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  • 1. Bamberg, Sebastian
    et al.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Behaviour Theory and Soft Transport Policy Measures2011In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 228-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim is to propose a theoretical grounding of soft transport policy measures that aim at promoting voluntary reduction of car use. A general conceptual framework is first presented to clarify how hard and soft transport policy measures impact on car-use reduction. Two different behavioural theories that have been used to account for car use and car-use reduction are then integrated in a self-regulation theory that identifies four stages of the process of voluntarily changing car use: setting a car-use reduction goal, forming a plan for achieving the goal, initiating and executing the plan, and evaluating the outcome of the plan execution. A number of techniques are described that facilitate the different stages of the process of voluntary car-use reduction and which should be used in personalized travel planning programs.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Perceived Attributes of Bus and Car Influencing Satisfaction with the Work Commute2011In: The 9th Biannual conference of Environmental Psychology, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Eriksson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Perceived Attributes of Bus and Car Mediating Satisfaction with the Work Commute2013In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 47, p. 87-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an experimental simulation employing 123 undergraduates the effect of different travel modes on satisfaction with travel, mood after the day traveled, and satisfaction with the day as a whole were assessed for the work commute by car or bus. Car was rated higher than bus on satisfaction with travel. This mode difference was accounted for by ratings of the mode-specific attributes fun, lifestyle match, and feeling secure for which car was rated higher than bus. It was also shown that satisfaction with travel partially mediated the effect of travel mode on mood. Satisfaction with the day as a whole was however not influenced by travel mode when controlling for the mood effect of travel.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Department of Psychology, Göteborg University.
    Stated reasons for reducing work-commute by car2008In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, p. 427-433Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Ettema, D
    et al.
    Faculty of Geosciences, Department of Human Geography and Planning, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Department of Psychology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Out-of-Home Activities, Daily Travel, and Subjective Well-Being2010In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 44, no 9, p. 723-732Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is argued that utility theory that underpins current cost-benefit analyses of daily travel needs to be complemented. An alternative theoretical framework is to this end proposed which applies subjective well-being (SWB) to travel behaviour analysis. It is posited in this theoretical framework that participation in goal-directed activities, facilitated or hindered by travel, contributes to SWB, that the degree of travel-related stress in participating in these activities reduces SWB, and that positive affect associated with travel in itself has an impact on SWB.

  • 6. Ettema, Dick
    et al.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Overview of Handbook of Sustainable Travel2014In: Handbook of Sustainable Travel / [ed] Gärling, Friman, Ettema, Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2014, p. 3-14Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7. Ettema, Dick
    et al.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    How in-vehicle activities affect work commuters’ satisfaction with public transport2012In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 24, p. 215-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has recently questioned the commonly held opinion that travel time is valued as negative, arguing that engagement inactivities during travel may make these trips more enjoyable or productive. Satisfactionwith travel has to date been assessed using utility-based models or measures of productivity of the trip. The present study is the first to assess the influence of activities performed during travel on publictransport users’ subjective well-being. To this end, a survey was conducted in Sweden in 2010 in which activities during the work commute by publictransport were recorded and subjective well-being during travel was measured retrospectively using the Satisfactionwith Travel Scale (STS). Results show that talking to other passengers has the strongest positive effect on STS, whereas activities related to entertainment and relaxation lead to lower STS, possibly since engaging in these activities reflect unsuccessful attempts to abate boredom. In addition, it is found that activities during travel may have a more positive effect on the commute back home, suggesting that the mindset related to the destination influences travel satisfaction.

  • 8.
    Ettema, Dick
    et al.
    Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, Netherlands.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. University of Gothenburg.
    Travel Mode Use, Travel Mode Shift and Subjective Well-Being: Overview of Theories, Empirical Findings and Policy Implications2016In: Mobility, Sociability and Wellbeing of Urban Living / [ed] Wang, Donggen, He, Shenjing, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg , 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Ettema, Dick
    et al.
    Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University Utrecht, Netherland.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Season and Weather Effects on Travel-Related Mood and Travel Satisfaction.2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the effects of season and weather on mood (valence and activation) and travel satisfaction (measured by the Satisfaction with Travel Scale). Analyses are presented of 562 time-sampled morning commutes to work made by 363 randomly sampled people in three different Swedish cities asking them to use smartphones to report their mood in their home before and directly after the commutes. These reports as well as satisfaction with the commute obtained in summer and winter are linked to weather data and analyzed by means of fixed-effects regression analyses. The results reveal main effects of weather (temperature and precipitation) on mood and travel satisfaction (temperature, sunshine, precipitation, and wind speed). The effects of weather on mood and travel satisfaction differ depending on travel mode. Temperature leads to a more positive mood, wind leads to higher activation for public transport users, and sunshine leads to a more negative mood for cyclists and pedestrians. Sunshine and higher temperatures make travel more relaxed although not for cycling and walking, and rain and snow lead to a higher cognitive assessed quality of travel.

