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  • 1.
    Andersén, Annelie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Asghari, Hamid
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Identitetsframträdande och positionering i handledares berättelser2016In: Kapet (elektronisk), E-ISSN 2002-3979, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 87-102Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Handledning är en stor del av yrkesutbildning på olika nivåer. Den handledning som förekommer i en utbildning beskrivs som ett sätt att stödja och uppmuntra studenterna i deras lärande (Croninger & Lee, 2001), men även handledaren är lärande i handledningssituationen (Andersén, Berglund & Gustavsson, kommande). I artikeln beskriver vi handledningssituationer som berättas i tal eller skrift av handledare, och analyserar de lärar-/handledningsidentiteter som framträder i berättelserna. Vi utgår från ett socialkonstruktionistiskt perspektiv på berättande (Goodson, Biesta, Tedder, & Adair, 2010; Mishler, 1999) där handledarnas narrativa reflektioner kring sina berättelser (Freeman, 2010) har en avgörande roll i rekonstruktionen av handledningssituationen. Handledare i vår studie är lärarutbildare på gymnasiala yrkesprogram som handleder inom verksamhetsförlagd utbildning (VFU), högskolelärare som arbetar med handledningsmodellen Reflekterande Handledning i Omvårdnad (RHiO) inom sjuksköterskeprogrammet samt yrkeslärare som handleder elever inom de gymnasiala yrkesprogrammen. De som blir handledda är följaktligen universitetsstudenter (yrkeslärar- och sjuksköterskestudenter) och yrkeselever. Omgivningen varierar beroende på yrkesutbildning, men är exempelvis för yrkeslärarna gymnasieskolor och deras gymnasielever. Studien visar att de lärar-/handledaridentiteter som framträder ur lärarnas/handledarnas berättelser om deras handledningsarbete handlar om handledare som mentor och förebild, handledare som reflekterande samtalspartner samt handledare som bedömare och kontrollant. Dessutom visar studien att lärarna/handledarna främst positionerar sig gentemot de studenter de handleder, men också att den som bli handledd kan positionera sig i förhållande till sin egen handledare. 

  • 2.
    Andersén, Annelie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Asghari, Hamid
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Petersson, Maria
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Yrkesämnesdidaktik på universitet: Mål, innehåll, arbetssätt och examination2018In: Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, ISSN 2242-458X, E-ISSN 2242-458X, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 98-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to investigate learning goals, content, working methods and examinations in the vocational didactic sections of the vocational teacher education programme. In a case study, a total of forty study guides from one vocational teacher education programme have been analysed in order to answer what central content is highlighted, how the goals are examined, and what course literature is used in vocational subject didactics in a selected vocational teacher education programme at a Swedish university. The aim of the analysis, based on Hiim’s (2010) model, is to find both clearly expressed and more latent elements. The results answer questions on what the subject didactics contain in three different courses. Vocational teacher educators plan their teaching with regard to the goals of vocational subject didactics, but the interpretation of goals varies among different educators and within different vocational subjects. The result also gives some indications of what could be general differences and similarities within and between different didactics teacher groups and/or vocational subjects. The analysis of the study guides also shows that educational background and the form of employment of educators seem to be of importance.

  • 3.
    Asghari, Hamid
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Defining professional skills from teachers life stories2018In: Emergent issues in Vocational Education & Training: Voices from cross-national research / [ed] Lázaro Moreno Herrera, Marianne Teräs, Petros Gougoulakis, Premiss förlag, 2018, p. 23-59Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The life and professional experiences of vocational teachers in Sweden are at the centre of this study. Vocational teachers are greatly influential in shaping their students into professionals. The specific life experiences of vocational teachers can play an important role in preparing vocational students for their future professional lives. This study investigates the different themes that emerge from the teachers’ professional life stories regarding the term professional skills. Through life story interviews with four vocational teachers I could see that professional skills do not only involve the tangible work done in the profession (for example, welding, turning or milling), but there are also other skills that vocational students should acquire to become successful professionals. In this article, I show what other skills the vocational teachers may emphasize and how these other skills can be understood in relation to vocational teachers’ previous experiences.

