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  • 1.
    Brüggen, Elisabeth C
    et al.
    Maastricht University, The Netherlands.
    Hogreve, Jens
    Catholic University of Eichstaett-Ingolstadt, Germany.
    Holmlund, Maria
    Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki.
    Kabadayi, Sertan
    Fordham University-Lincoln Center, USA.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Financial well-being: A conceptualization and research agenda2017In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 79, 228-237 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With savings rates at record lows and inadequate long-term financial planning for retirement, financial well- being has become an important topic for individuals and households as well as for societies and countries. Re- search on the topic, however, remains scarce and scattered across disciplines. The present paper aims to consol- idate and extend knowledge on financial well-being and makes a three-fold contribution to the discussion. First, we propose a new definition based on a perceptual perspective of financial well-being and link it to an individual's current and anticipated desired living standard and financial freedom. We then develop a framework that distinguishes key elements of financial well-being; namely, interventions and financial behaviors, conse- quences, contextual factors, and personal factors. We then present a research agenda to guide future research on financial well-being. This work is designed to inspire researchers to continue expanding the knowledge so that financial institutions can take measures to increase financial well-being. 

  • 2. Fombelle, Paul
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    The Influence of a Small Gift and a Personal Greeting on the Customer Experience2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3. Gruber, Thorsten
    et al.
    Abosag, Ibrahim
    Reppel, Alexander
    Szmigin, Isabelle
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Does culture impact preferred employee attributes in complaint handling encounters?2013In: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, Gruber, Abosag, Reppel, and Szmigin's [(2011). Analysing the preferred characteristics of frontline employees dealing with customer complaints – a cross-national Kano study. The TQM Journal (Kano Special Issue), 23(2), 128–144]. A Kano study revealed that complaining customers in Saudi Arabia are less difficult to delight than UK customers. The present study investigates whether these differences are caused by different service-sector development stages, as suggested in their study, or by cultural differences instead. Data were collected using Kano questionnaires from 151 respondents with complaining experience in Singapore. This country was chosen as it has a highly developed service economy (like the UK) but also a collectivistic culture (like Saudi Arabia). The analysis reveals that Singaporean customers show the same preferences as those in the UK. We consider this as a strong indicator for the suggested impact of the stage of service-sector development rather than cultural differences on complaining customers' preferences of frontline employee attributes. Our results support the findings by Gruber et al. (2011). By doing so, they surprisingly refute previous research which concluded that national culture plays a significant role in shaping customer expectations during complaint-handling encounters. Our study especially corroborates the notion of a life cycle of quality attributes that had been found for goods and services and the preferred attributes of frontline employees dealing with customer complaints.

  • 4.
    Högström, Claes
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Davoudi, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Johnson, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Relevant and Preferred Public Service: A study of user experiences and value creation in public transit2016In: Public Management Review, ISSN 1471-9037, E-ISSN 1471-9045, Vol. 18, no 1, 65-90 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When public service success is dependent upon creating value that attracts users, public managers can benefit from adopting private sector principles. This article draws on the theory of attractive quality and strategic management research to focus on the theoretical and managerial implications of how organizations' resource allocations affect user experiences. The present study shows how public transit organizations' achievement of twenty-five different service requirements affected their offerings' relevance and preference among 930 users. This article increases the understanding of how strategic choices and prioritization between various service requirements affect both the effectiveness and efficiency of (public) service offerings.

  • 5.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    A service approach of packaging and customer value2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    A service approach of packaging and customer value2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Packaging and Costumer Value - A Service Perspective2004Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Already in the mid-seventies it was concluded that there are very few, if any, ÔpureÕ goods or services. Nevertheless, over 20 years later, most publications on services focus on how service characteristics differ from goods. More recent research emphasizes that the present economy is, and will continue to be, service-dominated, but it also acknowledges that the offered good is an important part of the offer. It has also been suggested that the most important work in service research today applies both to the service sector and the goods sector. In this licentiate thesis an attempt is made to conduct research that applies to both these sectors by investigating packaging from a service perspective.