  • 10.
    Ettema, Dick
    et al.
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Kyoto University, Japan.
    Satisfaction with travel and subjective well-being (SWB): Development and tests of a measurement tool2011In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 167-175Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11. Ettema, Dick
    et al.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Travel and Well-Being2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12. Ettema, Dick
    et al.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Moerdijk, S
    The Road to Happiness?: Measuring Satisfaction of Dutch Car Drivers with Their Travel Using the Satisfaction with Travel Scale (STS)2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Ettema, Dick
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    A happy work commute2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Japan.
    Ettema, Dick
    The Netherlands.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 500, 40530 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Psychometric analysis of the satisfaction with travel scale2013In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 48, p. 132-145Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Ettema, Dick
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Tillfredsställelse med vardagliga resor oavsett färdmedel - psykometrisk analys av STS Skalan2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Ettema, D.
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Improvement of public transport services for non-cycling travelers2018In: Travel Behaviour & Society, ISSN 2214-367X, E-ISSN 2214-3688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we argue that the current focus on cycling must not neglect the need to improve public transport services for the large number of people who do not want to or are unable to cycle. An attractive public transport service is currently therefore the most important component of a sustainable transportation system. The question we address is what measures are needed to improve public transport to make people who do not cycle satisfied with the services such that their well-being increases. Based on research studies of satisfaction with public transport, measures at three levels of public transport services (use, access/egress, and overall) are identified and discussed.

  • 17.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Ettema, Dick
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    How does travel affect emotional well-being and life satisfaction?2017In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 106, p. 170-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has investigated satisfaction with work commutes. We extend this research by investigating whether satisfaction with all daily travel (including work commutes, school, leisure, and shopping trips) is related to life satisfaction and emotional well-being. A random sample of 367 participants was recruited from three urban areas in Sweden (Karlstad, Goteborg, and Stockholm) varying from a small (appr. 90,000 residents) through a medium (appr. 550,000 residents) to a large population size (appr. 925,000 residents). In a questionnaire the participants reported retrospectively their satisfaction with all daily travel, life satisfaction, and emotional well-being. Direct and indirect effects of travel satisfaction on life satisfaction and emotional well-being were analysed with PLS-SEM. Results showed that satisfaction with daily travel directly influences emotional well-being and both directly and indirectly life satisfaction. It is also found that driving and active modes have more positive effects than public transport.

  • 18.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Larhult, Lina
    Gärling, Tommy
    University of Gothenburg, Göteborg.
    An Analysis of Soft Transport Policy Measures Implemented in Sweden to Reduce Private Car Use2013In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 109-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluations carried out in many countries show that soft policy measures in the form of personalized travel planning reduce private car use and increase travel by public transport. Sweden is a sparsely populated country that poorly supports public transport, a country with long distances, a cold climate, and a high concentration of private cars, which is why soft policy measures implemented in Sweden may be less cost-effective than has been found in other countries. Thirty-two programs using personalized travel planning were analysed with regard to stewardship, geographic area of application, choice of techniques of exerting an influence, and effects on car use and choice of alternative travel modes. None of the evaluations of the documented programs met the method requirements for such evaluations as regards design and effect measurement. Additionally, reporting was substandard as well as non-standard in the way that is desirable in order to enable comparative analyses. With reservations for these shortcomings, it is inferred that positive effects on a par with the results in other countries have been obtained in some of the implemented programs. It is however necessary to conduct evaluations which are of higher quality. The requirements which will then have to be applied are defined.