  • 4.
    Asghari, Hamid
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Från uppväxt till lärargärning: En livsberättelsestudie med åtta yrkeslärare på industritekniska programmet2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis is based on eight vocational teachers’ life stories with the aim to provide knowledge about vocational teachers and their work with pupils in teaching in the industrial-technology programme, in the context of both a working life and a vocational education which is continuously changing. The thesis answers two research questions: 1) the themes that recur in vocational teachers’ life stories about how they meet and teach their pupils and 2) the teaching goals and strategies which emerge from vocational teachers’ life stories. All in all fifteen interviews were conducted from which life stories and teacher profiles were constructed.

    Results show five recurring themes in the teacher profiles.  The themes are; to be a caring adult for vocational pupils, to teach them basic knowledge considered important for the education, to teach them respect and discipline, to teach them the value of fighting and not giving up, and to show them the possibility of international employment. Moreover, the teacher goals and strategies emerging from the life stories show that the teachers can be said to educate different types of industrial workers. In line with these results, vocational education can be seen as more than a preparation for working life. Vocational teachers with different life experiences create different relationships with their pupils in order to create opportunities for them to manage school and to succeed in a life after school. In an industrial-technical education and in a working life which is constantly changing, vocational teachers have received various educations and worked in various industries during different time periods. They both educate their pupils and prepare them for a future working life based on these experiences.

  • 5.
    Asghari, Hamid
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    Relationen mellan tidigare livs- och yrkeserfarenheter och undervisning på industriprogrammet i två yrkeslärares livsberättelser2012In: Livsberättelser Mening och identitet i tid och rum: Mening och identitet i tid och rum / [ed] Marie Karlsson och Héctor Pérez Prieto, Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2012, p. 7-20Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Asghari, Hamid
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Technical knowledge in Industrial-technology program as it emerges from three vocational teachers’ life stories2017In: Education: Opole University annual, ISSN 2450-7121, Vol. 2, p. 155-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the focus is on three vocational teachers’ stories of their lives and teaching experiences. The research method that I use in this study is life story and the teachers are Johnny, Oscar and Omed. From the teachers stories emerge the technical knowledge that they believe that their students should learn during their Industrial-technology education.

    In terms of analytical method I focused on the stories content and I chose to do a thematic analysis of the stories, and through a holistic approach to see the different patterns which emerge from the stories. Based on Johnny’s, Oscar’s and Omed’s stories about their lives and teaching experiences, various themes of knowledge which their students should learn, became apparent. These themes are: knowledge about being a good citizen, knowledge of technology, knowledge about coping with life as an adult, knowledge which can be used in real life and knowledge which can lead to employment. In the article, I even discuss how these prominent aspects of knowledge can be understood in relation to Aristotle’s definition of the concept of knowledge Episteme, Techne and Phronesis. 

    Johnny’s, Oscar’s and Omed’s life stories show even an important thing. It shows that the technical knowledge that teachers believe that their students should learn are contractions. In these contractions, technical knowledge “creates” in the interaction between teachers, students and their environment. In addition, in this interaction teachers’ life experiences even have certain significance.

  • 7.
    Asghari, Hamid
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Asplund, Stig-Börje
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Kilbrink, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    "Folk kommer ju alltid behöva å skita": Identitetsframträdanden i teknisk gymnasial yrkesutbildning2018In: Berättelser: Vänbok till Héctor Pérez Prieto / [ed] Annica Löfdahl Hultman, Christina Olin-Scheller, Marie Tanner, Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2018, p. 95-104Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Asghari, Hamid
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Kilbrink, Nina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Två yrkeslärares berättelser om bedömningshandlingar på industritekniska programmet2018In: Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, ISSN 2242-458X, E-ISSN 2242-458X, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 23-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this study is on two vocational teachers´ stories of grade assessment. The teachers are Leif and Johnny, who teach in the industrial technology programme in two different upper secondary schools in Sweden. The research method we use in the study is life stories. From the vocational teachers’ stories emerge different categories of assessment criteria that show different considerations, as compared to the national knowledge requirements, when grading students with one of the five pass grades. The categories for passing grades are: the grade awarded as a prize rating, the grade awarded as being an okay-guy, the grade awarded in advance, and the grade awarded as a last chance. The categories show that the vocational teachers Leif and Johnny, in their assessment documents, do not always comply with the requirements that the syllabus and steering documents put on the knowledge assessment. Leif and Johnny use different forms of knowledge measurements when grading their students with passing grades. The forms are based on their social relations with their students.

