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  • 1.
    Asplund, Stig-Börje Asplund
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Navigating between disorder and control: Challenges and choices when teaching reading strategies in the L1 classroom2016In: L1-Educational Studies in Language and Literature, ISSN 1567-6617, E-ISSN 1573-1731, Vol. 16, no Open Issue, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conversations about texts are often presented in research as particularly beneficial to students’ reading development, based on the argument that the opportunity to confront, discuss and negotiate different readings in the classroom enhances students’ skills in engaging with texts. In this article, we examine in detail the interplay between a teacher and her students when they talk about argumentative texts in a Swedish ninth grade classroom setting. In the analysis we combine a Conversation Analysis ap-proach with reading theories that emphasize the dialogical encounter between reader and text. Our result indicates the dual nature of the teaching perspective which sometimes involves conflicting aims. The teacher has to choose between intervening in response to student reactions that reflect emotional and stereotypical attitudes that may hinder a critical reading, or intervening to make use of and stimu-late reactions that may lead to more critical readings. Thus, our study emphasizes that it is crucial that teachers are able to both manage the leadership in the complex classroom interaction, and to apply knowledge about reading processes and strategies that students get involved in when they discuss en-gaging texts in school.

  • 2.
    Asplund, Stig-Börje
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Olin-Scheller, Christina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Under the teacher´s radar: Literacy practices in task-related smartphone use in the connected classroom2018In: L1-Educational Studies in Language and Literature, ISSN 1567-6617, E-ISSN 1573-1731, Vol. 18, p. 1-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we explore the role of smartphones in the classroom and how they interact with teaching. Drawing on examples of literacy events, we show how the students use the smartphone as a resource to exercise power and influence in the literacy practices in which they participate in the classroom, in relation to a teaching content. These actions take place without the teachers being aware of them, and thus theseprocesses dismantle the teacher’s authority in terms of access to, and overview of, the diversity of texts that are managed by the students in the classroom. The article concludes that it is evident that digital tools in general, and smartphones in particular, change the role of the teacher and the school, and thatthe students’ design of texts places new or altered demands on students as well as teachers.

  • 3.
    Asplund, Stig-Börje
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Olin-Scheller, Christina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centrum för genusforskning.
    Vargen kommer!: Om läsundervisning och texter som väcker känslor2016In: Läsa mellan raderna / [ed] Christina Olin-Scheller, Michael Tengberg, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2016, 1, p. 211-233Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Buskqvist, Ulf
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Olin-Scheller, Christina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Den digitaliserade skolan - etiska spänningsfält2017In: Etiska perspektiv på skolledares arbete / [ed] Åsa Söderström, Stockholm: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, p. 29-47Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Hermansson, Carina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Hultin, Eva
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    The interplay of textual and interactional resources in collective literacy practices in the Nordic classrooms: Editorial introduction2017In: Nordic Journal of Literacy Research, E-ISSN 2464-1596, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Klette, Kirsti
    et al.
    Department of Teacher Education and School Research, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Sahlström, Fritjof
    Department of Pedagogy, Åbo Akademi University, Vaasa, Finland.
    Blikstad-Balas, Marte
    Department of Teacher Education and School Research, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Luoto, Jennifer
    Department of Teacher Education and School Research, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Tengberg, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Roe, Astrid
    Department of Teacher Education and School Research, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Slotte, Anna
    Faculty of Educational Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Justice through participation: Student engagement in Nordic classrooms2018In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 57-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we approach large questions regarding justice and equality in the Nordic classrooms. A substantial body of previous research emphasises the importance of student engagement in teaching and learning. Drawing on video data from Norway, Sweden and Finland, we focus on whole-class teaching, i.e. situations in which the teacher addresses the class from the front of the classroom, to investigate justice trough participation. We have approached our topic through two concerns: student participation in classroom discourse and student engagement as providing access to content. Our findings seem to pose some serious challenges for the Nordic welfare society vision of classrooms as core societal hubs for justice and equality. While whole-class teaching is one of the primary tools available for attempting to achieve justice and equality for all, this interaction format seems to contain inherent constraints that do not support equitable student engagement. Further, the way the Nordic classrooms have responded so far to the massive digitisation in their societies seems to pose serious questions rather than provide comforting answers.

  • 7.
    Ljung Egeland, Birgitta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Olin-Scheller, ChristinaKarlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.Tanner, MarieKarlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.Tengberg, MichaelKarlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Tolfte nationella konferensen i svenska med didaktisk inriktning: Textkulturer2017Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Löfdahl, Annica
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Olin-Scheller, ChristinaKarlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.Tanner, MarieKarlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Berättelser: Vänbok till Héctor Pérez Prieto2018Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna vänbok tillägnas vår kollega Héctor Pérez Prieto. Boken består av olika berättelser med anknytning till Héctors forskning och tillsammans formar bidragen en ny berättelse om hans forskarliv, en slags livsberättelse.

    Författarna är akademiska vänner som vid olika tidpunkter och på olika platser samarbetat med Héctor som handledare, student, doktorand och kollega.  

  • 9.
    Löfdahl Hultman, Annica
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Olin-Scheller, ChristinaKarlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.Tanner, MarieKarlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Kapet: Temanummer från den Andra nationella konferensen i Pedagogiskt arbete 20152015Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Löfgren, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköpings universitet.
    Samuelsson, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet.
    Att ständigt bli bedömd2017In: Att ständigt bli bedömd: Elevers berättelser om betyg och nationella prov / [ed] Héctor Pérez Prieto, Håkan Löfgren, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, p. 175-188Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Olin-Scheller, Christina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Klassrummet som plats för lärande utmanas2018In: Svenskläraren, ISSN 0346-2412, no 1, p. 18-19Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Olin-Scheller, Christina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    "Street smart" i klassrummet? - högstadieelevers användning av smarta telefoner i undervisningens mellanrum2015In: Kapet (elektronisk), E-ISSN 2002-3979, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 23-44Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    På senare tid har många skolor och kommuner gjort stora satsningar på digitala verktyg. För att hålla jämn takt med utbredningen av medieteknologiska redskap har elever på högstadiet och gymnasiet försetts med egna surfplattor eller laptops – ofta med förväntningar på att detta ska påverka undervisningen och lärandet positivt.  Samtidigt med dessa satsningar har klassrummet – via elevernas egna smarta telefoner – blivit uppkopplade från insidan. Denna artikel belyser den smarta telefonens roll i klassrummet och vi diskuterar dels när och hur smarta telefoner förekommer, dels vilka sociala och didaktiska implikationer som telefonerna kan ha i elevers interaktion. Studiens material består av observationer och videoinspelningar av undervisningen i ett klassrum i årskurs 9. Klassen bestod av 20 elever, och skolan ligger på en mindre mellansvensk ort. Videomaterialet består av 12 timmars inspelad data. Sammantaget visar vår studie att mobiltelefonerna sällan framstår som ett ordningsproblem i klassrummet. Så som de används i det studerade exemplet konkurrerar de oftast inte med lärarens agenda i undervisningen, utan används som ett sätt att fördriva tiden medan man väntar på ny instruktion i undervisningens "mellanrum". Omfattningen av användningen varierar mellan olika elever, men har oftast liten eller ingen koppling till undervisningsinnehållet. Samtalsanalyser visar vidare hur mobilanvändning koordineras med andra aspekter av klassrummets interaktion såsom uppgifters slutförande, elevers sociala samspel samt lärarens undervisning. Mobilanvändningen tycks också kunna fungera både sammanhållande och utestängande i den sociala interaktionen mellan eleverna.

