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  • 1. Bamberg, Sebastian
    et al.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Behaviour Theory and Soft Transport Policy Measures2011In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, Vol. 18, no 1, 228-235 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim is to propose a theoretical grounding of soft transport policy measures that aim at promoting voluntary reduction of car use. A general conceptual framework is first presented to clarify how hard and soft transport policy measures impact on car-use reduction. Two different behavioural theories that have been used to account for car use and car-use reduction are then integrated in a self-regulation theory that identifies four stages of the process of voluntarily changing car use: setting a car-use reduction goal, forming a plan for achieving the goal, initiating and executing the plan, and evaluating the outcome of the plan execution. A number of techniques are described that facilitate the different stages of the process of voluntary car-use reduction and which should be used in personalized travel planning programs.

  • 2.
    Björlin Lidén, Sara
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Division for Business and Economics.
    Revealing the Recovery Paradox: How the use of a service guarantee influences customer satisfaction2004In: Paper presented at the 4th SERVSIG conference annual in Singapore: NUS, Business School, National University of Singapore, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3. Björlin-Lidén, Sara
    et al.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Revealing the recovery paradox: how the use of a service guarantee influence customer satisfaction2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Critical Incidents: A study of Göteborg´s municipal bus service1996Report (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Kollektivtrafik i ett tjänsteperspektiv - studier av kundklagomål och kundmissnöje1996Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Kritiska händelser. En studie inom Göteborgsregionens Lokaltrafik AB1996Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Roos, Inger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Emotions and Stability in Telecom-customer Relationships2009In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, Vol. 20, no 2, 192-208 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Roos, Inger
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Service Quality Grounded in Customer Experiences, Affect and Relationships2007In: Service Excellence als Impulsgeber, 2007Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9. Eriksson, L.
    et al.
    Norman, A-C.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Electronic Service Quality: Public Transport Information on the Internet2007In: Journal of Public TransportationArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Eriksson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Ettema, Dick
    Utrecht University.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Tokyo Institute of Technology.
    Gärling, Tommy
    University of Gothenburg.
    Experimental simulation of car users' switching to public transport2010In: Transportation Research, ISSN 1942-7867, Vol. 2, no 3, 145-155 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Eriksson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T.
    Car users stated reasons for potential reduction of commuting2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Eriksson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T
    Determinants of Car Users´ Intention to Switch to Public Transport2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Eriksson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T.
    Fujii, S.
    Hagihara, G.
    Internet-based Method for Experimental Simulation of Car-use Reduction2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Eriksson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Perceived Attributes of Bus and Car Influencing Satisfaction with the Work Commute2011In: The 9th Biannual conference of Environmental Psychology, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Eriksson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Perceived Attributes of Bus and Car Mediating Satisfaction with the Work Commute2013In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, Vol. 47, 87-96 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an experimental simulation employing 123 undergraduates the effect of different travel modes on satisfaction with travel, mood after the day traveled, and satisfaction with the day as a whole were assessed for the work commute by car or bus. Car was rated higher than bus on satisfaction with travel. This mode difference was accounted for by ratings of the mode-specific attributes fun, lifestyle match, and feeling secure for which car was rated higher than bus. It was also shown that satisfaction with travel partially mediated the effect of travel mode on mood. Satisfaction with the day as a whole was however not influenced by travel mode when controlling for the mood effect of travel.

  • 16.
    Eriksson, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Department of Psychology, Göteborg University.
    Stated reasons for reducing work-commute by car2008In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, 427-433 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Ettema, D
    et al.
    Faculty of Geosciences, Department of Human Geography and Planning, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Gärling, T
    Department of Psychology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Out-of-Home Activities, Daily Travel, and Subjective Well-Being2010In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, Vol. 44, no 9, 723-732 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is argued that utility theory that underpins current cost-benefit analyses of daily travel needs to be complemented. An alternative theoretical framework is to this end proposed which applies subjective well-being (SWB) to travel behaviour analysis. It is posited in this theoretical framework that participation in goal-directed activities, facilitated or hindered by travel, contributes to SWB, that the degree of travel-related stress in participating in these activities reduces SWB, and that positive affect associated with travel in itself has an impact on SWB.

