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  • 1.
    Faltas, Marcella
    et al.
    University of Amsterdam.
    Latuny, Yaël
    University of Amsterdam.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för språk- och litteraturdidaktik (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur (from 2013). University of Oslo.
    Wikström, Peter
    Improving second language vocabulary through gaming: OASIS Summary of Sundqvist, P. & Wikström, P. (2015) in System2019Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2.
    Olin-Scheller, Christina
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Estetisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Centrum för språk- och litteraturdidaktik, CSL. Karlstads universitet, Estetisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för språk- och litteraturdidaktik (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för pedagogiska studier (from 2013).
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstads universitet, Estetisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för pedagogiska studier (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Estetisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Centrum för språk- och litteraturdidaktik, CSL. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för språk- och litteraturdidaktik (from 2013).
    Asplund, Stig-Börje
    Karlstads universitet, Estetisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för pedagogiska studier (from 2013).
    Kontio, Janne
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för språk- och litteraturdidaktik (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur (from 2013).
    Social Excursions During the In-between Spaces of Lessons.: Students’ Smartphone Use in the Upper Secondary School Classroom2020Ingår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 3. O'Reilly, D.
    et al.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för språk- och litteraturdidaktik (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur (from 2013). University of Oslo.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstads universitet.
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för språk- och litteraturdidaktik (from 2013).
    Nyroos, Lina
    The teacher as examiner of L2 oral tests: A challenge to standardization: OASIS Summary of Sundqvist et al. (2018) in Language Testing2018Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 4.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur.
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur.
    Nyroos, Lina
    Uppsala universitet.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur.
    Genomförande och bedömning av nationella prov i engelska: en pilotstudie2013Ingår i: KAPET, ISSN 1653-4743, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 24-45Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Estetisk-filosofiska fakulteten. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för språk- och litteraturdidaktik. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur.
    Gamers and girls: Avancerad vokabulär i engelska uppsatser (årskurs 9)2012Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 6.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för språk- och litteraturdidaktik.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för språk- och litteraturdidaktik. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur.
    Learning by playing: Relations between out-of-school digital gameplay and L2 English proficiency2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between digital gameplay and language learning is a growing field of interest within SLA. Gee (2007) was among the first linguists to highlight the affordances offered by digital games for learning and literacy; subsequent empirical studies have proved him right as regards L2 learning. The present study is grounded in sociocultural theory (Lantolf & Thorne, 2006; Vygotsky, 1978) where social interaction is fundamental; likewise, social interaction is central in many games (see e.g. Peterson, 2012). The aim of the present study is to shed more light on the relation between digital gameplay and L2 English proficiency, vocabulary in particular, as well as on the relation between gameplay and learners’ attitudes towards English. To this end, a sample of 80 L2 English learners (aged 15–16) were divided into three Digital Game Groups (DGGs) based on frequency of out-of-school digital gameplay activity: (1) non-gamers, (2) moderate gamers, and (3) frequent gamers (≥ 5 hours/week). Due to the gendered distribution of non-gamers (predominantly female) and frequent gamers (predominantly male), these three DGGs are also partially defined by gender. The study attempts to answer the following research questions: (1) Are there any correlations between out-of-school digital game play and (a) L2 proficiency, (b) vocabulary, (c) attitudes towards English, and (d) outcomes in terms of various grades? (2) What is the role of gender in any correlations observed? For the present study, we use datasets originally collected for Author1 (year), comprising questionnaire data, vocabulary tests, essays, assessment data, and school subject grades. The data were analyzed quantitatively using Pearson’s chi-squared and Cramér’s V for tests of association between nominal variables, and t-tests, ANOVA, and classical eta squared for tests of variance with numeric variables. Results show a medium to large effect of gameplay, but also gender, on vocabulary. Further, DGG 3 had the most advanced vocabulary, the highest rated essays, and the highest final English grades, closely followed by DGG 1, while DGG 2 trailed behind. Attitudes varied between the groups, but DGG 3 tended to have the most positive attitudes towards English. One conclusion is that both gaming and gender are connected with L2 English proficiency.