  • 19.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Larhult, Lina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    En analys av åtgärdsprogram genomförda i Sverige för att minska privatbilismen2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utvärderingar som genomförts i många länder visar att mjuka policyåtgärder i form av personlig reseplanering minskar privatbilismen och ökar kollektivåkandet. Sverige har en gles befolkning och därmed dåligt underlag för kollektivtrafik, långa resavstånd, kallt klimat och en hög täthet av personbilar, varför mjuka policyåtgärder genomförda i Sverige troligen är mindre kostnadseffektiva än man funnit i andra länder. Trettiotvå svenska åtgärdsprogram som använt personlig reseplanering analyserades med avseende på huvudmannaskap, geografiskt tillämpningsområde, målgrupp, val av tekniker för påverkan samt effekter på bilresande och val av alternativa färdmedel. Inga utvärderingar av åtgärdsprogrammen uppfyllde de metodiska krav som måste ställas på sådana utvärderingar avseende uppläggning och effektmätning. Rapporteringen var dessutom dels bristfällig, dels inte heller standardiserad på det sätt som är önskvärt för att jämförande analyser skall kunna göras. Med reservation för de nämnda bristerna konstateras ändå att positiva effekter i nivå med utländska utvärderingar har erhållits i flera av åtgärdsprogrammen. Ytterligare utvärderingar av bättre kvalitet är dock nödvändiga. Vilka krav på dessa som därvid måste ställas definieras.

  • 20.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Ettema, Dick
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Life Satisfaction and Satisfaction with the Work Commute2012In: Proceedings abstractbook ICTTP 2012: The 5th international conference on traffic and transport psychology, 29-31 August 2012, Groningen, The Netherlands, 2012, p. 38-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a mail survey of 951 residents of three urban areas of Sweden, satisfaction with their most recent work commutes was measured using self-report rating scales developed in previous research. The ratings were aggregated to index measures of two affective (stressed versus relaxed, alert versus sleepy) and one cognitive (high versus low standard) satisfaction component. Positive correlations were demonstrated with a measure of affect balance constructed from self-reports from memory of frequency times intensity of daily negative affects experienced last month subtracted from frequency times intensity of daily positive affects experienced last month. The affect balance measure was in turn positively correlated with ratings of overall life satisfaction. The results also showed that feelings during the work commutes were predominantly positive or neutral. Explanatory factors include desirable physical exercise from walking and biking, as well as that short commutes provide a buffer between the work and private spheres. For longer work commutes, social and entertainment activities would either increase positive affects or counteract stress and boredom.

  • 21.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Ståhl, Michael
    Karlstad University.
    Ettema, Dick
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Travel and residual emotional well-being2017In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 49, p. 159-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses the question of how work commutes change positive versus negative and active versus passive mood experienced after the commutes. Analyses are presented for 230 time-sampled morning commutes to work, made by 146 randomly sampled people in three different Swedish cities, asking them to use smartphones to report mood before, directly after, and later in the work place after the commute. The results show that selfreported positive emotional responses evoked by critical incidents are related to mood changes directly after the commute but not later in the day. It is also shown that satisfaction with the commute, measured retrospectively, is related to travel mode, travel time, as well as both positive and negative emotional responses to critical incidents.

  • 22.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Pedersen, Tore
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Feasibility of Voluntary Reduction of Private Car Use2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many countries are today facing substantial environmental and societal costs of private car use such as congestion, noise, and air pollution. Transport authorities therefore implement various policy measures that aim to modify or reduce private car use. These are generally referred to as Travel Demand Management (TDM) measures.

    In this research report we propose a classification of the various TDM-measures, encompassing the specific characteristics of each, how the various measures may be distinguished from each other and to what extent they may interact, as well as how effective they are in modifying or reducing private car use.

    A theoretical framework is proposed next, to account for how the TDM measures impact on car users’ change in travel behaviour. The theoretical framework posits that, if a change goal is set, it is followed by forming plans to attain the set goal (e.g., to change from using the car to using alternative modes). A principle of cost-minimization is proposed that describes how car users incrementally implement plans to achieve their set goals.

    A review of voluntary travel-behavior change (VTBC) programs shows that in general the VTBC-related TDM measures are effective. Yet, it is still unclear whether these positive effects are long-term. Furthermore, the positive effects are apparently only observed for motivated (and self-selected) participants and not even necessarily for all of them unless some facilitating conditions are fulfilled. However, the VTBC measures meet with higher public acceptance, are politically feasible, and cost-effective.