  • 13.
    Olin-Scheller, Christina
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Åkerlund, Dan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Buskqvist, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Förbjud inte mobilen – använd den!2016In: Pedagogiska Magasinet, ISSN 1401-3320, no 2, p. 78-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Perez Prieto, Hector
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Fabricando alumnos: autoevaluación y negociación en la escuela sueca.2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Fabricando buenos alumnos: autoevaluación y negociación en la escuela sueca2014In: Estudios etnográficos de las políticas públicas en contextos educativos: Contextos múltiples de socialisacón y aprendizaje. Un análisis desde la etnografía de la educación. / [ed] Carlos Peláez-Paz, María Isabel Jociles, Madrid: Traficantes de Sueños , 2014, p. 221-232Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Rehusando la responsabilidad: Autoevalución y fabricaciones en un quinto año de la escuela sueca.2015In: Paideia, Revista de educación, ISSN 0716-4815, Vol. 56, p. 43-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an analysis of how the individual imperative that is a central element in neoliberal changes in educational policies during recent decades, is constructed in classroom interaction in upper primary school. It is also shown how this construction is challenged by the actions of one student who refuses to take responsibility for the expectations that a specific practice of policy assigns to him. Theoretically the article draws on the concepts of policy enactment, performativity and fabrications (Ball, 2003, 2009) in combination with applied conversation analysis (Have, 1999) as a methodological approach. Data comes from video documentation from a lesson where the students are supposed to make a self-evaluation of their learning and social situation. The analyses of the interaction between the teacher and the students show how they orient to dominating policy discourses about the constant need for being able to identify weaknesses and the responsibility to articulate means how to improve. The analysis also show how this becomes challenged as one student refuses to take on this responsibility and how this leads to a negotiation that gradually changes the power relations in the classroom and results in a reformulation of the problem.

  • 17.
    Sahlström, Fritjof
    et al.
    University of Helsinki.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Epistemic topicalizations as resources for cohesion and change in learning trajectories.2015In: Paper presented in the panel "Tracking change across time: methodological and conceptual challenges", 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this presentation, we take an interest in practices relied upon by teachers and learners for coming to situated agreement of the level of student learning, and for adjusting teaching and instruction in different situations to these changing understandings, both within situations, and in and between subsequent situations occurring over longer periods of time. In particular, we are interested in explicit epistemic practices and epistemic topicalization as resources for cohesion and change. Within CA, there is a growing interest in the ubiquitous role that issues related to knowledge have in the interactive organization of human sociality. This interest has brought new insights about the diverse ways in which epistemic stance is utilized as a resource in interaction (c.f. Stivers, Mondada, & Steensig, 2011; Heritage, 2012b; 2012a; Goodwin, 2013; Koole, 2012). The focus on epistemics is at the core of a growing body of research on learning that within a CA framing explores new ways of conceptualizing learning as changed participation in interaction (Martin, 2004; Melander, 2009; Lee, 2010; Sahlström, 2011; Seedhouse, Walsh, & Jenks, 2010).

    The issue of cross-situational relevance has continued to to be a challenge for CA studies. Here, we explore how participants orient to learning processes across situations, by relying on epistemic topicalizations as resources for the shaping of cohesive learning trajectories. The analyzed material consists of data from three larger educational video- ethnographies on language and learning with data both from classroom settings and informal everyday settings. Within these materials, trajectories of learning have been traced, relying in particular on analysis of explications of epistemic orientation.

    In the analysis we show how the epistemic stance of the informants change through and between the interactions, as the students become more and more certain of how to orient to the learning content. By orienting to previous shared learning experiences, and by relying on epistemic explications such as epistemic topicalizations, the student’s current epistemic status in relation to the learnable is established, and hence made available for situated change.           

    In conclusion, the paper shows how epistemic topicalizations are relied upon in the learning trajectories for establishing and maintaining, in different ways, coherence in a certain constituted content through several learning situations, while at the same time making it possible for the teacher and the student to continuously change and differentiate their epistemic stance to this content in relation to successive changes in the student’s epistemic status. Hence, epistemic topicalization is demonstrated to be a primary resource in establishing a shared understanding of the evolving epistemic status of the students, and a primary resource for adapting and changing teaching and instruction. Epistemic topicalizations represent crucial resources both for the contingent organization of learning as social action within and beyond situated interactions, and for the situated construction of differentiation and mutual adaption of teaching and learning in relation to displayed needs and requests from various students.

  • 18.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Att lära sig skriva nationella prov2017In: Att ständigt bli bedömd: Elevers berättelser om betyg och nationella prov / [ed] Héctor Pérez Prieto, Håkan Löfgren, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, p. 83-108Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Att visa vad man kan. Elever som medspelare i förändrade policypraktiker om bedömning i år sex2016In: Kapet, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här artikeln studeras hur policyförändringar när det gäller betyg och nationella prov i årskurs sex framträder i elevers interaktion. Den fråga som specifikt utforskas är hur eleverna positionerar sig i relation till förändrade bedömningspraktiker samt vilka ideala elevidentiter som därigenom framträder. Ett urval från gruppintervjuer med elever i årskurs sex har analyserats med fokus på hur de i interaktionen konstruerar berättelser om prov och bedömning i undervisningen. Resultatet visar hur policydiskurser görs som samkonstruktioner i elevernas interaktion. Ett dubbelt elevideal framträder där man som elev både förväntas prestera och ta ansvar för att visa vad man kan, samtidigt som man också förväntas kunna tänka självständigt och argumentera för sin sak – men på ett sätt som faller inom ramen för systemets officiella retorik. Eleverna framstår som kompetenta medspelare och aktörer inom systemet som bidrar till görandet av policy. Samtidigt är de också objekt för de förändringar som policyreformer syftar till att påverka. Resultatet väcker frågor om villkor för elevers deltagande i policyförändringar, och inte minst när det gäller elevers möjligheter till att göra motstånd och kunna påverka de elevideal som formas i samband med utbildningspolitiska reformer i ett allt mer marknadiserat utbildningssystem.

  • 20.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Evolving literacy practices in the classroom: Choices, problem solving and responsibilities in desk interaction2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation focuses on a specific kind of learning situation in the classroom, desk interactions. This means situations when students work individually at their desks while the teacher moves around in the classrooms to help and supervise them. Almost without exceptions these interactions involve the use of texts; they are literacy events linked to school specific literacy practices (Barton & Hamilton, 1998; Barton, 2007; Street, 1983).  This presentation aims at exploring how and which literacy practices gets produced and reproduced in these literacy events in interactions between teachers, students and texts. It builds on video-data from an ethnographic classroom study in year 4 and 5 focusing on school subjects Swedish and Geography. Conversation Analysis (Hutchby & Wooffitt, 2008; Goodwin, 2001) has been used to show how teachers and students, using both verbal and non-verbal resources, continuously relate to, use and contribute to shape institutionally shaped literacy practices as resources in interaction. The result shows that texts in these situations are primarily used to make short references to index where to find knowledge, remind each other of previously shared knowledge or to regulate school work. A conclusion is that the literacy practices that evolve in these situations to a higher degree promotes students responsibilities to independently make choices, solve problems and move on with their work, than making explorations of the texts themselves the object of learning.

