linked to insomnia-specific night-time and daytime symptomatology.

  • 31.
    Jonsson, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier.
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier.
    Curing the sick and creating supermen - How relaxation in flotation tank is advertised on the Internet2014Inngår i: European Journal of Integrative Medicine, ISSN 1876-3820, E-ISSN 1876-3839, Vol. 6, nr 5, s. 601-609Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 32.
    Järvelä-Reijonen, Elina
    et al.
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Karhunen, Leila
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland; University Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Sairanen, Essi
    University Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Rantala, Sanni
    University Helsinki, Finland.
    Laitinen, Jaana
    Finnish Institute Occupational Health, Finland.
    Puttonen, Sampsa
    Finnish Institute Occupational Health, Finland.
    Peuhkuri, Katri
    University Helsinki, Finland.
    Hallikainen, Maarit
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Juvonen, Kristiina
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Myllymäki, Tero
    University Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Föhr, Tiina
    University Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Pihlajamäki, Jussi
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland; University Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Korpela, Riitta
    University Helsinki, Finland.
    Ermes, Miikka
    VTT Tech Res Ctr, Finland.
    Lappalainen, Raimo
    University Helsinki, Finland.
    Kolehmainen, Marjukka
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland; University Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    High perceived stress is associated with unfavorable eating behavior in overweight and obese Finns of working age.2016Inngår i: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 103, s. 249-258, artikkel-id S0195-6663(16)30144-1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress-related eating may be a potential factor in the obesity epidemic. Rather little is known about how stress associates with eating behavior and food intake in overweight individuals in a free-living situation. Thus, the present study aims to investigate this question in psychologically distressed overweight and obese working-aged Finns. The study is a cross-sectional baseline analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Of the 339 study participants, those with all the needed data available (n = 297, 84% females) were included. The mean age was 48.9 y (SD = 7.6) and mean body mass index 31.3 kg/m(2) (SD = 3.0). Perceived stress and eating behavior were assessed by self-reported questionnaires Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Intuitive Eating Scale, the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, Health and Taste Attitude Scales and ecSatter Inventory. Diet and alcohol consumption were assessed by 48-h dietary recall, Index of Diet Quality, and AUDIT-C. Individuals reporting most perceived stress (i.e. in the highest PSS tertile) had less intuitive eating, more uncontrolled eating, and more emotional eating compared to those reporting less perceived stress (p < 0.05). Moreover, individuals in the highest PSS tertile reported less cognitive restraint and less eating competence than those in the lowest tertile (p < 0.05). Intake of whole grain products was the lowest among those in the highest PSS tertile (p < 0.05). Otherwise the quality of diet and alcohol consumption did not differ among the PSS tertiles. In conclusion, high perceived stress was associated with the features of eating behavior that could in turn contribute to difficulties in weight management. Stress-related way of eating could thus form a potential risk factor for obesity. More research is needed to develop efficient methods for clinicians to assist in handling stress-related eating in the treatment of obese people.

  • 33.
    Karlsson, Frida
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013).
    Att arbeta med elevhälsa på gymnasieskolan: En kvalitativ undersökning om den upplevda arbetssituationen för skolsköterskor och skolkuratorer på gymnasieskolan2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning visar att ungas psykiska hälsa blir allt sämre och de statliga myndigheterna rekommenderas att förstärka elevhälsan. Samtidigt satsas det mycket pengar på forskning i ämnet och det sker en ständig omarbetning inom elevhälsan. Denna studies syfte var att undersöka hur personalen i elevhälsan upplever sin arbetssituation med tanke på hur den nuvarande situationen kring ungdomars psykiska hälsa presenteras. Studien genomfördes kvalitativt med hjälp av intervjuer som analyserades genom en tematisk analys. Tolv stycken anställda inom elevhälsa deltog i studien varav hälften var skolsköterskor och hälften var skolkuratorer på gymnasieskolor i Mellansverige. Resultatet som framkom består av tre teman vid namn; Trivsel och engagemang, Otillräcklighet och begränsning samt Beroende av samverkan. Samtliga respondenter talade om hur de drivs av att vilja göra skillnad och trivs med sina arbetsuppgifter. Majoriteten av respondenterna talade också om att de inte känner sig tillräckliga i sin yrkesroll då de skulle vilja se till att det görs mer. För att inte påverkas negativt av de tankarna har flertalet respondenter utarbetat strategier. Många nämnde ett behov av att kunna samarbeta med olika instanser både på och utanför skolan och känner sig beroende av högre instansers beslut med en önskan att kunna påverka dessa i större grad.    

