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  • 1. Björlin-Lidén, Sara
    et al.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    The Effect of Service Guarantees on Service Recovery2003In: International Journal of Service Industry Management, 14:(1), 36-58, 2003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service guarantees have been attributed the benefit of improving the overall service of a service provider. However, little research has been carried out within the area. This article focus on one aspect of the service guarantee, the effects that service guarantees may have on service recovery. Critical incident data were collected using the critical incident interview technique with customers of RadissonSAS, a worldwide hotel chain using a service guarantee. One contribution of this article is that the interviews convey that the implicit guarantee may serve as a risk reducer, which contradicts and adds to previous research. Previous research states that only the explicit guarantee has these benefits. In this case, the guarantee does not reduce risk in the purchase or consumption stage, but after the consumption when the service has failed, as the customer finds out about the guarantee in the recovery situation. Another contribution of this article is that service guarantees are found to influence the outcome of service recovery as it affects how employees behave to recover the customer.



    Keywords: Service guarantee, Service Recovery, RadissonSAS

  • 2.
    Bredvold, Randi
    et al.
    Lillehammer University College, Norway.
    Skålén, Per
    Lillehammer University College, Norway.
    Lifestyle entrepreneurs and their identity construction: A study of the tourism industry2016In: Tourism Management, ISSN 0261-5177, E-ISSN 1879-3193, Vol. 56, 96-105 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study takes issue with the uniform conceptualization of lifestyle entrepreneurs in previous research by drawing on identity theory and life-story interviews with lifestyle entrepreneurs in Norway. This article aims to show how lifestyle entrepreneurs create their entrepreneurial identity and how this identity informs both their entrepreneurial actions in different ways and how they manage the enterprise. On the basis of a narrative understanding of identity this article differentiates between two dimensions of identity construction: (1) socially and culturally embedded versus independent, and (2) flexible versus stable. The main contribution of this study is that embedded or independent and also flexible or stable identity constructions dominate the identity-construction process for individual lifestyle entrepreneurs. On the basis of the latter this article reports four narrative types of lifestyleentrepreneur identity construction: (1) the modern, (2) the loyal, (3) the freedom-seeking, (4) and the post-modern lifestyle entrepreneur.

  • 3.
    Cova, Bernard
    et al.
    Kedge Business Sch, F-13288 Marseille 9, France..
    Pace, Stefano
    Kedge Business Sch, F-13288 Marseille 9, France..
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Brand volunteering: Value co-creation with unpaid consumers2015In: Marketing Theory, ISSN 1470-5931, E-ISSN 1741-301X, Vol. 15, no 4, 465-485 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through collaborative marketing approaches, companies invite consumers to provide unpaid contributions. Companies commonly do this in the realm of brand communities. The key question this article addresses is how can a company lead consumers to offer unpaid contributions to brands as an act of free will? To answer this question, we develop a framework based on volunteer commitment research to study the actions a company takes to engage consumers in unpaid work for brands. We use this framework to analyse the online collaboration promoted by the carmaker Fiat with its brand community of Alfa Romeo enthusiasts (Alfisti). The research introduces the notion of brand volunteers, that is, brand enthusiasts who are committed to providing unpaid work for the exclusive benefit of the brand. With this notion, the article discusses the possibility of exploiting consumers in value co-creation and the existence of compromises, signifying an agreement between two collaborating parties in which one party (in our case, the consumer) temporarily puts aside possible sources of conflict.

  • 4. Cova, Bernard
    et al.
    Pace, Stefano
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Value Co-Creation through Boundary Spanning Practices: Theoretical Considerations for Studying Community-Firm Collaborations2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Cova, Bernard
    et al.
    Kedge Business School, France.
    Stefano, Pace
    Kedge Business School, France.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Marketing with working consumers: The case of a carmaker and its brand community2015In: Organization, ISSN 1350-5084, Vol. 22, no 5, 682-701 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumers have entered the world of contemporary organizations. They are even being reconsidered as workers. This article contributes to the body of literature on this theme by focusing on collaborative marketing, which is the organization of marketing work conducted jointly by marketing professionals and consumers. This article draws on the ethnographic study of a collaborative marketing programme organized by the carmaker Alfa Romeo that engaged Alfisti, the enthusiastic consumers of the Alfa Romeo brand. Previous research has analysed work carried out by consumers. This article instead analyses the organization of consumer work and what marketing professionals do to integrate consumer work into their marketing work. This article concludes that marketing professionals control working consumers as if they were wage labourers, which most consumers do not appreciate. Conversely, working consumers compel marketers to engage in social and emotional labour, which marketers are not accustomed to and try to limit.