    It is argued that more research is needed to answer the questions of when and why VTBC measures work, wherein also a closer investigation into which individual and situational factors it is that generates the positive effect.

  • 23.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Richter, J
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Review of Implementations of Soft Transport Policy Measures2010In: Transportation: Theory and Application, ISSN 1946-3111, E-ISSN 1946-3111, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 5-18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering , Tokyo Institute of Technology , Japan.
    Bamberg, Sebastian
    Department of Psychology , University of Giessen , Germany.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Department of Psychology , University of Gothenburg.
    Are Effects of Travel Feedback Programs Correctly Assessed?2009In: Transportmetrica, ISSN 1812-8602, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 43-57Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25. Fujii, Satoshi
    et al.
    Suzuki, Haruna
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Ettema, Dick
    How satisfaction with work commute differs among Sweden, Netherland and Japan?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed satisfaction with travel scale in previous research. The ratings on the scales were aggregated to index measures of two affective (stressed versus relaxed, alert versus sleepy) and one cognitive (high versus low standard) satisfaction component. In this presentation we will report the comparative analysis on satisfaction with work commute between Sweden, Netherland and Japan, using the data of samples of car users in the countries. In the analysis, we will firstly see how such ratings differ among the countries. We will then investigate the determinants of the difference while considering difference of distribution of personal attributes (such as age, sex, and others) and trip attributes (such as travel time duration, commuting travel mode, and others), and the difference of the attributes of work commute environment (such as the level of average traffic congestion). Lastly, we will see the difference of satisfaction with travel among the countries while controlling by the abovementioned variables that affect on the satisfaction. We will discuss why this differences were found while considering differences that were not measured in this research such as cultural difference.

  • 26.
    Gehlert, Tina
    et al.
    German Insurers Accid Res, Traff Behav Traff Psychol, Berlin, Germany.
    Dziekan, Katrin
    Fed Environm Agcy, Sect Environm & Transport, Dessau Rosslau, Germany.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Psychology of sustainable travel behavior2013In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 48, p. 19-24Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizing the way people travel in a more sustainable way is a key challenge. This changes the definition of transportation problems, the influencing factors as well as the types of solutions that need to be considered. It also influences the transport research agenda. The new challenge furthermore places in focus the psychology of the transport user who is now perceived as an active agent in the transport system. Thus, transport policy measures will be more successful if taking into account users’ capabilities and perceived constraints.

  • 27.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Past and Present Environmental Psychology2014In: European Psychologist, ISSN 1016-9040, E-ISSN 1878-531X, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 127-131Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In my commentary on the papers in this special section of European Psychologist, I note that the focus of past environmental psychology on changing the human environment to increase people's well-being has in contemporary environmental psychology been replaced by a focus on changing people and their behavior to preserve the human environment. This change is justified by current concerns in society about the ongoing destruction of the human environment. Yet, the change of focus should not lead to neglecting the role of changing the environment for changing people's behavior. I argue that it may actually be the most effective behavior change tool. I still criticize approaches focusing on single behaviors for frequently being insufficient. I endorse an approach that entails coercive measures implemented after research has established that changing consumption styles harming the environment does not harm people. Such a broader approach would alert researchers to undesirable (in particular indirect) rebound effects. My view on application is that research findings in (environmental) psychology are difficult to communicate to those who should apply them, not because they are irrelevant but because they, by their nature, are qualitative and conditional. Scholars from other disciplines failing to disclose this have an advantage in attracting attention and building trust.

  • 28.
    Gärling, Tommy
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Bamberg, Sebastian
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    The role of attitude in choice of travel, satisfaction with travel, and change to sustainable travel2019In: Handbook of attitudes: vol 2: applications / [ed] Albarracin, D Johnson, BT, Routledge, 2019, 2, p. 562-586Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Gärling, Tommy
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 500, 40530 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ettema, Dick
    Department of Geosciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, 2508TC, The Netherlands.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Are Citizens not Accurately Informed About Long-Term Societal Costs of Unsustainable Travel or Do They not Care?2015In: Travel behaviour and society, ISSN 2214-367X, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 26-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We argue that people think more about the short-term individual benefits of personal motorized travel than the long-term societal costs. One explanation is that people are more concerned about their own wellbeing and the wellbeing of their close relatives than the well-being of unknown others. Another explanation is that people have less knowledge of the long-term societal costs than of the short-term individual benefits. Research findings documenting long-term societal costs may increase this knowledge if accurately conveyed by governments, mass media, producers and providers of travel services, and opinion leaders. We identify several obstacles to such an accurate dissemination of research findings that need to be removed.