     

     

    Gee, J. P. (2007). What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy. Revised and updated edition. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Lantolf, J. P., & Thorne, S. L. (2006). Sociocultural theory and the genesis of second language development. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

    Peterson, M. (2012). Learner interaction in a massively multiplayer online role playing game (MMORPG): A sociocultural discourse analysis. ReCALL, 24(3), 361-380.

    Vygotsky, L. (1978). Cole, M., John-Steiner, V., Scribner, S., and Souberman, E. (Eds.) Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press.

     

  • 7.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för språk- och litteraturdidaktik. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur.
    Out-of-school digital gameplay and in-school L2 English vocabulary outcomes2015Ingår i: System, ISSN 0346-251X, Vol. 51, s. 65-76Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to examine the relation between out-of-school digital gameplay and in-school L2 English vocabulary measures and grading outcomes. Data were originally collected from a sample of 80 teenage Swedish L2 English learners and comprise a questionnaire, language diaries, vocabulary tests, assessed essays, and grades. Using an observational post-hoc design, three Digital Game Groups (DGGs) were created based on frequency of gameplay: (1) non-gamers (0 h/week), (2) moderate gamers (<5 h/week), and (3) frequent gamers (≥5 h/week). Results show that DGG3 had the highest rated essays, used the most advanced vocabulary in the essays, and had the highest grades, closely followed by DGG1, while DGG2 trailed behind. For the vocabulary tests, DGG3 was followed by DGG2 and DGG1, indicating that gameplay aligns more directly with vocabulary test scores than vocabulary indicators drawn from essays. Due to the gender distribution of non-gamers (predominantly girls) and frequent gamers (exclusively boys), a subsidiary aim is to investigate how gameplay correlates with outcomes for boys and girls: significant correlations were found for gameplay–vocabulary tests/English grades for the boys.

  • 8.
    Sundqvist, Pia
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för språk- och litteraturdidaktik (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur (from 2013).
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för språk- och litteraturdidaktik (from 2013).
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för språk- och litteraturdidaktik (from 2013).
    Nyroos, Lina
    The teacher as examiner of L2 oral tests: A challenge to standardization2018Ingår i: Language Testing, ISSN 0265-5322, E-ISSN 1477-0946, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 217-238Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper looks at the issue of standardization in L2 oral testing. Whereas external examiners are frequently used globally, some countries opt for test-takers’ own teachers as examiners instead. In the present study, Sweden is used as a case in point, with a focus on the mandatory, high-stakes, summative, 9th-grade national test in English (speaking part). The national test has the typical characteristics of standardized tests and its main objective is to contribute to equity in assessment and grading on a national level. However, using teachers as examiners raises problems for standardization. The aim of this study is to examine teachers’/examiners’ practices and views regarding four aspects of the speaking test – test-taker grouping, recording practices, the actual test occasion, and examiner participation in students’ test interactions – and to discuss findings in relation to issues concerning the normativity and practical feasibility of standardization, taking the perspectives of test-takers, teachers/examiners, and test constructors into account. In order to answer research questions linked to these four aspects of L2 oral testing, self-report survey data from a random sample of teachers (N = 204) and teacher interviews (N = 11) were collected and quantitative data were analyzed using inferential statistics. Survey findings revealed that despite thorough instructions, teacher practices and views vary greatly across all aspects, which was further confirmed by interview data. Three background variables – teacher certification, work experience, gender – were investigated to see whether they could provide explanations. Whereas certification and gender did not contribute significantly to explaining the findings, work experience bore some relevance, but effect sizes were generally small. The study concludes that using teachers as examiners is a well-functioning procedure in terms of assessment for learning, but raises doubts regarding assessment of learning and standardization; a solution for test authorities could be to frame the test as non-standardized.