  • 34.
    Kim, Yunhwan
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Glassman, Michael
    Department of Educational Studies, The Ohio State University, Columbus, United States.
    Williams, Michael Steven
    Department of Educational Studies, The Ohio State University, Columbus, United States.
    Connecting agents: engagement and motivation in online collaboration2015Inngår i: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 49, s. 333-342Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the relationship between social engagement and motivation to share knowledge in a hybrid college class using a web infused curriculum. Online social engagement, operationalized through concepts such as connectivity, social presence and social space has been an important topic of research in web based education for more than a decade. An important sub-text of this research is that online social engagement supports higher levels of collaboration. Students who feel comfortable with and connected to their online learning community are much more likely to be active participants in that community, working together to develop and build knowledge systems. Much of this research refers to the more social/participatory based educational theories of John Dewey and L.S. Vygotsky. There is though a second component of collaboration that helps drive community building in this theoretical frameworks; motivation to engage in a shared, relevant, goal oriented activity. While most theories on social engagement assume natural relationships between online social engagement and motivation to participate in a community, this relationship is not often discussed and examined very often. This paper specifically compares the relationship between classroom connectedness and motivation to share knowledge between students in a hybrid, web infused class and a more traditionally oriented class with a small web component. Analysis did find a highly significant relationship between connectedness and motivation to share knowledge in the hybrid class but not in the traditional class, suggesting an important relationship, but one based at least partially in targeted experience. 

  • 35.
    Kim, Yunhwan
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa (from 2013).
    Stattin, Håkan
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala.
    Parent-youth discussions about politics from age 13 to 28.2019Inngår i: Journal of applied developmental psychology, ISSN 0193-3973, E-ISSN 1873-7900, Vol. 62, s. 249-259Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been commonly assumed that post-adolescent youth have fewer political discussions with parents than doadolescents, due to transitional events in young adulthood and the emergence of new age-appropriate socializingagents, like peers, colleagues, and romantic partners. We proposed a contrasting view that post-adolescent youthhave more frequent political discussions with parents due to their increased political interest over time. Using anaccelerated longitudinal design (n=4286), we found that neither transitional events nor political discussionswith other socializing agents decreased political discussions with parents. The long-term developmental trajectoriesfor political discussions with parents and youth's own political interest showed a linear increase fromadolescence to young adulthood. Cross-lagged models showed that youth's political interest positively predictedpolitical discussions with parents over time and vice-versa. These findings indicate a need to see political discussionswith parents as a parent-youth bidirectional process.

  • 36.
    Kjellgren, Anette
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013).
    Henningsson, Helena
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013).
    Soussan, Christophe
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013).
    Fascination and social togetherness: Discussion about Spice smoking on a Swedish Internet forum2013Inngår i: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment, ISSN 1178-2218, E-ISSN 1178-2218, Vol. 7, s. 191-198Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Spice is a smoking mixture containing synthetic cannabinoids with psychoactive effects similar to herbal cannabis. It is sold on the Internet and has become popular among young people. The purpose of the present study was to investigate experiences of intoxication induced by Spice, as described on a Swedish internet-based discussion forum.