  • 21.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    Från en skola för alla till en skola för varje?2009In: Kapet, ISSN 1653-4743, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 77-89Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med artikeln är att diskutera hur innebörden av begreppet ”en skola för alla” förskjutits genom den förändrade utbildningspolitik vi sett under de senaste decennierna, som utmärks av mål- och resultatstyrning utifrån en i grunden neo-liberal ideologi. Genom att sätta begreppet i relation till olika tolkningar av en skola för alla som medel för social rättvisa, det demokratiska deltagarperspektivet respektive den kompensatoriska lösningen, blir det tydligt att de reformer som nu genomförs inom det utbildningspolitiska området medför en förskjutning av begreppets innebörd så att det istället skulle kunna beskrivas som ”en skola för varje”. Debatten om hur skolans kunskapsmässiga och demokratiska uppdrag kan förenas behöver fördjupas, liksom vilken innebörd vi egentligen vill lägga i begreppet ”en skola för alla”.

  • 22.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education.
    Förenklad debatt om katederundervisning2014In: Svenskläraren. Tidskrift för svenskundervisning., ISSN 0346-2412, no 3, p. 10-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Lärande i skrifthändelser: Om undervisning och bänkinteraktion i mellanstadiets skriftpraktiker.2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande syftet med mitt pågående avhandlingsprojekt är att utifrån ett interaktionsperspektiv studera bänkinteraktioner mellan lärare och elever i skrifthändelser på mellanstadiet. Med utgångspunkt i det sociala perspektiv på skriftspråklighet som beskrivs inom fältet New Literacy Studies (Heath, 1982; Barton, 2007; Gee, 2008) studerar jag på vilket sätt lärare och elever i de studerade skrifthändelserna i sin interaktion orienterar sig mot situationen som en lärandeaktivitet med ett särskilt intresse för hur lärarens deltagande organiseras. Två mellanstadieklasser, år 4 och 5, från olika skolor har följts periodvis under ett läsår, där vardagliga skriftpraktiker i olika ämnen har dokumenterats genom videoinspelning och fältanteckningar. Studiens urval avgränsas till skrifthändelser vid s.k. bänkinteraktioner, dvs. tillfällen med individuellt bänkarbete då läraren rör sig mellan olika elever och främst intar en handledande roll. Metodologiskt använder jag mig av samtalsanalys, CA, för att studera hur lärande i interaktion (Melander & Sahlström, 2010) organiseras med användande av verbala och icke-verbala semiotiska resurser (Goodwin, 2000; 2013). Studiens resultat förväntas bidra till klassrumsforskningen med kunskap om bänkinteraktioner som organisationsform och på vilket sätt detta kan relateras till formandet av mellanstadiets skriftpraktiker.

  • 24.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Lärarens väg genom klassrummet: Lärande och skriftspråkande i bänkinteraktioner på mellanstadiet2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation takes an interest in learning and literacy in everyday interaction in the middle year classroom. It is based on a view of learning as emically construed in social interaction. Conversation Analysis (CA) and the concept of epistemic stance are used as a theoretical framing for describing in what way, and with what verbal and non-verbal resources, learning is achieved in desk interaction, i.e. when students work individually at their desks while the teacher moves around to support them. Almost without exceptions, these interactions involve the use of texts. Hence, they are viewed as situated literacy events that are part of the institutionally shaped literacy practices as described in the field of New Literacy Studies.

    The empirical data for this study comes from a video-ethnographic study in two middle year classrooms in grade four and five. Out of a total of 70 hours of video documentation, a selection of interrelated desk interactions was made. These were analyzed as learning trajectories and compared from two perspectives. Firstly, learning trajectories when a teacher repeatedly interacts with the same student about the same learning content were analyzed. Secondly, the changes in the teacher’s epistemic stance when interacting with different students about the same learning content in repeated desk interactions were studied.

    The analysis shows that the teacher’s trajectories through the classroom build infrastructures for learning, enabling differentiation between students within the constraints and possibilities of evolving routines. Learning in desk interaction mainly relies on the use of text references to index previously shared knowledge. Epistemic topicalizations and recurring semiotic fields are shown to be crucial resources for both maintaining and changing the epistemic stance of the participants towards the learning content constituted in interaction. A conclusion is that the shared experiences of teachers and students in collective literacy events serve as important resources for learning in individual desk interaction.

  • 25.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    Redaktionellt2010In: Kapet, ISSN 1653-4743, Vol. 1, no 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    Redaktionellt 20112011In: KAPET. Karlstads Pedagogiska Tidskrift, ISSN 1653-4743, Vol. 1, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Samtalsanalytiska perspektiv på textens roll i elevers och lärares interaktion2016In: Läsa mellan raderna / [ed] Christina Olin-Scheller, Michael Tengberg, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2016, 1, p. 151-171Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Ska jag skriva det.: Lärares och elevers interaktion vid bänkarbete2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande syftet med mitt avhandlingsprojekt är att bidra med kunskap om lärares och elevers interaktion i skrifthändelser i vardagliga skriftpraktiker på mellanstadiet. Med utgångspunkt i fältet New Literacy Studies (Street, 1984; Barton, 2007; Gee, 2008) samt dialogiska och multimodala perspektiv på språk och kontext (Linell, 2009; Goodwin& Duranti, 1992; Prior& Hengst, 2010) studerar jag på vilket sätt mellanstadiets undervisning konstitueras i s.k. bänkinteraktioner, dvs. tillfällen då elever arbetar självständigt med olika skriftliga uppgifter och läraren främst intar en handledande roll. Metodologiskt använder jag mig av samtalsanalys, CA, (eng. conversation analysis) för att studera lärarens deltagande i dessa bänkinteraktioner och hur det kan förstås i relation till undervisning och lärande (Melander & Sahlström, 2010; Sahlström, 2011).

     

    Två mellanstadieklasser från olika skolor har följts periodvis under ett läsår, där vardagliga skriftpraktiker i ämnena svenska, geografi och textilslöjd har dokumenterats genom videoinspelning och fältanteckningar. En videokamera har följt lärarens arbete i klassrummet när denne rör sig mellan olika elevers bänkar, kompletterat med en fast kamera som dokumenterat helklassperspektivet. Från det rika videomaterialet görs ett urval av relaterade sekvenser i undervisningens förlopp då läraren bemöter olika elever kring en och samma arbetsuppgift, vilket möjliggör analys av hur lärarens deltagande i undervisningens interaktioner med eleverna förändras över tid med användande av olika semiotiska resurser såsom verbalt tal, gester, blickar och artefaktuella texter.

     

    Preliminära resultat synliggör hur både tidigare och projicerade skrifthändelser remedieras i de situerade bänkinteraktionerna och används som interaktionella resurser av deltagarna. Lärarens deltagande förändras successivt genom de olika bänkinteraktionerna, en förändring som inrymmer aspekter av både rutinisering och variation.