  • 9.
    van Ooijen, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur (from 2013). Örebro universitet.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur (from 2013).
    Post-authentic digitalism in cloud rap2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 10.
    Wennö, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur (from 2013).
    Tåqvist, MarieKarlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur (from 2013).Wikström, PeterKarlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur (from 2013).Wijkmark, JohanKarlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur (from 2013).
    Fact or fiction?: Studies in honour of Solveig Granath2016Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume collects 14 studies that approach conventional notions of fact and fiction from a wide variety of vantage points. The contributions run the gamut of fields as diverse as language history, syntax, corpus linguistics, applied linguistics, literature, and terminology. Along the way, a few myths are shattered, and new light is shed on some facts and fictions of language. This festschrift is dedicated to Professor Solveig Granath

  • 11.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur (from 2013).
    Acting out on Twitter: Affordances for animating reported speech in written computer-mediated communication2019Ingår i: Text & Talk, ISSN 1860-7330, E-ISSN 1860-7349, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 121-145Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Quotative be like is a construction associated with informal spoken contexts and, especially, with various forms of embodied enactments. This study examines instances of quotative be like in a corpus of Twitter data (1,000,000 tweets; 1,113 quotative instances). Special attention is paid to how users of Twitter employ the platform's affordances to animate their speech reports - i.e. to represent voices, enact body language, or otherwise 'dramatize' the speech reports. The aim is to investigate how a linguistic format which is richly embodied in face-to-face interaction gets 're-embodied' on Twitter. The study finds that animation of reported speech on Twitter is visually, and predominantly typographically, afforded. In the material, oral practices are more frequently reconfigured and remediated rather than directly reproduced. That is to say, even when users are not reproducing spoken utterances, they often employ graphical strategies that are mainly understandable by analogy to spoken and embodied face-to-face interaction. However, users also draw on emergent online repertoires with no face-to-face analogues, such as 'pure' typographical play and the recruitment of established online memes. Thus, the findings suggest that orality lingers as a trace, but is not a necessary component, in bringing reported speech to life in a text-based computer-mediated setting. 

  • 12.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur (from 2013).
    I tweet like I talk: Aspects of speech and writing on Twitter2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation investigates linguistic and metalinguistic practices in everyday Twitter discourse in relation to aspects of speech and writing. The overarching aim is to investigate how the spoken–written interface is reconfigured in the digital writing spaces of social media.

    The dissertation comprises four empirical case studies and six chapters. The first study investigates communicative functions of hashtags in a speech act pragmatic framework, focalizing tagging practices that not only mark topics or organize hypertextual interaction, but rather have more specific locally meaningful functions. Two studies investigate reported speech in tweets, focusing on quotatives typically associated with informal conversational interaction (e.g., BE like). The studies identify strategies by which Twitter users animate (Tannen, 2007) speech reports. Further, one of the studies explores how such animating practices are afforded (Hutchby, 2001). Lexically, orthographically, and with images, but primarily through typography, users make voice, gesture, and stance present in their tweets, digitally re-embodying the rich nonverbal expressivity of animation in talk. Finally, a study investigates notions of talk-like tweeting from an emic perspective, showing users' negotiations of how tweets can and should correspond to speech in relation to social identity, linguistic competence, and personal authenticity.

    Six chapters situate and synthesize the case studies in an expanded theoretical framework. Together, the studies show how Twitter's speech–writing hybridity extends beyond a mix of linguistic features, and challenges a traditional idea of writing as a mere representation of speech. Talk-like tweeting remediates (Bolter & Grusin, 2000) presence and embodiment, forgoing the abstraction of phonetic print literacy for nonverbal expressivity and an embodied written surface. Twitter talk is shown not simply to substitute literacy norms for oral norms, but to complicate and reconfigure these norms. Talk-like tweeting makes manifest an ongoing cultural renegotiation of the meanings of speech and writing in the era of digital social media.