  • 30.
    Gärling, Tommy
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Ettema, Dick
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    The Need to Change How People Think About the Consequences of Travel2014In: Handbook of Sustainable Travel / [ed] Gärling, Friman, Ettema, Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2014, p. 307-317Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Gärling, Tommy
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Economic and psychological determinants of ownership, use and changes in use of private cars2018In: The Cambridge Handbook of Psychology and Economic Behaviour / [ed] Alan Lewis, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018, 2, p. 567-594Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we first address two questions: why are automobiles purchased, and why are automobiles, after being purchased, used to such a large extent? We argue that instrumental and economic factors (including time savings) play important roles. Yet, psychological factors appear to also play a decisive role. Following a brief overview of factors accounting for the unprecedented historical increase in automobile ownership (Section 19.2), determinants of private car use will be analysed in the following section, 19.3. Substantial environmental and societal costs of private car use such as congestion, noise, air pollution, excessive land use crowding out other uses and depletion of material and energy resources are expected future consequences of the worldwide increasing trend in automobile ownership and use (Goodwin, 1996; Greene and Wegener, 1997; van Wee, 2012, 2014). In many urban areas, these consequences are already being felt, leading to various policy measures for reducing or changing private car use being placed high on the political agendas. In Section 19.4, we describe and classify a number of such policy measures. Following this classification, we review in the same section evidence of the policy measures’ effectiveness, public acceptability and political feasibility. Historical Trends in Private Car Ownership and Use The automobile has drastically altered the development of the world like few other human inventions. In the developed countries, and now in developing countries, its versatility strongly contributes to why it is chosen for urban, suburban and rural travel (Jakobsson, 2007). Versatility (in this chapter, referred to as instrumental motives) is, however, not a sufficient explanation. As will be argued, the automobile is also chosen because it is fun to drive and ride, provides privacy and security and signals social status (Gatersleben, 2007, 2014; Stradling, 2002). Even though cars were available at the beginning of the twentieth century, it was only in the years after World War II with the subsequent spread of affluence and the acceleration of automobile mass production that ownership was brought within the reach of a majority of households in the industrialised world.

  • 32.
    Gärling, Tommy
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Politiker bör signalera att bil inte är självklart2012In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33.
    Gärling, Tommy
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Unsustainable Travel Becoming (More) Sustainable2015In: Handbook of research on sustainable consumption / [ed] Lucia A. Reisch and John Thøgersen, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 163-177Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fast motorized transportation of people and cargo is essential in contemporary societies with their specialization of functions at different locations. Cargo needs to be transported between different units in the manufacturing process as well as from manufacturers to retailers. People need to travel to and from work, shops and other locations. It is not likely that telecommunication in the future will substantially reduce the need for physical travel (Moktharian et al. 2006). Neither is it likely that electronic commerce will (Rotem-Mindali and Weltenwreden 2013). For the benefits of the individual as well as society, time for travel could be spent in better ways. In urban areas of developed countries, travel still contributes to well-being by increasing opportunities for residents to purchase the most attractive goods at the lowest prices, patronize the best restaurants, visit recreational places, attend entertaining and cultural events, and meet with relatives and friends (Leyden et al. 2011; Reardon and Abdallah 2013). In sparsely populated rural areas travel is essential for sustenance. Some travel is also enjoyed for its own sake (Moktharian and Salomon 2001). Examples include driving a new car or enjoying a recreational sailing trip in the sunshine. Today for busy people in the workforce, travel furthermore provides the privacy and time for recovery from stress (Hartig 2007). If not for recreation, travel allows work at a distance, including reading memos, preparing for meetings and using available telecommunication devices (Ettema and Verschuren 2007).