  • 29.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education.
    Taking interaction in literacy events seriously: A conversation analysis approach to evolving literacy practices in the classroom2017In: Language and Education, ISSN 0950-0782, E-ISSN 1747-7581, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 400-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, I examine the relation between literacy events and literacy practices in classroom interaction and add to ongoing discussions in the field of NLS about the transcontextual nature of literacy and how local literacy events are linked to broader literacy practices. It specifically focuses on how the link between literacy events and literacy practices are maintained in the institutionally shaped classroom interaction. Conversation analysis (CA) is used to explore the interactional resources and social knowledge relied upon as teachers and students orient to literacy practices in everyday classroom interactions. The analysis focuses on a frequent type of teacher–student interaction during seatwork, desk interaction, i.e. interactions that occur as students work individually at their desks while the teacher moves around in the classroom to help and supervise them. The result shows how teachers and students refer to and use previously shared experiences of institutionally shaped literacy practices in the desk interactions, using both verbal and non-verbal resources. Thus, the literacy events in these interactions are shown both to be embedded in and contributing forward to the progressive shaping of classroom literacy practices that to a large extent seem to be practices of selfregulation and responsibility in individual assignments.

  • 30.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Texts as material resources in the organization of learning in classroom desk-interaction2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on learning within CA has in recent years contributed to new insights about the social organization of learning in everyday interactions, inside and outside classrooms (Melander, 2009; Lee, 2010; Sahlström, 2011; Tanner, 2014). This research reveals how learning as social actions gets actively accomplished as participants successively change their epistemic stance to a simultaneously construed learning content. In doing this, participants coordinate their actions within participation frameworks, using both verbal and non-verbal resources such as language, bodily stance and material structures (Goodwin 2007; 2013). In this presentation I aim to further explore the use of material texts as resources in such participation frame-works. Even though the use of texts in people’s everyday lives has been well described within other fields of research, CA provides analytical tools that could contribute to deeper understandings of the role of texts in human interaction. Here I explore how texts come to play part in the organization of learning in teacher-student interactions in classrooms. Analyzed data comes from a larger classroom video-ethnography on learning and literacy practices during the middle years, i.e. students aged 10 to 12 years, in two different classrooms as they work with individual assignments in subjects Swedish and Geography. I particularly focus on so-called desk-interactions, i.e. situations when students work individually at their desks while the teacher moves around to support and supervise them. The results show how students in these situations are expected primarily to solve problems as independently as possible, and to regulate their work in relation to work-instructions and other texts. Textbooks, pictures, the blackboard or the students’ own texts are mainly used to motivate a request for help, or to remind each other of where to find information to solve an assignment. Thus, text references in desk-interaction get an indexical function, as they are used to coordinate the variety of texts middleyear students encounter in different situations. The possibilities for shared reading and discussions on text comprehension are on the other hand shown to be limited in desk-interaction. A conclusion is that the use of texts comes to work more as resources to organize learning and instruction in deskinteraction, than being construed as a learning content per se.

  • 31.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education.
    The teacher’s pathway through the classroom.: Learning and literacy in desk-interactions in the middle years.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this presentation, I take an interest in how teaching and learning as social actions have to be actively accomplished in interactions between teachers and students in the institutional setting of the classroom. More precisely I focus on learning trajectories between teachers and students within subsequent situations over time and the practices relied upon for coming to situated agreement of the level of student learning, and for adjusting teaching and instruction in individual deskwork to these changing understandings.

    Within CA, there is a growing interest in the ubiquitous role that issues related to knowledge have in the interactive organization of human sociality. This interest has brought new insights about the diverse ways in which epistemic stance is utilized as a resource in interaction (c.f. Stivers, Mondada, & Steensig, 2011; Heritage, 2012; Goodwin, 2013). This focus on epistemics is at the core of a growing body of research on learning that within a CA framing explores new ways of conceptualizing learning as changed participation in interaction (Melander, 2009; Lee, 2010; Sahlström, 2011). Here, I explore how participants orient to learning processes across situations, by relying on interactional resources such as epistemic topicalizations and reoccurring semiotic fields.

    Analyzed data comes from a larger classroom video-ethnography on learning and literacy practices during the middle years, i.e. students aged 10 to 12 year in two Swedish schools.  Within this material, trajectories of learning in desk-interactions between teachers and students, i.e. when students work individually while the teacher moves around in the classroom to support them, have been traced. In the analysis I compare learning trajectories from two different perspectives. First I analyze examples where a teacher repeatedly meets the same student in interactions about the same learning content. Secondly I focus on changes in the teacher’s epistemic stance as he/she meets different students about the same learning content in repeated desk-interactions.

    The varying functions in participants’ use of epistemic topicalizations and reoccurring semiotic fields are shown to be crucial resources to maintain, in different ways, the “sameness” in a certain constituted content through repeated learning situations, while at the same time making it possible for the teacher and the student to continuously change and differentiate their epistemic stance to this content. When comparing trajectories from the student’s and teacher’s perspective it becomes clear that learning in desk-interactions is constituted in the dynamic interplay between teacher’s and student’s learning, where the main feature of the teacher’s learning could be described as trying out a routine. The teacher’s pathway through the classroom could from this be described as an infrastructure for learning characterized of both differentiation and routinization (Schegloff, 2006). This in turn can simultaneously both enable and constrain student learning in these situations.

     

    References

    Goodwin, C. (2013). The co-operative, transformative organization of human action and knowledge. Journal of Pragmatics, 46(1), 8-23.

    Heritage, J. (2012). The epistemic engine: Sequence organization and territories of knowledge. Research on Language & Social Interaction, 45(1), 30-52.

    Lee, Y. (2010). Learning in the contingency of talk-in-interaction. Text & Talk, 30(4), 403-422.

    Melander, H. (2009). Trajectories of learning : Embodied interaction in change. Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis : Uppsala University Library

    Sahlström, F. (2011). Learning as social action. In J. K. Hall, J. Hellermann & S. P. Doehler (Eds.), L2 interactional competence and development . Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

    Schegloff, E. (2006). Interaction: The infrastructure for Social Institutions, the Natural Ecological Niche for Language, and the Arena in which Culture is Enacted (70-96). In N.J. Enfield & S.C. Levinson, Roots of Human Sociality: Culture, Cognition and Interaction. Oxford: Berg.

    Stivers, T., Mondada, L., & Steensig, J. (Eds.). (2011). The morality of knowledge in conversation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • 32.
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    Vad var det vi läste och pratade om?: Bänkinteraktioner i mellanstadiets skriftpraktiker2012In: Svenskämnet igår, idag, imorgon / [ed] Gustaf Skar och Michael Tengberg, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2012, p. 194-208Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Tanner, Marie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Olin-Scheller, Christina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Asplund, Stig-Börje
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centrum för genusforskning.
    Vargen kommer!: Elevers läsning av argumenterande texter i ämnet svenska2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Tanner, Marie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Centre for Research on the Teaching and Learning of Languages and Literature.
    Olin-Scheller, Christina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Centre for Research on the Teaching and Learning of Languages and Literature. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Buskqvist, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Åkerlund, Dan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Ett papperslöst klassrum?: Utmaningar för det uppkopplade klassrummets literacypraktiker2017In: Textkulturer / [ed] Ljung-Egeland, B., Olin-Scheller, C., Tanner, M. & Tengberg, M., Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2017, p. 175-194Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Tanner, Marie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education.
    Olin-Scheller, Christina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Centre for Research on the Teaching and Learning of Languages and Literature.
    Sahlström, Fritjof
    Helsingfors universitet.
    How content becomes routine.: Teacher learning in desk interactions.2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we focus on classroom interaction between teacher and students in desk interactions, and on how attitudes towards knowing and learning are demonstrated in so called epistemic stances. The aim is to explore how the teacher’s epistemic stance changes through a series of desk interactions with different students and how this can be understood as learning in a situated activity. The analysis is grounded in empirical data consisting of video recordings where one teacher assists five different groups of students with the same question during a geography lesson. In the analysis we highlight how the teacher orients to the learning activity, and how his participation in this activity changes in the situationally unfolding contingency of interaction. In the studied example, the construal of a list with three examples becomes an interactional resource for the organization of both participation and content. Through changes in epistemic stance, a learning trajectory evolves as the teacher tries out a routine. These subsequent changes can be understood as professional learning in on-going teaching. In the studied classroom, the main feature of this learning can be described as routinization.