  • 13.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur (from 2013).
    Metalanguaging as resistance: The socially-mediated rejection of public apologies in the wake of #MeToo2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate how local negotiations of linguistic normativity form part of a structure of civic engagement or political participation in today's socially mediated publics. The public apology is a discursive genre that has received much folk linguistic attention in public debate (e.g., Ancarno, 2015), especially in the wake of the #MeToo movement of 2017–2018. Several prominent examples of such public apologies have been characterized as empty apologies, pseudo apologies, or, simply, "non-apologies" (cf. Kampf, 2009). This paper presents a case study for a larger project focusing on metapragmatic negotiations and contestations in the reception of public apologies as non-apologies in social media spaces. While the larger project will mainly focus on post-#MeToo cases, this paper addresses a prominent ‘portal case,’ namely Donald Trump’s “Pussygate” apology video, which was published in October of 2016 on Trump’s Facebook page. The paper presents analyses of Twitter conversations (i.e. conversational reply-chains) about this apology video from the days immediately following its release, with a microanalytic (Giles et al., 2015) focus on how metalinguistic notions of real versus non-apologies are articulated in informal public discourse. Negotiations of the Trump video’s merits as an apology are rarely only that, but rather tend to be interwoven with affectively charged ideological positionings – in relation to party politics, progressivism, feminism, and more. Through articulating notions such as non-apology, social media interactants are in effect practicing a kind of layperson’s critical discourse analysis.

  • 14.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur (from 2013).
    No one is "pro-politically correct": Positive construals of political correctness in Twitter conversations2016Ingår i: Fact or fiction?: Studies in honour of Solveig Granath / [ed] Elisabeth Wennö, Marie Tåqvist, Peter Wikström, Johan Wijkmark, Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2016, s. 159-170Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates use of the contested term politically correct (PC) in written conversational exchanges on Twitter. PC is sometimes assumed to be entirely a fabrication by conservatives or the far right, not a label that anyone would voluntarily attach to themselves. This study focuses on discursive instantiations of PC that challenge this assumption by construing PC favorably. To this end, a small set of conversations featuring more-or-less clearly positive construals of PC, selected from an initial material of 184 Twitter conversations containing the target phrase “politically correct,” are analyzed in detail. The aim is to see how such construals appear and function in everyday discourse.

  • 15.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur (from 2013). Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för språk- och litteraturdidaktik (from 2013).
    Nonpology unaccepted: Insincere apologies in social media discourse2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a pilot study of how social media interactants construct a notion ofnonpologies. Nonpology is a neologism sometimes found in social media discussions of what research has called, e.g., “non-apologies” or “quasi-apologies” (Kampf, 2009). Such concepts often relate to a socially recognized genre of “public apologies” (An- carno, 2015) by politicians, celebrities, or corporate spokespersons. Public apologies that rate as nonpologies may either lack an explicit moment of apologizing, or come across as insincere or self-serving in some way. This study focuses on how Twitter in- teractants construe public apology-framed events, for instance in wake of the #MeTooawareness raising campaign of late 2017. The material is a collection of Twitter conver- sations in which at least one interlocutor refers to an event specifically as a nonpology. This material is analyzed in a microanalytic framework with a focus on the emic (i.e., discourse participants’) construction of the concept. For example, talking about come- dian James Corden’s apology for a rape joke, two Twitter users orient to the apology as insufficient and insincere:

    1. A:  Ugh his apology is so shit. SNL did Weinstein jokes that ripped Weinstein. It can be done. Corden just acted like rape is hilarious.

    2. B:  Yup. He punched right down.

    B: And it’s a nonpology; I’m sorry IF you were offended.

    Here, A dismisses Corden’s apology as “so shit,” suggesting that the apology was inad- equate to make up for the transgression of the rape joke. B replies to A’s tweet twice. First, B aligns with A’s criticism of the rape joke itself. Second, B expands on A’s dis- missal of the apology by labeling it a nonpology. B elaborates on the nonpology concept by constructing a paraphrase of Corden’s apology. In the paraphrase, B conceptualizes the nonpology as being focused on the taking of offense rather than on the transgression itself, and as being conditional (B emphasizes “IF”).

