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  • 1.
    Jonsson, Anders
    et al.
    Kristianstad Univ, Dept Learning & Environm, Kristianstad, Sweden..
    Lundahl, Christian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Holmgren, Anders
    Educ Dept, Boras, Sweden.
    Evaluating a large-scale implementation of Assessment for Learning in Sweden2015In: Assessment in education: Principles, Policy & Practice, ISSN 0969-594X, E-ISSN 1465-329X, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 104-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports on a large-scale implementation of Assessment for Learning (AfL) in a Swedish municipality. The implementation was founded on two principles: (1) teaching should be informed by educational research; (2) to be successful teachers' professional development needs to be based in everyday classroom practice. From these principles, AfL was chosen as a strand of educational research to inform teaching and 'Teacher Learning Communities' were chosen as a vehicle for professional development and for implementing AfL practices. Findings indicate that the project has been successful in bringing about a change in how teachers talk about teaching and learning and in changing teachers' pedagogical practice towards AfL. Findings also suggest that AfL practices are mostly teacher-centred, which means that the teachers still take most of the responsibility for the assessment. This leads to high workload for the teachers and may also hinder students from taking responsibility for their learning.

  • 2.
    Lundahl, Christian
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education.
    Landahl, Joakim
    Stockholms univeristet.
    (Mis)trust in numbers: shape shifting and directions in the modern history of data in Swedish educational reform2013In: The Rise of Data in Education in Education systems: collection, visualization and use / [ed] Martin Lawn, Oxford: Symposium Books, 2013, 1, p. 57-78Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter the authors explore the uses and meanings of data in Swedish educational reform, practice and discourse from roughly the 1940s up to the present day. Their survey covers both national data and international data and includes quantitative as well as qualitative data. They start in the 1940s with two empirical examples that in a way show an antithetical attitude towards data. Travel accounts from America were based on a qualitative approach, and expressed the attitude that the schools studied were important because they were different, modern and inspiring. At roughly the same time, standardised testing was introduced as a technique of connecting the different parts of the school system and rationalising student admission processes. The consequences of this standardisation came under severe attack during the late 1960s and 1970s, resulting eventually in the introduction of a criterion referenced grading system. Finally, the authors highlight the fact that the last few decades have seen the flourishing of such things as international assessment and school inspection, and there has been an increased emphasis on grades and testing. These examples illustrate that the meanings and techniques of data are objects of a continuous negotiation where sometimes even resistance towards measuring tends to be based on measurements.

  • 3.
    Ydesen, Christian
    et al.
    Aalborg university, Denmark.
    Ludvigsen, Kari
    Unievrsitet i Bergen.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Creating an Educational Testing Profession in Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, 1910-1960.2013In: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 120-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Norway, Sweden and Denmark national testing communities advocating the introduction and expanded use of standardised educational tests in the national educational systems emerged around World War I. Using international research and cross-border networking activities, these coteries were able to gain power and thus establish and promote a new profession, the educational psychologist, along with instituting practices of alleged scientific tests in the following decades.

    This article presents a historical analysis of the central processes and developments constituting the Norwegian, Swedish, and Danish testing communities. The aim is to understand the workings of these professionalization movements rooted in the creation of an international fellowship of like-mindedness and a knowledge monopoly connected with standardised educational tests. Viewed from a contemporary perspective, this type of analysis is relevant, because specialised knowledge and experts with knowledge monopolies remain prevalent in the modern-day field of education policy and practice. Thus, the roots of this inherent tendency towards expert knowledge in modern welfare state educational settings can be more adequately grasped through a better understanding of the historical precursors.

    The article discusses the importance and actual impact of the Norwegian, Swedish, and Danish testing communities on national educational practices, the significance of the international interplay, and how and to what extent national political and educational climates were shaped by new experts and knowledge.

    It is argued that the testing communities were able to gain authority in the national educational fields through the creation and maintenance of organisations, knowledge, and practices, as well as in the forming of alliances with politicians, universities, and teachers’ unions in a joint endeavour that promoted educational psychology and testing in the three Scandinavian educational fields.

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