  • 36.
    Tanner, Marie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Olin-Scheller, Christina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Tengberg, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Material texts as objects in interaction: Constraints and possibilities in relation to dialogic reading instruction.2017In: Nordic Journal of Literacy Research, E-ISSN 2464-1596, Vol. 3, p. 83-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we focus on the role of texts as material objects in the interaction between a teacher and her students in Swedish grade nine, working with critical reading of argumentative texts. With a Conversation Analysis approach, we investigate how texts are used as material objects in the organization of interaction between students and their teacher, as well as between students during group work. We also discuss what pedagogical implications the role of texts as material objects have for dialogicity in critical reading instruction. The result shows that texts as material objects are vital for the organization of interaction as they are used as resources in negotiating responsibility and primacy as well as for the distribution of turns between participants and to accomplish a representation of the answer to a reading task. A conclusion is that an intention to support dialogicity in reading instruction requires awareness of how dialogic and critical aspects of reading easily become subordinated to the aim of problem solving in classrooms as task work is organized around texts that are also material objects.

  • 37.
    Tanner, Marie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Olin-Scheller, Christina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Tengberg, Michael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    The role of material texts in interaction when teaching critical reading to adolescents: Paper presented in the symposia " The Interplay of Textual and Interactional resources in Collective Reading and Writing Practices in Nordic Classrooms "2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of critical reading practices reflects a key component in an education for democratic citizenship, which also is addressed in recent curriculum reforms in Sweden as well as many other countries. This presentation is part of a larger study designed to improve proficiency in critical reading related to argumentative texts. The study concerns implementation of dialogic reading strategies in teaching Swedish as first language, planned in close cooperation between researchers and teachers (Olin-Scheller, Tengberg & Lindholm, 2015). In this presentation challenges in learning and instruction are further explored through close video-analysis of classroom interactions. We draw on social perspectives on literacy described within the New Literacy Studies (Barton, 2007; Street, 1984) and view teachers’ and students’ interactions around the texts as literacy events. Conversation analysis, CA, is used for close examination of the interactions. We especially focus on how participants use verbal language, bodily stance and texts as material structures to organize interaction (Goodwin 2000; 2007) and the organization of learning as social actions (Melander& Sahlström, 2009; Lee, 2010; Sahlström, 2011; Tanner, 2014). Eight lessons in year nine were documented with 2-3 video-cameras. Literacy events when students talk to each other or the teacher during seatwork in small groups has been selected and analyzed. Results show that the focused texts (print-, screen- and whiteboard texts) are used as problem solving devices which sometimes constrain the critical discussion that is intended. Besides for pedagogical purposes, the materiality of the texts, in different ways, also become resources to order and control the classroom arena.

  • 38.
    Tanner, Marie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Pérez Prieto, Hector
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Förändrade dokumentationspraktiker - förändrade stödinstatser?2016In: Kapet (elektronisk), E-ISSN 2002-3979, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 21-38Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här artikeln diskuteras hur specialpedagoger översätter och hanterar en nyligen införd reform när det gäller skolors stödinsatser, där det tidigare begreppet ”särskilt stöd” nu har delats in i två nivåer av stödinsatser, ”extra anpassningar” eller ”särskilt stöd”. Med utgångspunkt i en mindre intervjustudie uppmärksammas några av de frågor och dilemman som aktualiseras i samband med detta. Reformen förstås som ett exempel på hur policy reformer ramar in och formar det tolkningsarbete som sker på alla nivåer i utbildningssystemet, vilket mot bakgrund av skolans nuvarande styrningssystem under senare decennier har inneburit ett ökat performativt tryck. Analysen grundar sig på tre intervjuer med specialpedagoger på olika skolor och olika stadier. Sådana aspekter som i intervjuerna framstår som kritiska för hur specialpedagogerna hanterar de förändringar som skrivits fram på myndighetsnivå har identifierats och tematiserats. Resultatet visar hur specialpedagogerna hamnar i en mellanposition mellan rektor och lärararbetslagen, där förhandlingar om olika yrkesgruppers ansvar i förhållande till varandra blir centralt när reformen hanteras. Strävan efter att utarbeta hållbara rutiner och strukturer för att utreda, dokumentera och följa upp stödinsatser framstår som en stor del av specialpedagogernas tolkning av reformen, medan förändringsarbetet på klassrumsnivå blir mindre synligt i deras framställning. 

  • 39.
    Tanner, Marie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Elevers motstånd i ett beslut som berör dem2017In: Att ständigt bli bedömd: Elevers berättelser om betyg och nationella prov / [ed] Héctor Pérez Prieto, Håkan Löfgren, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, p. 159-174Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Tanner, Marie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    In between self-knowledge and school demands.: Policy enacted in the Swedish middle year classroom.2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent series of articles Braun et al highlights the importance of studying the ways that policy is enacted by teachers in their everyday work attending the material and discursive contingencies that forms, frames and limits practical responses to policy (Braun, Ball, & Maguire, 2011) . Using these articles as point of departure we go one step further in empirically exploring how policy is interpreted and made in to being in the classroom interaction between teacher, students and artifactual texts being used.

    In the performative society that has  developed in the new education economy (Lauder, Brown, Dillabough, & Halsey, 2006)  it is not so much in the structures of the formal organization but in the constant flows of performativities that power is produced where, as Stephen Ball puts it (S. J. Ball, 2006), “[I]t is the database, the appraisal meeting, the annual reviews, report writing and promotion applications, inspections, peer reviews that are to the fore” (p. 693). Policy work in schools thus comes to be a much broader concept not only referring to policy as top-down steering from governmental decisions and organizational structures but as something that is achieved and made on all levels by the actors in the school system. Different kinds of texts and documents made on all levels and by various actors thereby become part of the regulatory techniques in the performative society. In a Swedish context one example is how new text genres and literacy practices are created (Andreasson & Asplund Carlsson, 2009)  when schools have to find ways to organize and document increased demands of assessments and control over student outcomes through national standards and tests as well as written assessments and individual developmental plans for each student. These student centred texts has in various studies been seen as self-regulatory technologies from a governmentality perspective (Andreasson, 2007; Bartholdsson, 2007; Granath, 2008).