    The traditional role of packaging in consumer products has been to store and protect the content. Current consumer and industry trends, however, suggest an increasingly important role for packaging as a strategic tool as well as a marketing vehicle. Companies consequently need to develop, design, and provide packages with high customer-experienced quality. In this context it is important to recognize that customer value is something perceived by customers rather than objectively determined by companies.



    To study packaging from a service perspective is relevant for several reasons. One reason is that packaging is something that can have several functions, which include something more than the physical package. Another is that packages are carriers of information that is interpreted by customers. The combination of functions, information, the physical package, and its content creates the total customer experience.



    Martin Löfgren is a Doctoral Candidate at the Service Research Center (CTF) at Karlstad University and employed by STFI-Packforsk.

  • 8.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Packaging and customer satisfaction2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Packaging and customer satisfaction2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    The Leader of the Pack: A Service Perspective on Packaging and Customer Satisfaction2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Almost everything we as consumers buy in a store has a package. Packages have many functions – some, if not all, present marketers with the opportunity to gain competitive advantages. The packaging influences the usage behavior long after it has influenced the purchase, therefore it is an interesting empirical context to study within the field of marketing. Nevertheless, academic attention to packaging has been sparse over the last two decades even though the industry focus on packaging as a strategic tool has grown over that same period. Exceptions in the marketing literature are investigations of packaging and brand communication, advertisement-package coordination, and packaging size and shape. In contrast to the traditional approach that views packaging as a complimenting non-product-related attribute, it is suggested in this thesis that packaging is a product-related attribute that does affect the customers’ experiences of products.

    The overall aim of this thesis is to develop and test theoretical models and provide empirical evidence of customer experiences in the context of packaging from a service perspective. To study packaging from a service perspective is relevant for several reasons. One reason is that packaging can have several functions, which include more than the physical package. Another reason is that packages are carriers of information that is interpreted by customers. The combination of function, information, the physical package, and its content creates the total customer experience.

    The results of this thesis provide increased knowledge about packaging and customer experiences from a service perspective. On an attribute level, quality attributes such as protection and usability are categorized according to Kano’s theory of attractive quality. The results show that customers’ evaluations of packages are multi-dimensional. On a comprehensive or an overall level, structural equation modeling is used to investigate the consumption process. We conclude that the quality attributes of packages need to be designed to display quality both on the shelf in a store and during usage and consumption at both the attribute and comprehensive level.

  • 11.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics, Service Research Center.
    Winning at the first and second moments of truth: An exploratory study2005In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, Vol. 15, no 1, 102-115. p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – To contribute to the theoretical work on products that contain both tangible (goods) and intangible (service) dimensions, by arguing that the consumption of physical goods and services should be understood as a process with two major steps – the first and second moments of truth.Design/methodology/approach – An investigation of the service perspective and packaging is made based on a literature review. Empirical examples are then presented from an interview study of people working with packaging-related issues at Procter & Gamble, Schwarzkopf & Henkel, Procordia Food, and Coop. The relationship between theory/concepts and research in the paper can be described in terms of extension and emergent.Findings – Consumers evaluate quality when they purchase an offering and when they consume it. Using the terminology of the present paper, this means that the perception of quality is created at both the first and second moments of truth. The first moment of truth is about obtaining customers’ attention and communicating the benefits of an offer. The second moment of truth is about providing the tools the customer needs to experience these benefits when using the product. The combination of these two moments of truth makes up the total customer experience.Originality/value – This paper holds the potential to contribute to extending understanding of the service perspective and service encounters.