    Through analysis of such instances, the pilot study aims to contribute to the develop- ment of a larger project on non-apologies in mediated interaction. Since the focus is on everyday interaction, the project will contribute to linguistic/interactional scholarship on the structure and felicity conditions of apologies in general. Further, since the con- cepts of nonpologies are formulated in response to events of critical political signifi- cance in the public’s view, the project will contribute to our understanding of everyday, micro-level, political participation in the context of digitally-mediated publics.

    Ancarno, C. (2015). When are public apologies “successful”? Focus on British and French apology press uptakes. Journal of Pragmatics, 84, 139–153.

    Kampf, Z. (2009). Public (non-) apologies: The discourse of minimizing responsibility. Journal of Pragmatics, 41(11), 2257–2270.

  • 16.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur.
    Not even real words: User construals of Twitter discourse as ‘talk-like’2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Linguistic research on computer-mediated communication has frequently addressed the supposed or actual orality (broadly, ‘spoken-likeness’ or ‘conversationality’) of written language in online contexts, and tends to construe orality in ‘discourse-external’ terms – e.g., in terms of theoretically or computationally motivated formal categories. This study presents an approach toward complementing extant research by focusing on ‘discourse-internal’ construals, or participant orientations (Schegloff 1997). The aim is to examine how Twitter users construe talk, on their own terms, when explicitly describing Twitter discourse as ‘talk-like’. The material comprises manually collected retrievals (via Twitter’s web-based search interface) of tweets containing the string “tweet/s like [pronoun] talk/s”, for the pronouns I, you, he, she, and they (N=300). Two research questions are addressed:

    i. When Twitter users refer to their own or their peers’ Twitter discourse as being talk-like, how, if at all, do they substantiate notions of talk-likeness?

    ii. What attitudes or values are attached to the notions talk-likeness expressed?

    The results show that construals are often left implicit, but sometimes elaborated either in the body of a single tweet or over the course of a conversational exchange between multiple users. When elaborated, the construals are very diverse, but sometimes directly pertinent to categories common in both popular debate and scholarly work, such as mode, register, correctness, and appropriateness (see e.g. Baron 2008; Crystal 2006, 2008; Hård af Segerstad 2003; Jonsson 2013; Meredith & Stokoe 2014; Wikström 2014). For instance, some users associate talk-likeness with grammatical or orthographic (in-) correctness (Example 1), and others associate it with orthographic or lexical representation of dialect or accent (2), or less tangible notions of voice or tone (3).

    1. I tweet like I talk so if I spell some wrong it was on purpose. ... shiiid I passed all my English classes.......
    2. Hate it when scots tweet like they talk, you're not even writing real words
    3. @username oh my. He tweets like he talks. I can literally hear his overly preachy tone in those tweets…
    4. The reason I know it's not really [Jennifer] is because she's too grammatically correct. [Jen] tweets like she talks.

    The expressed attitudes and values concern, inter alia, perceived problems of comprehensibility or appropriateness, both amusement and annoyance at the novelty of talk-like written language, and affiliation with identity categories or notions of authentic identity (Example 4; cf. Benwell & Stokoe 2006:245; Deumert 2014). Overall, the results suggest that a focus on users’ construals of their own computer-mediated discourse offers a window on how issues of theoretical interest to linguists, such as mode and register, are not only instantiated but also actively negotiated in online language use.

    References

    Baron, N. S. (2008). Always on: Language in an online and mobile world. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Benwell, B., & Stokoe, E. (2006). Discourse and identity Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

    Crystal, D. (2006). Language and the Internet (2 ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Crystal, D. (2008). Txtng: The gr8 deb8. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Deumert, A. (2014). The performance of a ludic self on social network(ing) sites. In P. Seargeant & C. Tagg (Eds.), The language of social media: Identity and community on the internet (pp. 23-45). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Hård af Segerstad, Y. (2003). Use and adaptation of written language to the conditions of computer-mediated communication (2 ed.). Gothenburg: University of Gothenburg.