    This paper aims at showing how policy is enacted in the everyday classroom interaction and how the student’s identity and position in relation to ideals of “the good student” is negotiated and fabricated within new kinds of literacy practices in the classroom context. We focus the interaction in a Grade 5 classroom where students are asked to fill in a “self-evaluation form” as a preparation for a forthcoming discussion on progress between teacher, student and parents aiming at producing an individual developmental plan. Drawing on the theoretical concepts of fabrications and performativity (S. Ball, 2006; S. J. Ball, 2003) we see this practice as an enactment of policy where both teacher and students are seen as actors and subjects made into being in interaction with the self-evaluation form as a textual artifact.  In doing this we also draw on critical views of literacy within the field of the new literacy studies (Barton, 2007; Brandt & Clinton, 2002; Gee, Hull, & Lankshear, 1996; Gee, 2008)  where literacies are seen as social practices made in interaction in different domains in people’s lives, such as for example the school context.

    Method (200 words)

    The empirical data used comes from a larger video ethnographic study of literacy practices in the Middle years, which in Sweden means students that are 10 to 12 years old. In this analysis we focus a lesson during 30 minutes when the teacher first instructs the whole class and then moves to different students to help them fill out the form “self-evalutation”. Two video cameras have been used to document the interaction between teacher and students in the classroom from a classroom- and a teacher perspective, where we make a detailed micro-level analysis of a series of interactions with one of the students during the class. In the analysis we use conversation analysis (CA) as an analytic tool to make visible the joint interaction of the participants, teacher and students in an institutional setting (Have, 1999; Heritage, 1997; Sacks, Schegloff, & Jefferson, 1974; Schegloff, 1992; Schegloff, 1996)  where  participants use verbal talk and other semiotic resources to simultaneously both make use of and continuously shape material and contextual resources through their interactional work (Duranti & Goodwin, 1992; Goodwin, 2000) .

    Expected outcomes (200 words)

    The result of the analysis shows how the “self-evaluation” form that seemingly addresses the student’s self-knowledge to be made explicit in order for school to be able to give support meets interpretations of preferred answers to the different boxes in the form that results in a negotiation between different ways of construction the student’s social identity. This makes visible how the “self-evaluation” as a policy document not only can be seen as means for self-regulation from a governmentality perspective, but how the students identity rather can be seen as a fabrication where the teacher and student negotiate different conceptions of the ideal student in relation to the students self-knowledge and school demands both socially and in relation to curricular knowledge. It is an empirically grounded contribution that hopes to enrich and deepen the understanding about how policies are interpretated and made into being by the local actors in schools. It also highlights how students from early years in school are made participants in new literacy practices related to neoliberal changes in the societal work order at large, which also can be seen as a learning practice even though it is not made explicit in the curriculum.

  • 41.
    Tanner, Marie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Centre for Research on the Teaching and Learning of Languages and Literature.
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    In between self-knowledge and school demands: Policy enacted in the Swedish middle year classroom2014In: Discourse. Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, ISSN 0159-6306, E-ISSN 1469-3739, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 554-569-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we focus on the interaction in a Year 5 classroom where students fill in a ‘self-evaluation form’ as a preparation for a forthcoming discussion on progress aiming at the production of an Individual Developmental Plan. Drawing on the theoretical concepts of fabrications and performativity (Ball, 2003; 2006), we understand this as an enactment of policy where both teacher and students become actors and subjects (Ball et al., 2012; Maguire et al. 2011). From using document analysis together with conversation analysis as a methodological approach, we show how the ‘self-evaluation’ in interaction becomes a successful exercise in fabrications as teacher and student negotiate conceptions of the ideal student in relation to self-knowledge and school demands. The article is an empirically grounded contribution to the understanding of how policies are interpreted and made into being by local actors in everyday practices, in this case teachers and students in schools.

  • 42.
    Tanner, Marie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Education, Department of Education.
    Studying policy in interaction: Students’ enactment of new grades and national tests in Swedish year six.2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this presentation is to explore how recent policy changes in education gets interpreted and realized in student interaction. In recent years the concept of enactment has been used within policy research as an analytical tool for the understanding of how policy gets translated into practice by actors on different levels (Ball, 2006; Ball, Maguire & Braun, 2012; Singh, Heimans & Glasswell, 2014; Tanner & Pérez Prieto, 2014). Most studies on a school level focus on school leaders and teachers, whereas the students often remain unnoticed as actors in policy practice. In this presentation we argue for the importance of including students’ perspectives in studies of policy, and suggest new methods for how this could be explored.  

    Methodologically we bring together understandings of policy enactment and performativity from the field of educational sociology with the ethnomethodological stance of conversation analysis (CA) for studying how policy comes to play in interactions between students (ten Have, 1999).  We use data from a larger study about students’ experiences on doing national tests and getting grades in year 6, including more than 10 schools. The data consists of audio- and video recordings from focus group interviews with students and of video recordings from classrooms in the preparation and realization of the national tests.

    Preliminary results show how students position themselves as competent actors in relation to peers, teachers and family as they talk about tests and grades. In the interactions they negotiate strategies for coping with expectations and increasing pressure, while at the same time playing down the importance of tests and grades in for example comparisons with friends or in relation to final grades in year nine.   Even though the combination of CA and the theoretical concept of policy enactment require careful methodological considerations, we find a substantial gain in the way it makes new understandings of students’ identity formations in relation to educational policy possible.

  • 43.
    Tanner, Marie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    "They want to show that they are topnotch": Students enactments of policy in interaction2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation focuses on recent reforms in Swedish education concerning new grades and extended use of national tests in grade six, and how this extensive reform comes to play in everyday practices in schools. Schools today have to be able to handle a multitude of policy initiatives that get introduced with increasing pace in the new education economy. Not least has several studies on the effects of schools marketization showed how this results in higher demands for schools to produce information about themselves and the students to inform and guide families school choices as well as governments control and inspection  (Ball, 2006; Löfdahl &Pérez Prieto, 2009; Löfgren, 2012).The new national tests and grades in year 6 are examples of policymaking that has the capacity of producing high stake information about the actors in schools (teachers, school leaders and students) as well as information about schools in terms of competitiveness and results in relation to given standards. Here we take an interest in the consequences this could have from the students’ perspective.

    Policy reforms are often studied in terms of implementation, i.e. measuring schools’ responses to different specific policy initiatives. As an alternative approach, in recent years the concept of enactment has been used within policy research as an analytical tool for the understanding of how policy gets translated into practice by actors on different levels (Ball, Maguire & Braun, 2012; Singh, Heimans & Glasswell, 2014; Tanner & Pérez Prieto, 2014). The concept of policy enactment is used to address the complexities in institutional policymaking not only referring to policy as top-down steering from governments through organizational structures, but as something that is interpreted on all levels by different actors in the school system (Ball et al., 2012).

    Most studies on a school level focus on school leaders and teachers, whereas the students often remain unnoticed as actors in policy practice. We have in previous studies argued for the importance of including students’ perspectives in studies of policy enactment, and have suggested new methods for how this could be explored (Pérez Prieto & Tanner, 2013; Tanner & Pérez Prieto, 2014). In this presentation we continue to develop this line of work in relation to the new reforms on grades and national tests in year six. Using conversation analysis (CA) as a methodological approach we explore how these policies are interpreted and realized in student interactions within the school context, and how this helps to produce and re-produce policy discourses in schools today. The aim is to describe how the reform is being made in interaction from the students’ perspective. We depart from the following research questions:

    • How are national tests and grades oriented to in students’ interaction?

    • How do students position themselves in relation to these changed assessment practices in different situations?