  • 34.
    Gärling, Tommy
    et al.
    Psychology, UNIVERSITY OF GOTHENBURG.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Unsustainable Travel Becoming (More) Sustainable2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few dispute that current private automobile use is unsustainable although motorized freight transportation, long-distance vacation and business travel by air also importantly contribute to the unsustainability of transportation. In this presentation we review research assessing the effectiveness, public attitudes towards, and political feasibility of measures that limit local and global damages to the environment caused by automobile use. These measures include clean automobile technology, rebuilding the environment to increase accessibility by walking and bicycling, improving public transport, and reducing automobile use by implementing prohibition, pricing and information measures. Our conclusion is that no measure is sufficient alone but that several need to be combined. In particular, it is not even in the longer term likely that clean automobile technology, increasing accessibility by rebuilding the environment or improving alternative travel modes suffice unless governments do not also implement measures that reduce automobile use. Since scientific evidence indicates that voluntary information and pricing measures may achieve 5-30% reductions in urban areas, the often heard counter-argument from interest groups that the automobile use cannot be reduced cannot be taken seriously.

  • 35.
    Gärling, Tommy
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013). University of Gothenburg.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Ettema, Dick
    utrecht university.
    Handbook of Sustainable Travel 2014Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Travel is a form of unsustainable consumption resulting from the Western lifestyle societies allow, encourage or occasionally seem to force citizens to adopt. In the Handbook of Sustainable Travel we disseminate current research findings of both the positive and negative sides of travel. We primarily target readers who are not active researchers of travel behaviour (many of whom are chapter authors) – but other specialists including researchers in environmental science as well as politicians and journalists who have a professional need for reviews, analyses, and syntheses of research findings.

  • 36.
    Gärling, Tommy
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Ettema, Dick
    Suzuki, Haruna
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Preferences Aggregated for Sequences of Events2012In: International Journal of Psychology. Special Issue XXX International Congress of Psychology "Research Area: Consumer/Economic", Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, Vol. 47, no 179, p. 113-114Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Gärling, Tommy
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Suzuki, Haruna
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Ettema, Dick
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Tillfredställelse med hela arbetsresan baserat på tillfredsställelse med dess delar2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Jakobsson Bergstad, Cecilia
    et al.
    Gothenburg University.
    Gamble, Amelie
    Gothenburg University.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Gothenburg University.
    Hagman, Olle
    Gothenburg University.
    Polk, Merrit
    Gothenburg University.
    Ettema, Dick
    Netherlands.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Subjective Well-Being Related to Satisfaction with Daily Travel2011In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research demonstrates an impact on subjective well-being (SWB) of affect associated with routine performance of out-of-home activities. A primary aim of the present study is to investigate whether satisfaction with daily travel has a positive impact on SWB, either directly or indirectly through facilitating the performance of out-of-home activities. A secondary aim is to determine whether emotional-symbolic or instrumental reasons for car use results in higher satisfaction with daily travel than other travel modes. A survey of a population-based sample of 1,330 Swedish citizens included measures of car access and use, satisfaction with daily travel, satisfaction with performance of out-of-home routine activities, and affective and cognitive SWB. The results confirmed that the effect on affective and cognitive SWB of satisfaction with daily travel is both direct and indirect via satisfaction with performance of activities. Percent weekly car use had a small effect on satisfaction with daily travel and on affective SWB, although fully mediating the effect of satisfaction with performance of the activities. This suggests that car use plays a minor role for satisfaction with daily travel and its effect on SWB. This role may be larger if investigated after a forced reduced car use.

  • 39.
    Jakobsson Bergstad, Cecilia
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Gamble, Amelie
    University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hagman, Olle
    University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Polk, Merritt
    University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Gärling, Tommy
    University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ettema, Dick
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Influences of affect associated with routine out-of-home activities on subjective well-being2012In: Applied Research in Quality of Life, ISSN 1871-2584, E-ISSN 1871-2576, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 49-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A survey of a random sample of 1,330 Swedish residents assessed the relationships between affect associated with performance of routine out-of-home activities, mood, and judgments of life satisfaction (cognitive subjective wellbeing, CSWB). Regression analyses showed that sociodemographic variables accounted for most variance in CSWB (7%) and least in mood (2%). In agreement with previous research, CSWB increased with income, employment, and cohabiting with a spouse, and had a U-formed relationship with age. Affect associated with routine activities accounted for more variance than the socio-demographic variables in mood (30%) and in CSWB (13%). Mood partially mediated the effect on CSWB of affect associated with the activities. The results suggest that future policy-related research should consider the possibility that community-provided resources that facilitate performance of routine out-of-home activities would increase life satisfaction