  • 12.
    Löfgren, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Davoudi, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Högström, Claes
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Johnson, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Customer satisfaction in public transit2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Löfgren, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Nilsson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Kanos Theory of Attractive Quality and PackagingManuscript (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Löfgren, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Nilsson, Lars
    Using Kano's Theory of Attractive Quality to Understand Customer Perceived Quality of Packaging2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Löfgren, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    20 Years of Using Kano´s Theory of Attractive Quality2008In: Quality Management JournalArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Löfgren, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Kano's Theory of Attractive Quality: A Test of Different Approaches to Classify Quality Attributes2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Löfgren, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Kano's theory of attractive quality and packaging2005In: Quality Management Journal, vol 12, no. 3, 2005Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Löfgren, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Kano's theory of attractive quality and packaging2005In: Quality Management Journal, ISSN 1068-6967, Vol. 12, no 3, 7-20. p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose- To explore the impact of packaging on customer perceptions of quality.

    Design/methodology/approach - Sees representing quality as additional to packaging's function of product protection, draws on Kano's theory of attractive quality, and its associated perceived quality attributes, uses Kano's must-be, reverse, one-dimensional and indifferent quality attributes, and debates why factors causing dissatisfaction are different to those that generate satisfaction. Tests the theory of attractive quality in relation to packaging by questionnaire survey of 708 Swedish consumers, questions respondents on product and packaging ergonomics, and technical and communicative attributes, and gives an example of the paired questions used in the survey, e.g. how do you feel if a feature is present, or how do you feel if a feature is absent.

    Findings - Tabulates results ranking 24 packaging attributes, shows that leakage protection, content declaration, instructions, opening date and appearance are must-be attributes, summarizes results in a better-worse diagram, includes a section on attributes from disabled/elderly consumer perspectives, and underlines that packaging has an increasingly important role as a marketing vehicle.

  • 19.
    Löfgren, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Two decades of using Kano's theory of attractive quality: A literature review2008In: Quality Management Journal, ISSN 1068-6967, Vol. 15, no 1, 59-75 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The multidimensional model of quality attributes known as Kano' theory of attractive quality has over the past twenty year gained increasing acceptance among academics and practitioners alike. However, no research has provided a systematic review of subsequent development of this theory. A review of 33 papers relevant to the theory of attractive quality revealed several developments with respect to methodological issues, but many of these lack the scientific basis that would justify inclusion in the theory. Study results also provide guidance on how to incorporate the latest developments in Kano methodology in product development and customer satisfaction studies.

  • 20.
    Löfgren, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Customer satisfaction in the first and second moments of truth2008In: Journal of Product & Brand Management, ISSN 1061-0421, Vol. 17, no 7, 463-474 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Almost everything consumers buy in a store has a package. At point of purchase, the first moment of truth, the package functions as a silentsalesman. Once the purchase is made, the product is consumed in the second moment of truth. The purpose of this paper is to create a betterunderstanding of how customers evaluate different aspects of the package in the first and second moments of truth.Design/methodology/approach An empirical investigation is conducted on how customers experience three different packages for everydaycommodities in the first and second moments of truth. Causal modeling is used to analyze the impact of different benefits of a package onto customersatisfaction and loyalty.Findings It was found that both benefits and attributes can have different roles in affecting customer satisfaction and loyalty in different parts of theconsumption cycle. Furthermore, the results show that there are significant differences for the impacts of customer satisfaction on loyalty in the firstmoment of truth compared to the second moment of truth.Practical implications By applying a consumption system approach, it is possible for managers to design a package that can attract customers inthe first moment of truth and at the same time create customer satisfaction in the second moment of truth.Originality/value The research shows that the role of certain benefits and attributes can be different in the purchase and use situation. Previously,this has been modeled separately but by operationalizing the first and second moment of truth in the same model the true effects of various benefitsand attributes can be identified

  • 21.
    Löfgren, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Theory of Attractive Quality and Life Cycles of Quality Attributes2011In: The TQM Journal, ISSN 1754-2731, Vol. 23, no 2, 235-246 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to shed further light on the dynamics of quality attributes, as suggested by the theory of attractive quality. The study aims to investigate the existence of the life cycle for successful quality attributes and to identify alternative life cycles of quality attributes.

    Design/methodology/approach – The research is based on two surveys in which a total of 1,456 customers (708 in 2003 and 748 in 2009) participated in the classification of quality attributes. In particular, the study investigated how customers perceived 24 particular packaging attributes at two points in time, in 2003 and 2009.