    This study is part of a larger project about students’ experiences of doing national tests and getting grades in sixth grade, where in total more than 150 students in 7 schools have been interviewed. Within the larger project, this presentation builds on a complementary video-ethnographic substudy where three groups from two different schools have been followed during preparation and realization of national tests in the subjects of social sciences and natural sciences. The data material in the substudy consists of more than 30 hours of video recordings from classroom interaction in three different groups in two schools, 7 video recorded group interviews with students focusing on their experiences of getting grades and 7 video recorded group interviews with students about doing national tests. From this data different examples where students position themselves to these assessment practices are selected for further analysis on how this policy reform gets interpreted. The selected data consists of different kinds of interactions; between students, between teacher and students or interactions within an interview setting.

    To visualize new aspects of how policy is constituted in the interaction between different actors in school, we make a somewhat unusual methodological combination of policy studies and interactional analysis, where we use the inductive approach of conversation analysis (CA) focusing on the institutionally framed interaction within the school context (Drew & Heritage 1992; Heritage, 1997). CA aims at studying human sociality as it is organized in people’s talk-in-interaction and how they together create shared meanings in relation to context (c.f. Hutchby &Wooffitt, 2008). Whereas early CA studies mainly focused on verbal talk in everyday situations, there is now within CA an increasing interest in to how verbal and non-verbal resources such as gesture, gaze and material artefacts are coordinated in human interaction (Goodwin, 2000; 2007). In this study the use of video recordings makes these kinds of multimodal analysis possible. Here we view the participants’ interpretations of policy as social actions, and explore how these kinds of policy practices is being made in student interaction through the use of different kinds of available semiotic resources. 

    Even though the combination of CA and the theoretical concept of policy enactment require careful methodological considerations, we find a substantial gain in the way it makes possible new understandings of how students position themselves in relation to educational policy. Preliminary results show how students position themselves as competent actors in relation to peers, teachers and family as they talk about tests and grades. In the interactions they negotiate strategies for coping with expectations and increasing pressure, while at the same time playing down the importance of tests and grades in for example comparisons with friends or in relation to final grades in year nine. To a large extend they position themselves as being responsible for making changes and increasing their efforts to achieve good results. But in the empirical data are also examples of how students’ position themselves in relation to increased demands on teachers and schools, and expectations to produce good results in competition with other schools in a marketized education system.

    References 

    Ball, S. J. (2006). Performativities and fabrications in the education economy: Towards the performative society. In H. Lauder, P. Brown, J-A. Dillabough & A. H. Halsey (Eds.), Education, globalization & social change (pp. 692-701). New York: Oxford University Press.

    Ball, S. J., Maguire, M. & Braun, A. (2012). How schools do policy: Policy enactment in secondary schools. London: Routledge.

    Drew, P., & Heritage, J. (1992). Talk at work: Interaction in institutional settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Goodwin, C. (2000a). Action and embodiment within situated human interaction. Journal of Pragmatics, 32(10), 1489-1522. doi: 10.1016/S0378-2166(99)00096-X

    Goodwin, C. (2007). Participation, stance and affect in the organization of activities. Discourse & Society, 18(1), 53-73. doi:10.1177/0957926507069457

    Heritage, J. (1997). Conversational analysis and institutional talk. I D. Silverman (Red.), Qualitative research: Theory, method and practice (ss. 161-182). London: Sage.

    Hutchby, I., & Wooffitt, R. (2008). Conversation analysis (2. uppl.). Cambridge: Polity

    Löfdahl, A. & Pérez Prieto, H. (2009). Between control and resistance: Planning and evaluation texts in the Swedish preschool. Journal of Education Policy 4(24), 293-408. 

    Löfgren, H. (2012). Det sitter inte i väggarna: Identiteter i lärares berättelser om skola och arbete [It is not in the walls – Professional identities in teachers’ stories about school and work). Doctoral dissertation, Karlstad: Karlstad University Studies. 

    Pérez Prieto, H. & Tanner, M. (2014): Fabricando buenos alumnos: autoevaluación y negociación en la escuela sueca. I C. Peláez-Paz & M.I. Jociles (Eds) Estudios etnográficos de las políticas públicas en contextos educativos. Madrid: Traficantes de Sueños

    Singh, P.,  Heimans, S.  & Glasswell, K. (2014) Policy enactment,context and performativity: ontological politics and researching Australian National Partnership policies, Journal of Education Policy, 29:6, 826-844 

    Tanner, Marie; Pérez Prieto, Héctor (2014) In between self-knowledge and school demands: Policy enacted in the Swedish middle year classroom. Discourse. Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 2014, volym 35 (5)

  • 44.
    Tanner, Marie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Roos, Carin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies. Högskolan i Kristianstad.
    Video - ett forskningsfält i utveckling: Videografiska utgångspunkter i forskning om social interaktion2017In: Nordicom Information, ISSN 0349-5949, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 8-14Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [vi]

    Videobaserade forskningsmetoder utvecklas i snabb takt, inte minst beroende på den tekniska utvecklingen inom videoområdet som medger nya och lättillggängliga lösning- ar för att i för forskningsändamål dokumentera olika visuella aspekter av människors sociala interaktion. I takt med samhällets digitalisering har dock formerna för social interaktion förändrats till att allt mer sker genom olika slags digitala medier – män- niskors socialitet blir i allt högre grad uppkopplad. Här presenteras först en bakgrund till videogra som metod och teori, följt av två exempel på hur video används i ett par aktuella studier idag samt en avslutande diskussion kring några utvecklingsområden. 

  • 45.
    Tanner, Marie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Center for Language and Literature in Education.
    Sahlström, Fritjof
    Helsingfors universitet.
    Same and different.: Epistemic topicalizations as resources for cohesion and change.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this presentation, we take an interest in how teaching and learning as social actions have to be actively accomplished in interactions between teachers and students in the institutional setting of the classroom. More precisely, we focus on the practices relied upon by teachers and students for coming to situated agreement of the level of student learning, and for adjusting teaching and instruction in individual deskwork to these changing understandings, both within teaching instances and in subsequent situations occurring over longer periods of time.

    Within CA, there is a growing interest in the ubiquitous role that issues related to knowledge have in the interactive organization of human sociality. This interest has brought new insights about the diverse ways in which epistemic stance is utilized as a resource in interaction  (c.f. Stivers, Mondada, & Steensig, 2011; Heritage, 2012b; 2012a; Goodwin, 2013; Koole, 2012). The focus on epistemics is at the core of a growing body of research on learning that within a CA framing explores new ways of conceptualizing learning as changed participation in interaction (Martin, 2004; Melander, 2009; Lee, 2010; Sahlström, 2011; Seedhouse, Walsh, & Jenks, 2010). Drawing on these and other studies on learning from a participationist perspective (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Sfard, 1998), the paper takes a view on learning as a social action; as something people are literally doing, accomplished in part through changes in epistemic stance. The issue of cross-situational relevance has proved to be a challenge for CA studies. Here, we explore how participants orient to learning processes across situations, by relying on epistemic topicalizations as resources for the shaping of cohesive learning trajectories.

    The analyzed material consists of data from a larger classroom video-ethnography on learning in literacy practices during the middle years, i.e. students aged 10 to 12 year in two Swedish schools.  Within this material, trajectories of learning in desk-interactions between teachers and students when students work individually while the teacher moves around in the classroom to supervise and support their work have been traced. We analyze how the verbal and non-verbal resources (Goodwin 2007; 2013) for epistemic topicalizations used by teachers and students come to construct the interaction as oriented to learning and change.