  • 6.
    Echeverri, Per
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Co-creation and co-destruction:: A practice-theory based study of interactive value formation2011In: Marketing Theory, ISSN 1470-5931, E-ISSN 1741-301X, Vol. 11, no 3, 351-373 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on an empirical study of public transport, this paper studies interactive value formation at the provider—customer interface, from a practice—theory perspective. In contrast to the bulk of previous research, it argues that interactive value formation is not only associated with value co-creation but also with value co-destruction. In addition, the paper also identifies five interaction value practices — informing, greeting, delivering, charging, and helping — and theorizes how interactive value formation takes place as well as how value is intersubjectively assessed by actors at the provider—customer interface. Furthermore, the paper also distinguishes between four types of interactive value formation praxis corresponding with four subject positions which practitioners step into when engaging in interactive value formation.

  • 7.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    The Role of Trust Drivers in Service Quality Management1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Norway.
    Service Systems as a Foundation for Resource Integration and Value Co-creation2012In: Toward a Better Understanding of the Role of Value in Markets and Marketing: Special Issue / [ed] Naresh K. Malhotra, Stephen L. Vargo, Robert F. Lusch, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2012, Vol. 9, 79-126 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The aim is to introduce a sociological perspective on resource integration and value co-creation into service research using a service systems approach. Methodology/approach - Conceptual and a case study of the service system a Telecom Equipment and Service Provider is embedded in is reported. Findings - The service practice of the service system is framed by social structures of signification, legitimation, and domination. However, the practice is also independent of the structures since it is embedded in and shapes the structural realm. Research implications and limitations - Drawing on structuration and practice theory, the chapter offers a new framework describing how social and service structures and practices can inform and reveal mechanisms of service system dynamics. Based on the framework, three propositions are developed focusing on the mechanisms of resource integration and value co-creation. The implications need to be generalized in future research by studying other empirical contexts. Practical implications - The chapter provides some tentative guidelines on how organizations can design service systems that enable and support customers and other actors in their resource integration and value co-creation processes by paying attention to social structures and forces and not only resources as such. Originality - The chapter explicates how social structures have implications for value co-creation and resource integration in service system. It makes systematic use of structuration and practice theory to understand the social dimensions of service systems. A distinction between intended and realized resource integration is made.

  • 9. Ek, Richard
    et al.
    Fougère, Martin
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Revisiting Foucualt through Reading Agamben: Implications for Work Place Subjectification, Desubjectification and the Dark Side of Organizations2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10. Enquist, Bo
    et al.
    Johnsson, Mikael
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Adoption of Corporate Social Responsibility: A Stakeholder View2006In: Qualitative Research in Accounting and ManagementArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Enquist, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Johnsson, Mikael
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    From Shareholder Strategy to Social Harmony?: The Institutionalization of Corporate Social Responsibility in Swedbank2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Fougère, Martin
    et al.
    HANKEN, Helsinki.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Extension in the Subjectifying Power of Marketing Ideology in Organizations: A Foucauldian Analysis of Academic Marketing2013In: Journal of Macromarketing, ISSN 0276-1467, E-ISSN 1552-6534, Vol. 33, no 1, 13-28 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13. Fougère, Martin
    et al.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    The Power(/Knowledge) of Marketing2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Fransson, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Quist, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Why do public services fail?: A service logic study of failure demand2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Fyrberg-Yngfalk, Anna
    et al.
    School of Business, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Cova, Bernard
    Kedge Business School, Marseille, France.
    Pace, Stefano
    Kedge Business School, Marseille, France.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Control and Power in Online Consumer Tribes: The Role of Confessions2013In: Research in consumer behavior, ISSN 0885-2111, Vol. 15, 325-350 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Confessions are said to be important for members' tribal experiences and they are usually ascribed religious meanings in existing research on consumer tribes. This suggests that confessions have a regulative role for tribal life. By employing the Foucauldian notion of pastoral power, the present study explores confession practices and examines how control is manifested. Methodology - The study is based on a netnographic study and analysis of tribal members' confessions across three online consumer tribes devoted to opera (Loggionisti, who are opera aficionados of the La Scala theatre in Milan, Italy), sports (football and hockey fans of Djurgården, Sweden), and cars (Alfa Romeo owners). Findings - We demonstrate how confessions align consumers with the common tribe ethos and how this constitutes members into various subject positions, which are fundamental social processes for reinforcing the tribe. More specifically, it demonstrates four types of subject positions: the 'pastor', 'regular sheep', 'good sheep' and 'black sheep', and how these subject positions regulate the actions of tribe members. Research implications - The present study theorizes how control is manifested and facilitated in consumer tribes. The study also explicates the confession and its role as a religious regulating practice fundamental for the life of a consumer tribe. Practical implications - Community managers can recognize the different subject positions that emerge within a community and help facilitate the interactions among community members. Originality/value of chapter - Previous studies are silent about how confessions reproduce control in consumer tribes. The present study highlights confession practices and the constitution of subject positions, which regulate as well as reinforce consumer tribes.