    Findings – The study identified three life cycles of quality attributes: successful quality attributes, flavor-of-the-month quality attributes, and stable quality attributes. The research also extends the theory of attractive quality by identifying the reverse movement of certain quality attributes; that is, that a quality attribute can take a step backwards in the life cycle of successful quality attributes through, for instance, a change in design.

    Originality/value – The paper provides empirical evidence for the existence of several alternative life cycles of quality attributes. The results of the empirical investigation increase the validity of the theory of attractive quality, which is important, given the limited amount of research that has attempted to validate the fundamentals of the theory of attractive quality.

  • 22.
    Löfgren, Martin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Fombelle, Paul
    Northeastern University.
    Influencing the customer experience with gifts and greetings2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Lestelius, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Let there be light!: An initial exploratory study of whether lightning influences consumer evaluations of packaged food products.2014In: Journal of sensory studies, ISSN 0887-8250, E-ISSN 1745-459X, Vol. 29, no 4, 294-300 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how lighting influences consumer evaluations of packaged food products. Fifty-eight participants evaluated two identical packaged meals (alternated between subjects) in a laboratory setting. The products were stored in a freezer with cold light (blue light-emitting diode [LED]) on one side and warm light (yellow LED) on the other side. A three-way mixed multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed that, independent of package color and gender, food products were evaluated more negatively in the cold light than in the warm light in terms of quality, attractiveness and inferred taste. Therefore, lighting may influence consumers' overall evaluations of packaged meals. This finding also highlights the managerial problem whereby the lighting standards that exist at print agencies in order to eliminate ambiguities when making decisions about package design are rare for in-store lighting. Consequently, products that look attractive at the print agency may look unappealing in a store. The results are discussed in terms of processing fluency and cross-modal correspondences.

  • 24.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Lestelius, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Packaging in new light: The effects of lighting on evaluation of packaged meals2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25. Pousette, Sandra
    et al.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Nilsson, Birgitta
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    An extended method to measure overall consumer satisfaction with packaging.2014In: Packaging technology & science, ISSN 0894-3214, E-ISSN 1099-1522, Vol. 27, no 9, 727-738 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several reasons why people find it troublesome to use and handle consumer packages. The European Committee for Standardization recently suggested a technical specification (TS) regarding packaging and ease of opening. The present study has expanded the procedure by including consumer satisfaction measurements in two steps and engaging panels comprising two separate age groups. The expanded method, which used six different packages as test objects, engaged 75 panellists, 40 in the older group (65–80 years) and 35 in the younger group (25–40 years). The expanded method not only included the same operations as described in the TS but also included panellists who graded each handling element separately on a 'smiley' scale, along with feedback for their grades and an overall judgement of the package handling.

    The grading feedback differed between the two groups. The younger panellists mainly noted issues that were not connected to openability, while older panellists noted openability as the most influential factor. Further analysis revealed that openability was also a key issue for the younger panellists, despite their claims to the contrary. Satisfaction was the most critical TS element for describing a package as being easy to open.

  • 26.
    Roos, Inger
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Customer-Support Service from a Relationship Perspective: Best Practice for Telecom2013In: Management Research and Practice Journal (MRP), ISSN 2067-2462, Vol. 5, no 2, 5-21 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Shams, Poja
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Wästlund, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Packaging placement and design as extrinsic cues: A visual perception study on non-durables consumer goods2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    A life cycle perspective on environmental effects of customer focused packaging development2008In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 16, no 7, 853-859 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the possibilities of increasing customer satisfaction and reducing the environmental impact from food-packaging systems in alifecycleperspective using results from a study on consumers' demands on packaging based on Kano's Theory of Attractive Quality. It assesses the environmentaleffects of potential improvements in quality attributes. The results show that there are obvious potentials to increase customer satisfaction and at the same time decrease in the environmental impact of the food-packaging system, especially when the packaging design helps to decrease food losses. There were many connections between quality attributes and environmental impacts.