    In the analysis we contrast two different examples where teachers in two or more desk-interactions subsequently meet the same student in interactions about the same learning content in a school assignment. In the first case, we show how the teacher’s epistemic stance changes through and between the desk-interactions in relation to how the studentbecomes more and more certain of how to make use of a map in a geography assignment. The teacher and the student use epistemic topicalizations to explicate the changed epistemic status of the students, and to remind each other of previous experiences, which thus become available to them in the learning activity. By making the previous learning experiences available, the teacher does not have to be as thorough in her explanations in the second interaction compared to the first. This makes it possible to redefine the learning content with more complexity. In the second example, the student shows that despite the teacher’s previous support in a writing activity during a series of Swedish lessons, he still cannot fulfill an assignment. Also in this case, epistemic topicalizations are used to position the student’s epistemic status, and to remind each other of previous experiences. However, in this second instance, this results in more thorough explanations from the teacher using similar semiotic resources as before but with a higher degree of scaffolding, rather than the progressivity of the first instance.

    In conclusion, we show how epistemic topicalizations play an important role in the learning trajectories as means to maintain, in different ways, the “sameness” in a certain constituted content through several learning situations, while at the same time making it possible for the teacher and the student to continuously change and differentiate their epistemic stance to this content in relation to successive changes in the student’s epistemic status. Hence, epistemic topicalization is demonstrated to be a primary resource in establishing a shared understanding of the evolving epistemic status of the students, and consequently, as a primary resource for adapting and changing teaching and instruction. Epistemic topicalizations represent crucial resources both for the contingent organization of learning as social action within and beyond situated interactions, and for the situated construction of differentiation and mutual adaption of teaching and learning in relation to displayed needs and requests from various students.

     

    References

    Goodwin, C. (2007). Participation, stance and affect in the organization of activities. Discourse & Society, 18(1), 53-73. doi:10.1177/0957926507069457

    Goodwin, C. (2013). The co-operative, transformative organization of human action and knowledge. Journal of Pragmatics, 46(1), 8-23. doi:10.1016/j.pragma.2012.09.003

    Heritage, J. (2012a). The epistemic engine: Sequence organization and territories of knowledge. Research on Language & Social Interaction, 45(1), 30-52. doi:10.1080/08351813.2012.646685

    Heritage, J. (2012b). Epistemics in action: Action formation and territories of knowledge. Research on Language & Social Interaction, 45(1), 1-29. doi:10.1080/08351813.2012.646684

    Koole, T. (2012). The epistemics of student problems: Explaining mathematics in a multi-lingual class. Journal of Pragmatics, 44(13), 1902-1916. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2012.08.006

    Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning : Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.

    Lee, Y. (2010). Learning in the contingency of talk-in-interaction. Text & Talk, 30(4), 403-422. doi:10.1515/TEXT.2010.020

    Martin, C. (2004). From other to self : Learning as interactional change. Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis : Universitetsbiblioteket [distributör].

    Melander, H. (2009). Trajectories of learning : Embodied interaction in change. Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis : Uppsala University Library [distributör].

    Sahlström, F. (2011). Learning as social action. In J. K. Hall, J. Hellermann & S. P. Doehler (Eds.), L2 interactional competence and development (). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

    Seedhouse, P., Walsh, S., & Jenks, C. (2010). Conceptualising "learning" in applied linguistics. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire ; New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Sfard, A. (1998). On two metaphors for learning and the dangers of choosing just one. Educational Researcher, 27(2), 4-13. doi:10.3102/0013189X027002004

    Stivers, T., Mondada, L., & Steensig, J. (Eds.). (2011). The morality of knowledge in conversation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • 46.
    Tanner, Marie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013). Åbo Akademi University, Vasa, Finland.
    Sahlström, Fritjof
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013). Åbo Akademi University, Vasa, Finland.
    Same and Different: Epistemic Topicalizations as Resources for Cohesion and Change in Classroom Learning Trajectories2017In: Discourse processes, ISSN 0163-853X, E-ISSN 1532-6950, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a seemingly fragmented interactional context, teachers and students in classrooms routinely manage to co-construct coherent, inter-related, and individually adapted learning trajectories distributed over days and weeks. The aim of this article is to explore with what interactional resources progressivity is accomplished in learning trajectories by focusing on how participants establish relations of cohesion and change between current and previous occasions that constitute a learning trajectory. Analysis of empirical data shows how participants frequently topicalize aspects of epistemic stance toward a co-constructed learning content. Such epistemic topicalizations play an important role in maintaining cohesion in a learning trajectory, while making it possible for teachers and students to progressively change and differentiate their epistemic stance. Epistemic topicalizations are suggested as a useful analytic concept, grounded in conversation analysis, to describe how cohesion and change are emically managed in interaction to accomplish progressivity in learning trajectories.

  • 47.
    Tanner, Marie
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Samuelsson, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Centre for the Studies of Social Sciences Didactics.
    Pérez Prieto, Héctor
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies.
    Skolan, marknaden och ämnet.: Kommersiella aktörer på internet i undervisningen2017In: Karlstads universitets Pedagogiska Tidskrift, E-ISSN 2002-3979, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 3-26Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här artikeln uppmärksammar vi förekomsten av olika privata och kommersiella webbsajter som specifikt riktar sig mot undervisning och lärande i skolan. Syftet är att beskriva och diskutera hur några olika kommersiella aktörer på internet tar plats som policyaktörer i ett utbildningssammanhang, och vad det kan betyda i relation till undervisningens ämnesinnehåll. Med ett särskilt fokus på historieämnet, analyserar vi med inspiration från metoden network ethnograpy två olika exempel på sådana webbsajter, SO-rummet samt studi.se. Vi undersöker det nätverk av aktörer som ligger bakom webbsajten, hur syftet med sajten framställs samt hur historieämnet konstrueras på dessa sajter. Resultatet visar hur den politiska styrningen av skolan har fått konkurrens av nya aktörer, vilket leder till att de förstnämndas inflytande minskar till förmån för det komplexa nätverk av aktörer som istället tar plats. På så vis skapas ett marknadens ämne, som visserligen i de två studerade exemplen visar sig ligga nära det konventionella skolämnet historia, men som också visar på ett starkt behov av ytterligare forskning som kan synliggöra hur olika och vitt skilda ideologiska intressen tar plats och skapar politiska kluster som kommer att påverka undervisningens innehåll.

  • 48.
    Öhman, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Tanner, Marie
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Creating space for students' concerns: Embodied feedback practices in hairdressing education2017In: Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, ISSN 2210-6561, E-ISSN 2210-657X, Vol. 14, p. 79-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore feedback practices in situated activities and how such actions of assessment emerge from embodied participation in classroom interactions between teachers and students. Using video recordings of teacher and student interactions in hairdressing education, we investigate through conversation analysis how feedback practices such as making loops are initiated and enabled between the participants in situated activities. Feedback in the practice of loops is contingent upon an embodied moment-to-moment monitoring and collaboration between the teacher and student, and is initiated with a concern from the student that is responded to by the teacher, enabling feedback to become a common exploration of professional knowledge. Overall, the findings show how feedback is mutually produced, making visible that salient aspects of the education are emanating from the student’s own concern.

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