  • 18. Ettema, Dick
    et al.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Overview of Handbook of Sustainable Travel2014In: Handbook of Sustainable Travel / [ed] Gärling, Friman, Ettema, Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2014, 3-14 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19. Ettema, Dick
    et al.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    How in-vehicle activities affect work commuters’ satisfaction with public transport.2012In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, Vol. 24, 215-222 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has recently questioned the commonly held opinion that travel time is valued as negative, arguing that engagement inactivities during travel may make these trips more enjoyable or productive. Satisfactionwith travel has to date been assessed using utility-based models or measures of productivity of the trip. The present study is the first to assess the influence of activities performed during travel on publictransport users’ subjective well-being. To this end, a survey was conducted in Sweden in 2010 in which activities during the work commute by publictransport were recorded and subjective well-being during travel was measured retrospectively using the Satisfactionwith Travel Scale (STS). Results show that talking to other passengers has the strongest positive effect on STS, whereas activities related to entertainment and relaxation lead to lower STS, possibly since engaging in these activities reflect unsuccessful attempts to abate boredom. In addition, it is found that activities during travel may have a more positive effect on the commute back home, suggesting that the mindset related to the destination influences travel satisfaction.

  • 20.
    Ettema, Dick
    et al.
    Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, Netherlands.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center. University of Gothenburg.
    Travel Mode Use, Travel Mode Shift and Subjective Well-Being: Overview of Theories, Empirical Findings and Policy Implications2016In: Mobility, Sociability and Wellbeing of Urban Living / [ed] Wang, Donggen, He, Shenjing, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg , 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Ettema, Dick
    et al.
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Gärling, Tommy
    The University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    The effect of activities on the move on travel satisfaction of public tranport commuters2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While utility based models invariably suggest indicate that the utility of travel time is negative, some studies have argued that travel may in certain circumstances be valued less negatively or even positively. In particular, the opportunity to engage in meaningful or enjoyable activities during travel is hypothesized to lead to a more positive valuation of travel. This study presents results of a study of travel satisfaction of Swedish public transport commuters as a function of engagement in activities on the move. Satisfaction is measured using the satisfaction with travel (STS) scale (Ettema et al., 2011), which is based on the subjective well-being literature and includes affective and cognitive components. The results suggest that, contrary to our expectation, working in PT does lead to a higher travel satisfaction, and that engaging in entertainment or relaxation is associated with lower travel satisfaction, probably since it masks boredom. Travellers talking to other passengers have a higher travel satisfaction.

  • 22.
    Ettema, Dick
    et al.
    Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University Utrecht, Netherland.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Season and Weather Effects on Travel-Related Mood and Travel Satisfaction.2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, 140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the effects of season and weather on mood (valence and activation) and travel satisfaction (measured by the Satisfaction with Travel Scale). Analyses are presented of 562 time-sampled morning commutes to work made by 363 randomly sampled people in three different Swedish cities asking them to use smartphones to report their mood in their home before and directly after the commutes. These reports as well as satisfaction with the commute obtained in summer and winter are linked to weather data and analyzed by means of fixed-effects regression analyses. The results reveal main effects of weather (temperature and precipitation) on mood and travel satisfaction (temperature, sunshine, precipitation, and wind speed). The effects of weather on mood and travel satisfaction differ depending on travel mode. Temperature leads to a more positive mood, wind leads to higher activation for public transport users, and sunshine leads to a more negative mood for cyclists and pedestrians. Sunshine and higher temperatures make travel more relaxed although not for cycling and walking, and rain and snow lead to a higher cognitive assessed quality of travel.