  • 29.
    Williams, Helén
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Wikström, Fredrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. Norway.
    Reasons for household food waste with special attention to packaging2012In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 24, 141-148 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of food waste needs to be reduced in order to sustain the world's limited resources and secure enough food to all humans. Packaging plays an important role in reducing food waste. The knowledge about how packaging affects food waste in households, however, is scarce. This exploratory study examines reasons for food waste in household and especially how and to what extent packaging influences the amount of food waste. Sixty-one families measured their amount of food waste during seven days and noted in a diary why each item was wasted. Thirty of the families had participated earlier in an environmental project including education in environmental issues of everyday life. About 20-25% of the households' food waste could be related to packaging. Three packaging aspects dominate the packaging related waste: packages that the consumer noted as being too big and packages that were difficult to empty, and wastage because of passed "best before date". The environmentally educated households wasted less, especially of prepared food. They also wasted less food due to passed "best before date". These households were more observant to packaging aspects in relation to food waste. The observations made could be used to learn more about packaging attributes that affect food waste. Although they recognised packaging influence on food waste, these households expressed lower satisfaction with packaging functions and wanted packaging to a lower extent. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 30.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Idea Generation: Customer Co-creation versus Traditional Market Research Techniques2011In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 22, no 2, 140-159 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Classification of quality attributes2007In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, Vol. 17, no 1, 54-73 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the different approaches to the classification of quality attributes deliver consistent results.

    Design/methodology/approach – The investigation includes four approaches and enables comparisons to be made from a methodological perspective and from an output perspective. The different approaches are described, analyzed, and discussed in the context of an empirical study that investigates how 430 respondents perceive the performance of an e-service. The theory of attractive quality rests on a solid theoretical foundation and a methodological approach to classify quality attributes. Recently, various authors have suggested alternative approaches to the traditional five-level Kano questionnaire – including a three-level Kano questionnaire, direct classification, and a dual-importance grid.

    Findings – The classification of quality attributes are found to be dependent on the approach that is utilized. The development of new ways to classify quality attributes should follow rigid procedures to provide reliable and consistent results.

    Originality/value – This is the first attempt to compare alternative approaches to classify quality attributes. For managers, our results provide guidance on what approach to choose based on the strengths and weaknesses with the different approaches.

  • 32.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    From free to service for fee2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    From Service for Free to Service for Fee: Business model innovation in manufacturing firms2013In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 24, no 5, 520-533 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of the present research is to identify how business model innovation can be used to make the transition from service for free to service for fee. In particular, the focus is on identifying, describing and analysing alternative transition strategies, degree and type of innovation, and how building blocks in the business model change.

    Design/methodology/approach – A multiple case study of six manufacturing firms was performed. Data were collected through interviews with CEOs, service managers and sales managers. In addition, two workshops were performed with the participating firms.

    Findings – The present research identified eight strategies for transitioning from service for free to service for fee. These strategies represent change in the business model, incremental business model innovation and radical business model innovation. It is suggested to change the content and structure to perform incremental business model innovation and change the governance to perform radical business model innovation.

    Originality/value – In most models for service infusion, the change of business model is seen as a necessary step and focus is placed on that a change of business model is needed. The present study elaborates on what approaches manufacturing firms use to make the change from one business model to another.

  • 34.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Linköpings universitet.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Dahlgaard, Jens
    Linköpings universitet.
    Theory of attractive quality and the Kano methodology: The past, the present, and the future2013In: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The theory of attractive quality and the Kano methodology were introduced about 30 years ago. Since then, research and practitioner communities have adopted both the theory and the methodology, as they help to explain the roles different quality attributes play for customers. This paper reviews 147 research papers published between 1984 and 2012 and identifies three distinct phases in the development of the research field; Emergence, Exploration, and Explosion. In addition to the review of existing literature, the present paper sets the scene for the next phase of the research – Explanation – to further develop the field.