  • 16. Hasselbladh, Hans
    et al.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Aktiv styrning av sjukskrivningens praktik och subjekt2006In: Hälsans styrning av arbetet / [ed] Holmqvist, Mikael och Maravelias, Christian, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2006Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Holmqvist, Mikael
    et al.
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Maravelias, Christian
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Identity Regulation in Neo-liberal Societies: Learning to Behave as an ‘Occupationally Disabled’ Individual in Sweden2013In: Organization, ISSN 1350-5084, E-ISSN 1461-7323, Vol. 20, no 2, 193-211 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Kaluza, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Addressing Public Sector Challenges from a Service Logic Perspective2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A whole range of new public management (NPM) initiatives has during the last 30 years been introduced to meet the challenges of the public sector. The political aim for many of these NPM initiatives has been to get control over public spending and increase the internal efficiency of public sector organizations (PSOs). This has been done, mainly through introducing practices and programs, which has been developed within industrial organizations. In this conceptual paper we outline a service logic framework, which addresses the challenges of the public sector. We argue that this framework may counterbalance the NPM initiatives that has promoted and institutionalized goods logic practices and programs within PSOs. The main notion of this service logic framework is that citizens, as end-users, create value to become better off or to solve a problem. This is done through integration of different resources. The role of PSOs within the service logic is to facilitate resources and/or through interaction collaboratively co-create value. Drawing on a larger service system value creation, value facilitation and value co-creation can be seen as parts of a wider social system which makes them contextual. By outlining a service logic framework, for the public sector, we also suggested 12 implications for management and scholars within the field. 

  • 19.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Skalen, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Exploring front-line employee contributions to service innovation2015In: European Journal of Marketing, ISSN 0309-0566, E-ISSN 1758-7123, Vol. 49, no 9-10, 1346-1365 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This paper aims to study front-line employees' contribution to service innovation, when they contribute and how they are involved in service innovation. Design/methodology/approach - The paper draws on a multiple-case study on service innovation in four organizations with extensive front-line employee involvement. The main data collection methods are interviews and observations. Findings - The paper suggests that front-line employees contribute customer knowledge, product knowledge and practice knowledge during five phases of the service innovation process - project formation, idea generation, service design, testing and implementation - and that front-line employee involvement ranges from active to passive. Research limitations/implications - Statistical generalization of the results is needed. Practical implications - The paper reveals that early and active front-line employee involvement in the service innovation process creates conditions for a positive contribution to service innovation. Originality/value - The paper suggests that early and active knowledge contributions by front-line employees to the service innovation process are associated with the creation of attractive value propositions.