  • 9.
    Asghari, Hamid
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Schaffar, Birgit
    Helsinki University, Finland.
    The tension between intrinsic and instrumental values in five teachers’ stories from the industrial technology programme2019In: Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, ISSN 2242-458X, E-ISSN 2242-458X, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 71-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we discuss a tension between the intrinsic and instrumental value in relation to work and human life. This tension is reflected in the UN Declaration of Human Rights, which regards work as an intrinsic value for a human life, as well as in the (neoliberal) labour market, that values work and workers for their instrumental ends. In the light of this tension, we analyse how five vocational teachers’ life stories express it through descriptions of their experiences, decisions and teaching. The methodological starting point of our study is based on a narrative perspective, where vocational teachers’ stories are at the centre. Our analytical tools are taken from Bamberg (1997), who discusses how people position themselves in their own stories. In light of four positions as outlined by Bamberg, we discuss three tensions: 1) The right to work as universal and under conditions at the same time, 2) Work as a place for belonging under the shadow that only profit counts, and 3) Performing a good job, while balancing professional pride and the concern for oneself. In our conclusions, we suggest that vocational teachers should provide their students with wider civic knowledge about their rights as well as about possible forms of influencing structures in the labour market that vocational teachers are in part preparing their students for.

  • 10.
    Asghari, Hamid
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Schaffar-Kronqvist, Birgit
    Helsinki University, Finland.
    The Paradox in the Industrial Technology Programme2018In: Vocational Education & Training - The Word of Work and Teacher Education: Emergent Issues in Research on Vocational Education & Training Vol. 3 / [ed] Lázaro Moreno Herrera, Marianne Teräs & Petros Gougoulakis, Premiss förlag, 2018, p. 337-362Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we examine two Swedish industrial teachers’ stories about their education, professional life and teaching. The stories are discussed in relation to the first paragraph of Article 23 of the UN Convention on Human Rights. The methodological starting point of our study is based on life stories and our analysis tools are taken from Bamberg (1997), who discusses how people position themselves in their stories. Our analysis shows three positionings. The first positioning appears in relation to workshop workers and to workshop work. The second positioning appears in relation to the industrial company and employer aspects. The third positioning appears in relation to employability. These three positions show that industry companies did not help industrial workers prevent occupational injuries and unemployment, and the industrial workers who were loyal to their employers did their best in the given set of circumstances. Vocational teachers educate Swedish children and young people to industrial workers, for the competitive industry companies in a neoliberal labour market, but we see a professional ethical dilemma in relation to the first paragraph of Article 23 in the way the industrial companies treats their industrial workers.

  • 11.
    Kilbrink, Nina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013), Science, Mathematics and Engineering Education Research.
    Asplund, Stig-Börje
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Asghari, Hamid
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    Yrkeslärande i interaktion på VVS- och fastighetsprogrammet2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Asghari, Hamid
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Vocational teachers’ experiences of assessing vocational knowledge2015In: Vocational teachers’ experiences of assessing vocational knowledge, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment is described as a process that includes the collection, interpretation and presentation of data which leads to a defined decision (Nyström, 2004). In recent years, the models of formative and summative assessment have been frequently discussed and debated by school researchers such as Gipps (2001), Jönsson (2009), Korp (2011), Lundahl (2006, 2011), Moss, Girard and Haniford (2006), Pettersson (2011) and Wiliam (2006). Formative assessment is a smoothly flowing process of assessment and summative assessment is assessment of the student’s acquired knowledge at a certain time or an exam (see e.g. Black&Wiliam, 2003; Gipps, 2001; Moss et al., 2006; Wiliam, 2006). The discussion of assessment is often about how a teacher, based on curricular goals and knowledge requirements, can implement a similar and equivalent assessment of student knowledge (cf. ibid.). Equivalent assessment is a central concept in earlier research on grading and assessment (see e.g. Black&Wiliam, 2003; Gipps, 2001; Lundahl, 2006, 2011). Teachers’ assessment should not rest on their personal ideas of what knowledge they see as important for the education. Assessment must be based on established criteria (see e.g. Black&Wiliam, 1998) if students are to be assessed equally and fairly. Assessment takes place in an interaction between teachers, students, their environments, language, and the objects which are used in the process, such as or computers, and books (Moss et al., 2006). By assessing, teachers try to create opportunities for students to show what they can (Nyström, 2004).