  • 35.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Attractive Quality Creation: a Case Study of Microwave Ovens2011In: TQM Magazine, ISSN 0954-478X, E-ISSN 1758-6887, Vol. 23, no 1, 89-99 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Attractive quality creation through customer idea generation2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Identifying Ideas of Attractive Quality in the Innovation Process2011In: The TQM Journal, ISSN 1754-2731, Vol. 23, no 1, 87-99 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Setting a Research Agenda for the Theory of Attractive Quality2011In: The TQM Journal, ISSN 1754-2731, Vol. 23, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Consumer perception at the Point-of-Purchase: Evaluating proposed package designs in the eye-tracking lab2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Consumer Perception at Point of Purchase: Evaluating Proposed Package Designs in an Eye-tracking Lab2010In: Journal of Business & Retail Management Research, ISSN 1751-8202, Vol. 5, no 1, 41-50 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s retail environment, consumer products are increasingly competing for customers’ attention. Research has shown that 60–80% of purchasing decisions are influenced in-store. Thus, packaging that stands out from competitors gains a competitive advantage. This study investigates the use of eye-tracking as a method to evaluate and design packaging with better Point-of-Purchase qualities. An eye-tracking laboratory was used and shoppers were recruited for three rounds of experiments. In total, 128 participants were recruited in order to assess the potential of eye-tracking. Results show that, when taking some methodological constraints into account, eye-tracking complements traditional methodologies with further insights when investigating the Point-of-Purchase qualities of packaging.

  • 41.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Consumer perception at the point-of-purchase2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    A walk on the wild side: Investigating attention during the consumer choice process in a real supermarket setting2013In: Book of Abstracts of the 17th European Conference on Eye Movements / [ed] K. Holmqvist, F. Mulvey & R. Johansson, 2013, 168- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have investigated different facets of attention during the consumer choice process. Objectives have included how variation in attention changes throughout the choice process (Russo & Leclerc, 1994), its effect on preference formation (Shimojo et al 2003), the general distribution of attention (Wästlund et al, 2010), the effect of shelf placement (Chandon et al 2009), and the effect of a central placement on attention and choice (Atalay, 2010). The common drawback of these studies is that they are static lab experiments using digital images, which has been shown to influence gaze distribution (Tonkin et al, 2011). Therefore, in this study we use a head mounted eye-tracker to replicate previous research studies in a real retail environment to see if the results hold outside the lab. Data from 63 participants performing choice tasks in a supermarket are analysed. The results show support for a number of findings from previous research such as the initial central fixation bias and subsequent overrepresentation of observations of centrally placed products. Furthermore, the results support earlier findings on the general gaze distribution during the choice process but fail to replicate the strong effect of centrally placed products on choice. Additionally, methodological implications are discussed.

  • 43.
    Wästlund, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Löfgren, Martin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Shams, Poja
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Otterbring, Tobias
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Consumer choice processes and consideration sets2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With thousands and thousands of items to choose from in supermarkets, finding a product on the shelf can be a challenge. Naturally, consumers do not see all products nor do they consider buying all products they see. The consumer first screens the original set of products and then considers a reduced set of alternatives. The consideration set is evaluated and reduced to one alternative that is chosen (Lapersonne et al. 1995). The choice is actually a consumer choice process including several steps, e.g., orientation, evaluation, and verification (Russo and Leclerc, 1994).

    In the present study we investigated consumers’ consideration sets and consumer choice processes in an experiment with 52 respondents in a supermarket. The respondents were instructed to choose one package of sandwich meat that they would like to buy. The  experiment included two displays of shelves: The first shelf contained one section of sandwich meat and one section of products like pickled garlic and sun-dried tomatoes.The second shelf contained only sandwich meat but with two distinctly different types of packaging. Where the respondents looked first, if the chosen product were in that section, and how much they looked at areas outside their consideration set were investigated. The results show that in the shelf with two categories of products the participants hardly looked at the non-target products during the orientation phase or the verification phase. In the shelf with two differently packaged sandwich meats the participants looked at both parts of the shelf during the orientation phase but significantly more at their selfselected target area during the verification phase. These results highlight the importance of products signaling appropriate attributes in order to even be looked at.

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