  • 20.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Employee Driven Service Innovation: A Multiple Case Study2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Sundström, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    How Frontline Employees Nurture Service Innovation through Co-creation with Their Customers: A Case Study of Public Health Care2014In: Framing innovation in public sectors / [ed] Rolf Rönning, Bo Enquist, Lars Fuglsang, New York: Routledge, 2014, Vol. 30, 18-40 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Sundström, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Remote Innovation2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Sundström, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Remote and Concurrent Co-Creation: Understanding Service Innovation in Health Care2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Sundström, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Service innovation - implications for management2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Koskela-Huotari, Kaisa
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland .
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    MARKETS AS EVOLVING INSTITUTIONAL PROBLEM-SOLUTION CONFIGURATIONS2016In: WHAT'S AHEAD IN SERVICE RESEARCH?: NEW PERSPECTIVES FOR BUSINESS AND SOCIETY / [ed] Russo-Spena, T & Mele, C, Naples: UNIV NAPLES FEDERICO II, DEPT ECON MGMT & INST , 2016, 618-627 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work-in-progress paper is to further the understanding of how markets function and evolve. We do so by elaborating and extending the recent conceptualization of markets as institutionalized solutions of value cocreation proposed by service-dominant (S-D) logic. To better understand how markets as institutionalized solutions evolve, we draw on literature that connects institutional change to the process of framing. We contribute by theorizing how micro-level changes - i.e. organization-specific differences in framing of e.g. a resource or a role - can become amplified and result in macro-level transformation such as market evolution. We develop a theoretical framework describing how markets as institutionalized solutions evolve as actors use institutional complexity - the existence of multiple institutional arrangements and the corresponding patterns of value cocreation - to create alternative frames to interpret situations and guide individual action and then diffuse the novel frames with the help of different types of frame alignment processes. We also describe how we plan to complement our theoretical inquiry with empirical research that we have recently begun.

  • 26.
    Laamanen, Mikko
    et al.
    Hanken School of Economics, Finland .
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Collective-conflictual value co-creation: A strategic action field approach2015In: Marketing Theory, ISSN 1470-5931, E-ISSN 1741-301X, Vol. 15, no 3, 381-400 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on the theory of strategic action fields, this article explores a collective–conflictual perspective on value co-creation. Following recent developments and calls for research with a holistic outlook, we review streams of research that discuss both collective and discordant elements in social relations and subsequently relate this to value co-creation. We outline a conceptual framework for value co-creation, focusing on collective action that includes various actors, interactions, practices, and outcomes. This article pioneers the underdeveloped collective–conflictual perspective on value co-creation. Our framework enables empirical research in value co-creation that accounts for multiple actors nested in fields of collective action.

  • 27.
    Molander, Sofia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Fellesson, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Market Orientation in Public Transport Research – a review.2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Molander, Sofia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Fellesson, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Market Orientation in Public Transport Research: A Review2012In: Transport reviews, ISSN 0144-1647, E-ISSN 1464-5327, Vol. 32, no 2, 155-180 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Molander, Sofia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Fellesson, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Skålen, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Market Orientation in Public Transport Dyads2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Molander, Sofia
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Fellesson, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Skålen, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Market Orientation in Public Transport Dyads: An empirical examination2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31. Quist, Johan
    et al.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Confessing for Quality2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Most TQM work being done today is influenced, directly or indirectly, by standardized quality models. The present paper focuses on the work with strategic development based on the SIQ model for Performance Excellence at a Swedish public-sector organization, which we label the Authority. Theoretically, we take our standpoint in Foucaults concept of disciplinary power. In the case description, we focus upon the management team of one of the Authoritys 10 regions. Initially, managers were very little affected by the SIQ model. But toward the end of our study, it began to seem as though the organization has been objectified by the model, that a new management subjectivity was emergent as an effect of using the model, and that managers were being normalized by it. We demonstrate that the discourses of quality function as disciplinary technologies when used to develop organizations.

