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  • 1.
    Barros, B M
    et al.
    University of São Paulo.
    Iwaya, L H
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Simplício, M A
    Carvalho, T C M B
    Méhes, A
    Ericsson Research.
    Näslund, M
    Ericsson Research.
    Classifying Security Threats in Cloud Networking2015In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science / [ed] Markus Helfert, Donald Ferguson and Víctor Méndez Muñoz, SciTePress , 2015, 214-220 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A central component of managing risks in cloud computing is to understand the nature of security threats. The relevance of security concerns are evidenced by the efforts from both the academic community and technological organizations such as NIST, ENISA and CSA, to investigate security threats and vulnerabilities related to cloud systems. Provisioning secure virtual networks (SVNs) in a multi-tenant environment is a fundamental aspect to ensure trust in public cloud systems and to encourage their adoption. However, comparing existing SVN-oriented solutions is a difficult task due to the lack of studies summarizing the main concerns of network virtualization and providing a comprehensive list of threats those solutions should cover. To address this issue, this paper presents a threat classification for cloud networking, describing threat categories and attack scenarios that should be taken into account when designing, comparing, or categorizing solutions. The classification is based o n the CSA threat report, building upon studies and surveys from the specialized literature to extend the CSA list of threats and to allow a more detailed analysis of cloud network virtualization issues.

  • 2.
    Iwaya, L H
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Fausto, Giunchiglia
    Trento University, Italy.
    Martucci, Leonardo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Hume, Alethia
    Trento University, Italy.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Division for Information Technology.
    Chenu-Abente, Ronald
    Trento University, Italy.
    Ontology-based Obfuscation and Anonymisation for Privacy: A Case Study on Healthcare2016In: Privacy and Identity Management: Time for a Revolution? / [ed] David Aspinal, Marit Hansen, Jan Camenisch, Simone Fischer-Hübner, Charles Raab, Springer, 2016, 343-358 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Iwaya, L H
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. University of Sao Paulo.
    Rosso, R S U
    Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina.
    Hounsell, M S
    Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina.
    A Design for Assembly Application with Dynamic Information Retrieval from Case Database2013In: Intelligent Manufacturing Systems / [ed] Marcos de Sales Guerra Tsuzuki and José Reinaldo Silva, 2013, Vol. 11, 186-191 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design for Assembly (DFA) is a Concurrent Engineering constituent that gained a lot of attention due to fast and measurable benets. The main principle of DFA is to foresee assembly problems at the design stage based on the experience regarding functionality, materials and machine availability. The work presented in this paper, named RFA - Redesign for Assembly, adds a way to explicitly register and retrieve experiences as part of the design process. It starts from an initial design, then RFA leads the designer through a detailed assessment towards an improved design according to previous experiences. Experience representation was done using a Group Technology classication concept that helps assign a primary-key for a Case Based Teaching underlying system. A supporting system has been implemented in order to try out RFA. DFA scholars have used RFA and proved that experience retrieval is easily and intuitively incorporated in the design process. The paper presents a study about the DFA methodology, reviews existing solutions (methods and software) from the literature and details the RFA architecture, implementation and tests. RFA shows potential for a new design culture based on knowledge sharing, but also, as a repository for a very valuable asset, i.e. problem-oriented assembly-related design experience.

  • 4.
    Iwaya, Leonardo H.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Secure and Privacy-aware Data Collection and Processing in Mobile Health Systems2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Healthcare systems have assimilated information and communication technologies in order to improve the quality of healthcare and patient's experience at reduced costs. The increasing digitalization of people's health information raises however new threats regarding information security and privacy. Accidental or deliberate data breaches of health data may lead to societal pressures, embarrassment and discrimination. Information security and privacy are paramount to achieve high quality healthcare services, and further, to not harm individuals when providing care. With that in mind, we give special attention to the category of Mobile Health (mHealth) systems. That is, the use of mobile devices (e.g., mobile phones, sensors, PDAs) to support medical and public health. Such systems, have been particularly successful in developing countries, taking advantage of the flourishing mobile market and the need to expand the coverage of primary healthcare programs. Many mHealth initiatives, however, fail to address security and privacy issues. This, coupled with the lack of specific legislation for privacy and data protection in these countries, increases the risk of harm to individuals. The overall objective of this thesis is to enhance knowledge regarding the design of security and privacy technologies for mHealth systems. In particular, we deal with mHealth Data Collection Systems (MDCSs), which consists of mobile devices for collecting and reporting health-related data, replacing paper-based approaches for health surveys and surveillance. This thesis consists of publications contributing to mHealth security and privacy in various ways: with a comprehensive literature review about mHealth in Brazil; with the design of a security framework for MDCSs (SecourHealth); with the design of a MDCS (GeoHealth); with the design of Privacy Impact Assessment template for MDCSs; and with the study of ontology-based obfuscation and anonymisation functions for health data.