     

    Research on vocational education shows that the relationship between the vocational teacher and the students is very important in the formative assessment model (Asghari, 2014). Equally important is the vocational teacher’s feedback to the students (Öhman, 2015). In the summative assessment model, students’ vocational theoretical knowledge is often assessed (Lindberg, 2003). Studies of vocational teachers’ assessment practice can contribute to previously unknown views of teachers’ work (Lindberg, 2011). In the forthcoming article, which this presentation is a part of, two vocational teachers’ assessment practice when they talk about their experiences of teaching will be shown and discussed. Assessment can be discussed from many different aspects. It can serve as a way to motivate students in their learning, it can make students’ reasoning about the topic visible for teachers, it can create opportunities for feedback to students, and it can construct different identity formations in students (Moss et al., 2006). And identity formation is what the article, based on the studies of vocational teachers’ assessment practice, will focus on. The assumption is that vocational teachers’ assessment practice leads eventually to the students’ grades and those students can through their grades construct different identities in different contexts (cf. ibid.). It means that a non-passing grade can bring consequences in students’ lives, like losing their self-confidence, dropping out of school and education, and even in some cases, become gang members and get into crime. It appears from vocational teachers told experiences that students, through a pass grade, may identify themselves as students, who may have enough knowledge, are good enough as citizens and are proud to be skilled workers. It also appears that vocational teachers in such situations identify themselves as a caring teacher. Vocational teachers told experiences show different considerations that qualify for a pass-grade and may be categorized as “pass grade in advance”, “pass grade as praise”, “pass grade as a last chance” and “pass grade for being well behaved and socially competent”. These categories of assessment do not proceed from curricular goals and knowledge requirements, but they may be related to vocational teachers’ care for their students.

     

    References

    Asghari, H. (2014). Från uppväxt till lärargärning: En livsberättelsestudie med åtta yrkeslärare på industritekniska programmet. Doktorsavhandling, Karlstad: Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Pedagogiskt arbete, Karlstads universitet.

    Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education: Principles Policy and Practice, 5(1), 7-73.

    Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (2003). ‘In praise of educational research’: Formative assessment. British Educational Research Journal, 29(5), 623-637.

    Gipps, C. (2001). Socio-cultural aspects of assessment. I G. Svingby & S. Svingby (Red.), Bedömning av kunskap och kompetens (ss. 355-392). Stockholms universitet: Institutionen för undervisningsprocesser, kommunikation och lärande.

    Jönsson, A. (2009). Lärande bedömning. Malmö: Gleerup.

    Korp, H. (2011). Kunskapsbedömning-vad, hur och varför. Stockholm: Myndigheten för skolutveckling.

    Lindberg, V. (2003). Learning practices in vocational education. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 47(2), 157-179.

    Lindberg, V. (2011). Betyg och bedömning i svensk didaktisk forskning 1990-2009. I V. Lindberg, L. Lindström & A. Pettersson (Red.), Pedagogisk bedömning: Att dokumentera, bedöma och utveckla kunskap (ss. 235-267). Stockholm: Stockholms universitets förlag.

    Lundahl, C. (2006). Viljan att veta vad andra vet: Kunskapsbedömning i tidigmodern, modern och senmodern skola. Stockholm: Arbetslivsinstitutet.

    Lundahl, C. (2011). Bedömning för lärande. Stockholm: Norstedts.

    Moss, P. A., Girard, B. J., & Haniford, L. C. (2006). Validity in educational assessment. Review of research in education, 30, 109-162.

    Nyström, P. (2004). Rätt mätt på prov: Om validering av bedömningar i skolan. Umeå: Pedagogiska institutionen, Umeå universitet.

    Pettersson, A. (2011). Bedömning - varför, vad, varthänt? I V. Lindberg, L. Lindström & A. Pettersson (Red.), Pedagogisk bedömning: Att dokumentera, bedöma och utveckla kunskap (ss. 31-42). Stockholm: Stockholms universitets förlag.

    Wiliam, D. (2006). Formative assessment: Getting the focus right. Educational Assessment, 11(3-4), 283-289.

    Öhman, A. (2015) Cykler och loopar i Salongen: En studie av återkoppling i frisörklassrummet. Licentiatuppsats, Karlstad: Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Pedagogiskt arbete, Karlstads universitet.

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