    Jonsson, E. (2013). Conversational writing: A multidimensional study of synchronous and supersynchronous computer-mediated communication. Uppsala University: Engelska institutionen.

    Meredith, J., & Stokoe, E. (2014). Repair: Comparing Facebook ‘chat’ with spoken interaction. Discourse & Communication, 8(2), 181-207. doi: 10.1177/1750481313510815

    Schegloff, E. A. (1997). Whose text? Whose context? Discourse & Society, 8(2), 165-187. doi: 10.1177/0957926597008002002

    Wikström, P. (2014). & she was like "O_O": Animation of reported speech on Twitter. Nordic Journal of English Studies, 13(3), 83-111. 

  • 17.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur.
    & she was like "O_O": Animation of reported speech on Twitter2014Ingår i: Nordic Journal of English Studies, ISSN 1654-6970, E-ISSN 1654-6970, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. 83-111Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study relates discourse-pragmatic aspects of the use of the quotatives say, be like, be all, and go to the question of the supposed or actual spoken-likeness of written computer-mediated communication (CMC). 1,800 tokens of reported speech, collected from Twitter, were analyzed in a “constructed dialogue” framework (Tannen, 2007). The results show that users of Twitter employ various CMC devices to animate and modally enrich reported speech, especially in speech reports with be like, be all, and go. They perform a style of communication that is reminiscent of conversational speech, even while having qualities that seem to belong uniquely to CMC.

  • 18.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur.
    #srynotfunny: Communicative functions of hashtags on Twitter2014Ingår i: SKY Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 1456-8438, E-ISSN 1796-279X, Vol. 27, s. 127-152Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates various communicative functions served by hashtags in written communication on Twitter from a linguistic pragmatic perspective. A tweet containing a hashtag links to, and is integrated into, a timeline of other tweets containing the same hashtag. Thus, hashtags are by default categorizing or organizing; a user of Twitter may add the tag #food to their tweet to integrate it into a general conversation about this topic. However, this study demonstrates that hashtags are also used creatively to perform other communicative functions. In the data presented, hashtags are employed as complexly multifunctional linguistic devices for, among other things, structuring information, playing games, and engaging in reflexive meta-commentary. Notably, while pragmatic methodology is typically applied to speech, this study indicates that a traditional speech acts framework may be profitably applied to written communication in new media.

  • 19.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur (from 2013).
    Thought police, bigots, and PC emojis: Construals of political correctness in Twitter conversations2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the discursive construction of political correctness (PC) in everyday written interaction on social media. The notion of PC has emerged as a contentious emblem of polarized political discourse in the Left–Right and progressive–conservative interfaces, recently perhaps especially in the light of social media campaigns for social justice such as 16 MOOD – S 2016 – Book of Abstracts #BlackLivesMatter. As the OED notes, PC may in contemporary, typically depreciative, usage be taken to mean “conforming to a body of liberal or radical opinion, esp. on social matters, usually characterized by the advocacy of approved causes or views, and often by the rejection of language, behaviour, etc., considered discriminatory or offensive”(Politically, n.d.). Commentators, critics, and scholars exhibit a range of perspectives on the meanings and functions of PC (see e.g. D’Souza, 1991; Wilson, 1995; Lakoff, 2000; Fairclough, 2003), but naturalistic empirical work on PC as a discursive entity in everyday language is largely lacking (Granath & Ullén, forthcoming).