  • 5.
    Iwaya, Leonardo H
    et al.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Dept Comp & Digital Syst Engn, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Gomes, M A L
    Univ Sao Paulo, Dept Comp & Digital Syst Engn, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Simplício, M A
    Univ Sao Paulo, Dept Comp & Digital Syst Engn, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Carvalho, T C M B
    Univ Sao Paulo, Dept Comp & Digital Syst Engn, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Dominicini, C K
    Sakuragui, R R M
    Univ Sao Paulo, Dept Comp & Digital Syst Engn, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Rebelo, M S
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sch Med, Heart Inst InCor, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Gutierrez, M A
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sch Med, Heart Inst InCor, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Näslund, M
    Ericsson Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Håkansson, P
    Ericsson Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mobile health in emerging countries: a survey of research initiatives in Brazil.2013In: International Journal of Medical Informatics, ISSN 1386-5056, E-ISSN 1872-8243, Vol. 82, no 5, 283-298 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comprehensive survey of mobile health (mHealth) research initiatives in Brazil, discussing current challenges, gaps, opportunities and tendencies.

    METHODS: Systematic review of publicly available electronic documents related to mHealth, including scientific publications, technical reports and descriptions of commercial products. Specifically, 42 projects are analyzed and classified according to their goals. This analysis considers aspects such as security features provided (if any), the health condition that are focus of attention, the main providers involved in the projects development and deployment, types of devices used, target users, where the projects are tested and/or deployed, among others.

    RESULTS: The study shows a large number (86%) of mHealth solutions focused on the following categories: health surveys, surveillance, patient records and monitoring. Meanwhile, treatment compliance, awareness raising and decision support systems are less explored. The main providers of solutions are the universities (56%) and health units (32%), with considerable cooperation between such entities. Most applications have physicians (55%) and Community Health Agents (CHAs) (33%) as targeted users, the latter being important elements in nation-wide governmental health programs. Projects focused on health managers, however, are a minority (5%). The majority of projects do not focus on specific diseases but rather general health (57%), although solutions for hearth conditions are reasonably numerous (21%). Finally, the lack of security mechanisms in the majority of the surveyed solutions (52%) may hinder their deployment in the field due to the lack of compliance with general regulations for medical data handling.

    CONCLUSION: There are currently many mHealth initiatives in Brazil, but some areas have not been much explored, such as solutions for treatment compliance and awareness raising, as well as decision support systems. Another research trend worth exploring refers to creating interoperable security mechanisms, especially for widely explored mHealth categories such as health surveys, patient records and monitoring. Challenges for the expansion of mHealth solutions, both in number and coverage, include the further involvement of health managers in the deployment of such solutions and in coordinating efforts among health and research institutions interested in the mHealth trend, possibly exploring the widespread presence of CHAs around the country as users of such technology.

  • 6.
    Iwaya, Leonardo H.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Martucci, Leonardo A.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Towards a Privacy Impact Assessment Template for Mobile Health Data Collection Systems2016In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on M4D Mobile Communication Technology for Development: M4D 2016, General Tracks / [ed] Orlando P Zacarias and Caroline W. Larsson, 2016, 189-200 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Iwaya, Leonardo H.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Voronkov, Artem
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Martucci, Leonardo A.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Lindskog, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Firewall Usability and Visualization: A Systematic Literature Review2016Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Firewalls are network security components that allow administrators to handle incoming and outgoing traffic based on a set of rules. Such security appliances are typically the first line of defense, creating a barrier between organization’s internal network and the outside network (e.g., Internet). The process of correctly configuring a firewall is complex and error prone, and it only gets worse as the complexity of the network grows. A vulnerable firewall configuration will very likely result in major threats to the organization’s security. In this report we aim to investigate how to make administrator task of planning and implementing firewall solutions easier, from the stand points of usability and visualization. Our scientific investigation starts with the understanding of the state-of-the-art on this specific field. To do so, we conducted a Systematic Literature Review (SLR), a strict methodology to plan a literature review, to gather relevant information, to synthesize and compare approaches, and to report findings. During the initial search process thousands of papers were screened, leading us to 125 papers carefully selected for further readings. In the secondary study, ten relevant works were identified and assessed, in which authors tackled the issues of usability and visualization for Firewalls and Personal Firewalls. Among the main findings, we perceive that there is a lack (or even absence) of user studies to validate the proposed models. This leads us to a series of unwarranted solutions, that need to be prototyped and tested with real users. We also see an huge opportunity for integrative approaches, that could combine firewall research areas, such as automatic anomaly detection, advisory systems, and varying visualization schemes.