  • 32.
    Quist, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    How to Succeed with TQM in Public Organisations: The Role of the Translator2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33. Quist, Johan
    et al.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Clegg, Stewart R
    The power of quality models: The example of the SIQ model for performance excellence2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34. Quist, Johan
    et al.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Clegg, Stewart R
    The power of quality models: The example of the SIQ model for performance excellence2007In: Scandinavian Journal of ManagementArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most TQM work being done today is influenced, directly or indirectly, by standardized quality models. The present paper focuses on the work with strategic development based on the SIQ model for Performance Excellence at a Swedish public-sector organization, which we label the Authority. Theoretically, we take our standpoint in Foucaults concept of disciplinary power. In the case description, we focus upon the management team of one of the Authoritys 10 regions. Initially, managers were very little affected by the SIQ model. But toward the end of our study, it began to seem as though the organization has been objectified by the model, that a new management subjectivity was emergent as an effect of using the model, and that managers were being normalized by it. We demonstrate that the discourses of quality function as disciplinary technologies when used to develop organizations.

  • 35.
    Quist, Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Enquist, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Kvalitetsarbetets idé och praktik ' skilda världar? Ett meningsskapandeperspektiv på begreppet allas delaktighet,2001Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 36. Rämö, Hans
    et al.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Time and Space in New Public Management Reform: The Case of Geriatric Care2006In: International Journal of Public Sector ManagementArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Implications of new public management (NPM) have been studied from several theoretical perspectives. This paper argues that there is a missing dimension to the theoretical debate regarding NPM reform: that of time and space. To fill this gap, this paper describes two different timespace logicsthe paradigm of speed (used in finance and manufacturing) and the paradigm of closeness (used in health care/care-giving practices). The paper argues that most NPM programs assume a timespace paradigm of speed, but that NPM is often applied to practices institutionalized by closeness. The paper offers two contributions to existing knowledge. First, the use of timespace paradigms in studies of public-sector reform adds to the arsenal of theoretical tools for the analysis of NPM reform. Secondly, the study presents an analysis of an NPM-reform program in geriatric carea context in which ideas of speed clash with the traditional practice of closeness.

  • 37.
    Skålen, Per
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Gummerus, Johanna
    HANKEN, Finland.
    Koskull, Catharina
    HANKEN, Finland.
    Magnusson, Peter R
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Exploring value propositions and service innovation: a service-dominant logic study2015In: Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, ISSN 0092-0703, E-ISSN 1552-7824, Vol. 43, no 2, 137-158 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an eight-firm study, conducted from the service-dominant logic perspective, which makes a contribution regarding knowledge of the anatomy of value propositions and service innovation. The paper suggests that value propositions are configurations of several different practices and resources. The paper finds that ten common practices, organized in three main aggregates, constitute and fulfill value propositions: i.e. provision practices, representational practices, and management and organizational practices. Moreover, the paper suggests that service innovation can be equated with the creation of new value propositions by means of developing existing or creating new practices and/or resources, or by means of integrating practices and resources in new ways. It identifies four types of service innovation (adaptation, resource-based innovation, practice-based innovation, and combinative innovation) and three types of service innovation processes (practice-based, resource-based, and combinative). The key managerial insight provided by the paper is that service innovation must be conducted and value propositions must be evaluated from the perspective of the customers’ value creation, the service that the customer experiences. Successful service innovation is not only contingent on having the right resources, established methods and practices for integrating these resources into attractive value propositions are also needed.

  • 38.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    A discourse analytical approach to qualitative marketing research2010In: Qualitative Market Research, ISSN 1352-2752, Vol. 13, no 2, 103-109 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Institutionalization, Subjectivity and Structural Contradiction: The Disciplinary Power of TQM2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Institutionalization, subjectivity and structural contradiction: The disciplinary power of TQM2006In: Nordic Organization StudiesArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The principal idea in the present paper is that the study of institutionalization can be developed if informed with FoucaultÕs disciplinary power concept. Empirically the paper centers on the institutionalization of TQM, particularly at the County Council of Värmland (CCV), the public health care authority in the region of Värmland, Sweden. At CCV, focus is on two groups; the new management and the old administrators. The analysis displays that the dissimilar discourses and techniques advanced by the groups frame their worldview, which cause a lack of reflexivity amongst managers/administrators. In the remainder it is argued that the paper contributes to the study of institutionalization in two ways. First, it deepens the understanding of contradictions between conflicting social structures and, second, it elaborates on the relationship between the construction of subjectivity and institutionalization.