  • 37.
    Kristensson, Per
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för psykologi. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för tjänsteforskning.
    Magnusson, Peter R
    Handelshögskolan i Stockholm.
    Matthing, Jonas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för företagsekonomi. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för tjänsteforskning.
    Users as a hidden resource for creativity: Findings from an experimental study of user involvement2002Inngår i: Creativity and Innovation Management, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 55-61Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 38.
    Kylin, Camilla
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Adaptability through diversity?: A study of the Demands of Irregular Threats and Adaptability2012Inngår i: Leadership in Challenging Situations / [ed] Haas, H., Kernic, F., Plaschke, A., Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2012, s. 195-202Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 39. Lappalainen, Raimo
    et al.
    Sairanen, Essi
    Univ Jyvaskyla, Dept Psychol, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Järvelä, Elina
    Rantala, Sanni
    Korpela, Riitta
    Puttonen, Sampsa
    Kujala, Urho M
    Myllymäki, Tero
    Peuhkuri, Katri
    Mattila, Elina
    Kaipainen, Kirsikka
    Ahtinen, Aino
    Karhunen, Leila
    Pihlajamäki, Jussi
    Järnefelt, Heli
    Laitinen, Jaana
    Kutinlahti, Eija
    Saarelma, Osmo
    Ermes, Miikka
    Kolehmainen, Marjukka
    The effectiveness and applicability of different lifestyle interventions for enhancing wellbeing: the study design for a randomized controlled trial for persons with metabolic syndrome risk factors and psychological distress.2014Inngår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, artikkel-id 310Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Obesity and stress are among the most common lifestyle-related health problems. Most of the current disease prevention and management models are not satisfactorily cost-effective and hardly reach those who need them the most. Therefore, novel evidence-based controlled interventions are necessary to evaluate models for prevention and treatment based on self-management. This randomized controlled trial examines the effectiveness, applicability, and acceptability of different lifestyle interventions with individuals having symptoms of metabolic syndrome and psychological distress. The offered interventions are based on cognitive behavioral approaches, and are designed for enhancing general well-being and supporting personalized lifestyle changes.

    METHODS/DESIGN: 339 obese individuals reporting stress symptoms were recruited and randomized to either (1) a minimal contact web-guided Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-based (CBT) intervention including an approach of health assessment and coaching methods, (2) a mobile-guided intervention comprising of mindfulness, acceptance and value-based exercises, (3) a face-to-face group intervention using mindfulness, acceptance and value-based approach, or (4) a control group. The participants were measured three times during the study (pre = week 0, post = week 10, and follow-up = week 36). Psychological well-being, lifestyles and habits, eating behaviors, and user experiences were measured using online surveys. Laboratory measurements for physical well-being and general health were performed including e.g. liver function, thyroid glands, kidney function, blood lipids and glucose levels and body composition analysis. In addition, a 3-day ambulatory heart rate and 7-day movement data were collected for analyzing stress, recovery, physical activity, and sleep patterns. Food intake data were collected with a 48 -hour diet recall interview via telephone. Differences in the effects of the interventions would be examined using multiple-group modeling techniques, and effect-size calculations.

    DISCUSSION: This study will provide additional knowledge about the effects of three low intensity interventions for improving general well-being among individuals with obesity and stress symptoms. The study will show effects of two technology guided self-help interventions as well as effect of an acceptance and value-based brief group intervention. Those who might benefit from the aforesaid interventions will increase knowledge base to better understand what mechanisms facilitate effects of the interventions.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Clinical Trials NCT01738256, Registered 17 August, 2012.