  • 8.
    Näslund, Mats
    et al.
    Sweden.
    Carvalho, Tereza C. M. B
    Brasil.
    Iwaya, Leonardo H.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Simplício, Marcos A.
    Brasil.
    Encrypting and Storing Data2016Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Methods and apparatus for encrypting and storing data. The methods and apparatus provide different levels of security and usability. The methods and apparatus generate two or more keys based on a shared secret made available to a user equipment and a server. The two or more keys comprise at least one perfect forward secrecy key, and at least one limited forward secrecy key. The methods and apparatus encrypt data using at least one of the two or more keys. The methods and apparatus store the encrypted data in a memory of the user equipment and/or transmit the data from the user equipment to the server

  • 9.
    Simplício, M A
    et al.
    University of Sao Paulo.
    Carvalho, T C M B
    University of Sao Paulo.
    Dominicini, C
    University of Sao Paulo.
    Håkansson, P
    Ericsson Research.
    Iwaya, L H
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. University of Sao Paulo.
    Näslund, M
    Ericsson Research.
    Method and Apparatus for Securing a Connection in a Communications Network2015Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A method of securing a session between a Network Application Function, NAF, and a User Equipment, UE, connected to a network. The NAF is assigned a NAF identifier, NAF_id, using the Generic Bootstrapping Architecture, GBA, or a similar architecture and a shared secret is established between the UE and the NAF (S7.1). An application request containing a bootstrapping transaction identifier is sent to the NAF from the UE (S7.2) and an authentication request comprising the bootstrapping transaction identifier, the NAF_id, and information derived from the shared secret is sent to a Bootstrapping Server Function, BSF, from the NAF (S7.4). The BSF and the UE determine a NAF key, Ks_NAF, by using a modified parameter in place of or in addition to an original parameter in a key derivation function, the modified parameter being derived from the shared secret and the original parameter of the key derivation function (S7.5). This NAF key is transmitted from the BSF to the NAF (S7.6) and used to secure communications between the NAF and the UE (S7.7). Also provided are apparatus to act as a NAF, UE, and BSF in the method above.

  • 10. Simplício, M A
    et al.
    Iwaya, Leonardo H
    Barros, Bruno M
    Carvalho, T C M B
    Näslund, Mats
    SecourHealth: a delay-tolerant security framework for mobile health data collection.2015In: IEEE journal of biomedical and health informatics, ISSN 2168-2194, E-ISSN 2168-2208, Vol. 19, no 2, 761-772 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Security is one of the most imperative requirements for the success of systems that deal with highly sensitive data, such as medical information. However, many existing mobile health solutions focused on collecting patients' data at their homes that do not include security among their main requirements. Aiming to tackle this issue, this paper presents SecourHealth, a lightweight security framework focused on highly sensitive data collection applications. SecourHealth provides many security services for both stored and in-transit data, displaying interesting features such as tolerance to lack of connectivity (a common issue when promoting health in remote locations) and the ability to protect data even if the device is lost/stolen or shared by different data collection agents. Together with the system's description and analysis, we also show how SecourHealth can be integrated into a real data collection solution currently deployed in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

  • 11.
    Sá, João
    et al.
    University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Rebelo, Marina
    University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Brentani, Alexandra
    University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Grisi, Sandra
    University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Iwaya, Leonardo H
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science.
    Simplício, Marcos
    Department of Computer and Digital Systems Engineering, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Carvalho, Tereza
    Department of Computer and Digital Systems Engineering, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Gutierrez, Marco
    University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Georeferenced and Secure Mobile Health System for Large Scale Data Collection in Primary Care2016In: International Journal of Medical Informatics, ISSN 1386-5056, E-ISSN 1872-8243, Vol. 94, 91-99 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction - Mobile health consists in applying mobile devices and communication capabilities for expanding the coverage and improving the effectiveness of health care programs. The technology is particularly promising for developing countries, in which health authorities can take advantage of the flourishing mobile market to provide adequate health care to underprivileged communities, especially primary care. In Brazil, the Primary Care Information System (SIAB) receives primary health care data from all regions of the country, creating a rich database for health-related action planning. Family Health Teams (FHTs) collect this data in periodic visits to families enrolled in governmental programs, following an acquisition procedure that involves filling in paper forms. This procedure compromises the quality of the data provided to health care authorities and slows down the decision-making process.

    Objectives - To develop a mobile system (GeoHealth) that should address and overcome the aforementioned problems and deploy the proposed solution in a wide underprivileged metropolitan area of a major city in Brazil.

    Methods - The proposed solution comprises three main components: (a) an Application Server, with a database containing family health conditions; and two clients, (b) a Web Browser running visualization tools for management tasks, and (c) a data-gathering device (smartphone) to register and to georeference the family health data. A data security framework was designed to ensure the security of data, which was stored locally and transmitted over public networks.

    Results - The system was successfully deployed at six primary care units in the city of Sao Paulo, where a total of 28,324 families/96,061 inhabitants are regularly followed up by government health policies. The health conditions observed from the population covered were: diabetes in 3.40%, hypertension (age > 40) in 23.87% and tuberculosis in 0.06%. This estimated prevalence has enabled FHTs to set clinical appointments proactively, with the aim of confirming or detecting cases of non-communicable diseases more efficiently, based on real-time information.

    Conclusion - The proposed system has the potential to improve the efficiency of primary care data collection and analysis. In terms of direct costs, it can be considered a low-cost solution, with an estimated additional monthly cost of U$ 0.040 per inhabitant of the region covered, or approximately U$ 0.106 per person, considering only those currently enrolled in the system.

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