    Key words: Organization studies, Institutionalization, Disciplinary power, TQM, Subjectivity, Social structure

  • 41.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Kvalitetsidén möter praktiken - institutionalisering, meningsskapande och organisationskultur2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The Idea of Quality Encounters an Organizational Practice

    Institutionalization, Sensemaking and Organizational Culture



    In the new millennium the ideas of New Public Management (NPM) have become more and more popular within the public sector and its health care. NPM is a management philosophy that, among other things, aims at making public organizations more business like. The study explores the encounter between the organizational practice and an NPM idea, the idea of quality, at Landstinget in Värmland (LiV). More precisely the study aims at contributing to the discourse on effects of institutionalization as well as to knowledge on the process of local institutionalization. Another purpose of the study is to contribute to quality development in organizations.

    In order to do this, a project of quality (LiV 2002) at LiV is followed in time and space. In the empirical section three actor groups are identified, the new management, the old officials and the health care personnel. Between the old officials and the new management, and between the health care personnel and the new management conflicts burst out. The reason for these conflicts is, among other things, the actor groups' diverging cultural conceptions.

    In the conclusion the idea of quality is, to a certain extent, found to be institutionalized in the formal structure of LiV. But the greater part of the actors' action and thought schemes are unaffected. However, the actors at LiV are not fully unaffected by the idea of quality. It is argued that the cultural conceptions of the old officials and the health care personnel are reproduced during the work on quality. In the discussion concerning contributions, a model for studying local institutionalization from the perspective of sensemaking is put forward. It is argued that the model enables students of local institutionalization to focus on the cognitive micro processes of institutionalization. In the discussion on quality development, the focus is on difficulties and obstacles with quality development. These are found to be cultural conceptions, preservative sensemaking, processes of translation and that most public organizations are arena organizations.

  • 42.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Managing Service Firms: The Power of Managerial Marketing2010Book (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Managing Service Firms: The Power of Managerial Marketing2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Marketing and Subjectivity: The Shaping of Customer-Oriented Front Line Employees2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Marketing and Subjectivity: The Shaping of Customer-Oriented Front Line Employees2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    New public management reform and the construction of organisational identities2004In: The International Journal of Public Sector Management 17(3): 251-263, 2004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An underlying and fundamental aim of New Public Management (NPM) reform program is to transform the organizational identity of public organizations into a business like identity. In this paper the construction of organizational identity as an effect of NPM initiatives is analyzed from a sensemaking perspective. The study draws on data from a two and a half year study of the introduction of NPM at the public health care authority in the region of Värmland in Sweden. It is concluded that NPM creates heterogeneous, conflicting and fluid organizational identities rather than the uniform and stable business identity it is supposed to.





    Keywords: New Public Management, Sensemaking, Organizational identity, Reform, Health care administration.

  • 47.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    New Public Management Reform: Power/Knowledge, Disciplinary Power and Governmentality2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present paper a new public management (NPM) reform program is studied by using Foucaults two forms of power/knowledge - disciplinary power and governmentality. Empirically, the paper centers on the implementation of TQM at the County Council of Värmland (CCV), the public healthcare authority for the region of Värmland, Sweden. At the CCV, the focus is on two groups; the 'new management' and the 'old administrators'. The analysis shows that the dissimilar discourses and techniques of control advanced by the 'new management' and the 'old administrators' frame and discipline their worldview. It is argued that NPM and the institutionalized managerial discourse at the CCV produce competing subjectivities that impede change and that NPM changes governmentality on the textual level but that such changes are resisted in practice.



    Keywords: Public sector reform, Power/knowledge, Disciplinary power, Governmentality, Subjectivity.

  • 48.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Review of Christian Grönroos In search of a new logic for marketing: Foundations for contemporary theory"2008In: Scandinavian Journal of ManagementArticle, book review (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Review of "Critical Marketing Mapping the Field"2008In: International Journal of Service Industry ManagementArticle, book review (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Skålén, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Service Marketing and Subjectivity: The shaping of customer-oriented employees2009In: Journal of Marketing Management, ISSN 0267-257X, E-ISSN 1472-1376, Vol. 25, no 7-8, 795-809 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 78
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