  • 40.
    Linghag, Sophie
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för genusforskning (from 2013).
    Potential Managers’ Career Experiences: Men’s expectations and women’s hopes2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 41.
    Nordén, Tommy
    et al.
    Evidens Research and Development Centre, Göteborg.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Kjellgren, Anette
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Norlander, Torsten
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Involving clients and their relatives and friends in psychiatric care: Case managers' experiences of training in resource group assertive community training2012Inngår i: PsyCh Journal, ISSN 2046-0252, E-ISSN 2046-0260, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 15-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project was to do a qualitative study of an integrated and flexible ACT model, the Resource Group Assertive Community Treatment (RACT), as seen from the perspective of case managers in training. The resource group normally consists of the client, the case manager and other available personnel in the medical and support areas, as well as family members. Nineteen theses were randomly chosen from a set of 80 theses written by a group of Swedish trainee case managers. The exams were conducted as case studies and concerned 19 clients with psychotic problems, 11 men and 8 women. “The Empirical Phenomenological Psychological Method” was used in the analysis, which generated five overarching themes: (a) the RACT program; (b) the resource group; (c) the empowerment of the client; (d) progress in treatment; and (e) the case manager. These together constituted a “therapeutic circle,” in which methods and tools used within the RACT made it possible for the resource group to empower the clients who, as a result, experienced progress with treatment, during which the case manager was the unifying and connecting link.

  • 42.
    Norell-Clarke, Annika
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa. Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Hagquist, Curt
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för forskning om barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa.
    Psychosomatic problems in relation to alcohol use and physical exercise: A study between 1988 and 2011 among adolescents in Sweden2016Inngår i: Journal of Public Health, ISSN 2198-1833, E-ISSN 1613-2238, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 325-333Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim was to investigate the association between psychosomatic problems and lifestyle patterns of alcohol use and physical exercise in adolescence. Subject and Methods: Cross-sectional questionnaire data from 8 years of investigations (1988–2011) were used. The sample included over 20,000 adolescents (50 % girls), aged 15–16. Adolescents were divided into three groups depending on psychosomatic problem load: 10th, 11th–89th and 90th percentiles on the psychosomatic problems scale (PSP). A composite measure of alcohol use (frequent/rarely/never) and physical exercise (regular/little/never) was created, resulting in nine combinations of health-related behaviours, and used as dependent variable. Results: Multinomial regression analysis showed that those over the 90th percentile of the PSP had nearly 12 times higher odds of regular alcohol use combined with no exercise compared with those who had the least symptoms. The former subgroup also had higher odds of belonging to all suboptimal lifestyle categories. Those in the 11th–89th percentiles had increased, albeit smaller, odds of belonging to all lifestyle categories. Descriptive data analysis indicated gender differences and changes over time in the strength of the association between psychosomatic problems and health-related behaviours but the regression analysis did not show any statistically significant interactions. The proportion of adolescents engaging in the unhealthiest lifestyle had decreased over time while reports of psychosomatic problems had increased. Conclusion: Adolescents with the greatest psychosomatic symptom load were the most likely to engage in unhealthy lifestyles. This may mean multiplied risks of future psychopathology and warrants longitudinal investigations

  • 43.
    Norlander, Torsten
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Folkesson, Per
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Nyberg, Claes
    Karlstads universitet.
    Hot och våld mot fotbollsdomare.2001Inngår i: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, nr 1, s. 28-32Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 44.
    Ohlsson, Adam
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier.
    Säkert arbete2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 45.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för psykologi. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för tjänsteforskning. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, SAMOT.
    Reducing production of environmentally harmful products2005Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 46.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för psykologi. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för tjänsteforskning. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, SAMOT.
    Sales of Environmentally Harmful Products: An Experimental Study of the Impact of Governmental Subsidies on Price Setting2003Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 47.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för psykologi. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för tjänsteforskning. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, SAMOT.
    The Dyadic Subsidy Game: Effects of Uncertain and Changing Subsidies on Price Setting2004Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 48.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för psykologi. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för tjänsteforskning. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, SAMOT.
    The Road to Happiness2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 49.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för psykologi. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för tjänsteforskning. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, SAMOT.
    The Road To Happiness - The Role of the Car for Subjective Well-being: A Field Study of People Changing Transport Behavior2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 50.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för psykologi. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för tjänsteforskning. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, SAMOT.
    Vägen till lycka Samband mellan subjektivt välbefinnande, aktiviteter och vardagligt resande2008Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
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