  • 40.
    Kim, Junghwa
    et al.
    Kyoto Univ, Dept Urban Management, Nishikyo Ku, Kyoto 6158540, Japan..
    Schmoecker, Jan-Dirk
    Kyoto Univ, Dept Urban Management, Nishikyo Ku, Kyoto 6158540, Japan..
    Bergstad, Cecilia Jakobsson
    Gothenburg Univ, Dept Psychol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Kyoto Univ, Dept Urban Management, Nishikyo Ku, Kyoto 6158540, Japan..
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    The influence of personality on acceptability of sustainable transport policies2014In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 855-872Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that fairness, infringement on freedom, and perceived effectiveness are determinants of transport pricing acceptability. In the present study we investigate determinants of acceptability of environmental (carbon) taxation for which trust in government and environmental concern are additional determinants. Carbon taxation is an extension of fuel taxes and may thus be viewed as transport pricing. Our main focus is on the role played by personality traits. Structural equation modeling reveals that acceptability is related to the personality traits extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Extraverted individuals have higher levels of trust in government which leads to higher acceptability. Also correlations between agreeableness and conscientiousness as well as environmental problem awareness and personal norm are observed. We discuss strategies for effective marketing of transportation policies considering how acceptability is related to personality traits.

  • 41.
    Olsson, E Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Ettema, Dick
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Den lyckliga arbetspendlaren2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Olsson, Lars E
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Staying Competitive While Subsidized: A Governmental Policy to Reduce Production of Environmentally Harmful Products2008In: Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 2008, 26, 667-677, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 667-677Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Olsson, Lars E
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Ettema, Dick
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Happiness and Satisfaction with work commute2013In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 111, no 1, p. 255-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research suggests that for many people happiness is being able to make the routines of everyday life work, such that positive feelings dominate over negative feelings resulting from daily hassles. In line with this, a survey of work commuters in the three largest urban areas of Sweden show that satisfaction with the work commute contributes to overall happiness. It is also found that feelings during the commutes are predominantly positive or neutral. Possible explanatory factors include desirable physical exercise from walking and biking, as well as that short commutes provide a buffer between the work and private spheres. For longer work commutes, social and entertainment activities either increase positive affects or counteract stress and boredom. Satisfaction with being employed in a recession may also spill over to positive experiences of work commutes.

  • 44.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Gärling, Tommy
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg.
    Ettema, Dick
    Department of Human Geography and Planning, Utrecht University.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Ståhl, Michael
    Current Mood vs. Recalled Impacts of Current Moods after Exposures to Sequences of Uncertain Monetary Outcomes2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, no 66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Events in a sequence may each be evaluated as good or bad. We propose that such good-bad evaluations evoke emotional responses that change current mood. A model of recurrent updating of current mood is developed and compared to a model of how a sequence of events evoking emotional responses is evaluated retrospectively. In Experiment 1, 149 undergraduates are presented sequences of lottery outcomes with a fixed probability of losing or winning different amounts of money. Ratings of current mood are made after the sequence. Retrospective evaluations are either made after the ratings of current mood or, in a control condition, when no ratings of current mood are made. The results show an expected effect on current mood of the valence of the end of the sequence. The results are less clear in showing an expected beginning effect on the retrospective evaluations. An expected beginning effect on retrospective evaluations is found in Experiment 2 in which 41 undergraduates are first asked to remember the different amounts of money, then to evaluate the sequence as lottery outcomes.