    The present study aims to contribute to an empirically grounded understanding of PC via analysis of the meanings and functions of labeling something or someone as politically correct on Twitter. To this end, a dataset of 159 conversations (i.e., reply chains automatically marked as conversations by Twitter) featuring the exact phrase “politically correct” was collected. The focus on conversational tweets comes with some limitations, but yielded a material of Twitter users interacting with one another on political topics, responding to news events, commenting on pictures, et cetera, revealing how these discourse participants reproduce, contest, and negotiate notions of PC. In a context partly defined by context collapse (Marwick & boyd, 2011), some Twitter users situate their construals of PC in public discourse by @-addressing public figures or using hashtags, whereas others deploy joking accusations of PC in more “private” interactions. Conversations range from playful to heated, sometimes in the course of a single exchange.

    In its analytical approach, this study attempts to square the circle of respecting the perspectives of discourse participants, while retaining a critical political engagement (Bucholtz & Hall, 2008). It is argued that empirical attention paid to the functional flexibility of the PC label in a social media context may help elucidate, if not resolve, the apparent intractability of both public and private ideological disputes which are variously viewed as stifled by political correctness or stifled by accusations of political correctness.

  • 20.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur (from 2013).
    Tweeting like one talks: Approaching 'talker identity' emically2016Ingår i: Research methods as practice: Current fieldwork strategies and methodological accountings, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper highlights methodological challenges involved in approaching the issue of online ‘orality’ from a novel emic perspective, based on material and analyses from an ongoing study of how users of Twitter construe the notion of ‘talk-like’ tweeting.

  • 21.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur.
    Twitter's affordances for animation of reported speech2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 22.
    Wikström, Peter
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur (from 2013).
    When I need/want to: Normativity, identity, and form in user construals of 'talk-like' tweeting2016Ingår i: Discourse, Context & Media, ISSN 2211-6958, E-ISSN 2211-6966, Vol. 14, s. 54-62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this study is on how Twitter users construe talk-like tweeting in metalinguistic utterances. In a material of tweets containing or responding to explicit comparisons of tweeting to talking (N=520), a broad range of construals are identified, showing Twitter users associating talk-likeness with, e.g., notions of the textual representation of voice, of grammatical (in-)correctness, of accurately reflecting one׳s ‘real-life’ identity, and of regional or social variation in language use. These associations frequently serve normative functions, enforcing or contesting linguistic and discursive norms in both serious and playful ways. The findings offer a novel perspective on the oft-debated orality of computer-mediated discourse, providing a window on how a process of enregisterment (Agha, 2007) is instantiated and how language norms are actively negotiated by participants in everyday online language use on Twitter.

  • 23.
    Wikström, Peter
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur (from 2013).
    Sandlund, Erica
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för språk, litteratur och interkultur (from 2013).
    Unacceptable non-apologies: The production and receipt of public apologies in mediated interaction in the wake of #MeToo2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Late 2017 saw the emergence of #MeToo, a social media-based campaign concerning sexual assault and harassment. #MeToo has resulted in several public statements from high-profile figures accused of transgressions ranging from inappropriate comments to outright assault. Such statements have frequently been treated in journalistic and social media as failed or absent apologies – as non-apologies. The present paper focuses on the mediated delivery of apologies and their receipt as non-apologies across traditional (broadcast and print) media and new social media. As empirical cases, we examine three media events from the global #MeToo movement: the Donald Trump “PussyGate” affair, a controversial joke about the Harvey Weinstein case by TV host James Corden, and public accusations of sexual harrassment leveled against a well-known Swedish TV show host. We specifically focus on the grounds for rejecting apologies by examining how the apology was 1)designed and launched, and 2) interpreted and assessed in media/social media. Using conversation analysis (CA) (Sacks, Schegloff & Jefferson, 1974; Clayman & Heritage, 2002) and textual discourse analysis, we demonstrate how responses orient to selected aspects of the apology in assessing it, such as blame-shifting, trivialization, accounts of intentions, or conditionalization. By examining the original apologies in their sequential and discursive contexts (e.g. Robinson, 2004; Drew et al, 2016), and contrasting their composition and delivery with the grounds for rejection brought forth in reactions, the study aims to enhance our understanding of the social delicacy of public apologizing and the selective recontextualization of such apologies in receipts and rejections.

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