  • 45.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Kyoto University, Japan.
    Ettema, Dick
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Lekedal, Hans
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Relationship Between Satisfaction with Daily Travel and Subjective Well-Being in Three Urban Areas in Sweden: Description of Survey Questionnaire, Sample Characteristics and Preliminary Results2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Surveys of satisfaction with travel are currently conducted as a means of determining the degree to which public transport meet various travel needs. A policy aim in the industry supported by the government is that more people should experience that public transport make their daily lives easier, for instance by increasing access to education and the labour market, and by contributing towards a better environment. This requires that public transport becomes tuned to various groups of citizens’ travel needs. It has been proposed that the possibility of travelling in a satisfactory way is important for the well-being of people. The first aim of the project described in this report was to develop and test a measurement instrument, the Satisfaction with Travel Scale (STS), that may help to understand how the daily work commute is evaluated by people living in different urban areas of Sweden (Stockholm, Göteborg, and Malmö), and how their evaluations are related to characteristics of the work commute including travel time, travel mode, trip chaining, and activities performed during travel (multi-tasking). The second aim was to investigate the relationship between STS and well-being measured by retrospective reports of the frequency and intensity of positive and negative affects during a past period, as well as by means of judgments of satisfaction with life in general. Sample characteristics, design and development of the survey questionnaire, survey procedure, descriptive results from a pilot study, and descriptive results from the main study are presented. In total, 996 respondents answered the questionnaire. An English translation of the questionnaire is attached in an appendix.

  • 46.
    Redman, Lauren
    et al.
    Uppsala University .
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Hartig, Terry
    University of Gothenburg.
    Quality attributes of public transport that attract car users: A research review2013In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 25, no January, p. 119-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transport sector presents contentious issues with respect to sustainable development, particularly regarding the use of private motorised vehicles in urban areas. Public transport (PT) together with cycling and walking are generally agreed to be sustainable alternatives to private car use. This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of those aspects of PT quality most likely to attract car users. Toward achieving this aim, relevant research was sought to answer the following two questions: What quality attributes of PT services are attractive to users? And what changes in quality attributes of PT services would encourage modal shift from private motor vehicles to PT? Using a qualitative systematic review, it is concluded that while service reliability and frequency are important PT attributes in general, those attributes most effective in attracting car users are largely affective and connected to individual perceptions, motivations and contexts. Reduced fare promotions and other habit-interrupting transport policy measures can succeed in encouraging car users to try PT services initially. Attributes over and above basic accessibility, reliability and mobility provision, perceived by the target market as important service attributes, must then be provided in sustaining the switch from car use after promotional tactics have expired.

  • 47. Suzuki, Haruna
    et al.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Ettema, Dick
    How satisfaction with trip legs affect whole trip satisfaction?: Tests of models for aggregated satisfaction of work commutes2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Suzuki, Haruna
    et al.
    Yamaguchi Univ, Ube, Yamaguchi 755, Japan..
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Kyoto Univ, Kyoto, Japan..
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Ettema, Dick
    Univ Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Rules for aggregated satisfaction with work commutes2014In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 495-506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In general trips frequently entail several stages varying in mode, duration, and other factors. In some way travelers aggregate their satisfaction with the stages to satisfaction with the whole trip. In this paper we address the question of how this aggregation is made. We use data from a Swedish survey measuring satisfaction with commutes to and from work and with the stages of the commutes. We test several aggregation rules for their goodness of fit to the observations. Our results show that a normatively correct averaging rule that takes into account the relative durations of the stages out-perform heuristic aggregation rules such as the peak-end, summation, and equal-weight averaging rules. We note that this does not exclude that the heuristic aggregation rules apply to other trips than repetitive commute trips.

  • 49.
    Westman, Jessica
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Children’s Satisfaction with Travel to School2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Westman, Jessica
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Children’s Travel to School: Satisfaction, Current Mood, and Cognitive Performance2017In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 1365-1382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate whether travel mode, travel time, and travel activities influence children’s satisfaction with their travel to school, their current mood, and their cognitive performance after arriving at school. A sample of 344 children (165 girls) between the ages of 10 and 15 were recruited at five public schools in Värmland County, Sweden. Directly after arriving at school, the children rated; how they felt on two scales ranging from very sad to very happy and from very tired to very alert; filled out the Satisfaction with Travel Scale adapted for children; reported details about their journeys; and took a word-fluency test. The results showed that traveling by school bus and walking or cycling were experienced as having a higher quality than traveling by car. Children who engaged in conversation during their journeys reported a higher quality and more positive feelings than children who were passive during their journeys. A shorter journey was experienced as having a higher quality and resulting in more positive feelings. Children traveling for longer durations, and using their smartphones or doing a combination of activities during their journeys, performed better in the word-fluency test.

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