  • 23.
    Ettema, Dick
    et al.
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Kyoto University, Japan.
    Satisfaction with travel and subjective well-being (SWB): Development and tests of a measurement tool2011In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, Vol. 14, no 3, 167-175 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24. Ettema, Dick
    et al.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013).
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Travel and Well-Being2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25. Ettema, Dick
    et al.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Olsson, Lars E
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Fujii, S
    Satisfaction With Travel and Subjective Well-Being (SWB): Development and Tests of a Measurement Tool2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26. Ettema, Dick
    et al.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Moerdijk, S
    The Road to Happiness?: Measuring Satisfaction of Dutch Car Drivers with Their Travel Using the Satisfaction with Travel Scale (STS)2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Ettema, Dick
    et al.
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Gärling, Tommy
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olsson, E Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Moerdijk, Sjef
    Centre for Transport and Navigation, The Netherlands.
    The road to happiness: Measuring Dutch car drivers’ satisfaction with travel2013In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, Vol. 27, no May, 171-178 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research suggests that travellers’ anticipated trip utility may differ from the utility they actually experience when making the trip. This implies that it is important to investigate not only the factors underlying trip decision making, but also the actual experience of the trip. To that end, this paper presents an empirical test of the satisfaction with travel scale (STS) that was developed to measure travellers’ satisfaction with travel. STS measures travel satisfaction in terms of two affective (positive activation versus negative de-activation and positive de-activation versus negative activation) and one cognitive dimension. The STS was applied in the Netherlands in a survey of car users. The results suggest that the reliability of the measurement scales is satisfactory to good, and that they are indicative of an overarching concept of travel satisfaction. Regression analyses carried out with the three STS dimensions as dependent variables show that STS is influenced by experienced traffic safety, annoyance with other road users, the trip being tiring, being distracted by billboards, and lack of freedom to choose speed and lane. In addition, travel purpose and personal characteristics play a role. Overall, the findings provide support for the validity of the STS as a tool to measure satisfaction with travel. It is concluded that using tools such as STS may provide relevant insights into how qualitative and design-related factors influence the attractiveness of trips made by car or other travel modes.

  • 28. Fellesson, M
    et al.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Factors predicting satisfaction with public transport services in eight european cities2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Fellesson, Markus
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Perceived satisfaction with public transport services in nine European cities2008In: Journal of Transportation Research Forum, Vol. 47, no 3, 93-103 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study provides a transnational comparison of the perceived service satisfaction with public transport in eight European countries. Data was collected from 9,542 respondents in Stockholm, Barcelona, Copenhagen, Geneva, Helsinki, Vienna, Berlin, Manchester, and Oslo. The respondents rated their agreement with 17 attribute-related statements regarding local public transport services. Using factor analysis, this study identifies the four satisfaction dimensions of system, comfort, staff, and safety, which were present in most, but not all of the cities. These findings indicate that there are differences in how public transport is perceived. This needs to be addressed in order to make comparison meaningful. Different explanations for these diverse findings are discussed.

  • 30.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Affective dimensions of the waiting experience2010In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, Vol. 13, no 3, 197-205 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Arbetssätt för att hantera kundsynpunkter2002In: I P. Echeverri & B. Edvardsson, Marknadsföring i tjänsteekonomin. (s. 180-194), Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2002Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Attityder - en introduktion1999In: L. Haglund & A. Stålhammar (Red.), Marknads- och serviceorienterad kollektivtrafik. (s. 9-18), Karlstads universitet, Centrum för tjänsteforskning , 1999Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Attityder och kundtillfredsställelse i kollektivtrafiken2002Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Consumer psychology: attitudes and customer satisfaction2001In: I L. Haglund & A. Stålhammar (Ed.), Market and Service Orientation in Public transportation. (p. 11-21), 2001Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Consumer psychology: attitudes and customer satisfaction2001In: L. Haglund & A. Stålhammar (Ed.), Market and Service Orientation in Public transportation. (p. 11-21), Karlstads universitet, Centrum för tjänsteforskning , 2001Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Effects of critical incidents on consumer satisfaction2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Satisfaction is assumed to be an important cause of attitude change by mediating between preexposure and postexposure attitudes. A number of factors account for whether one is satisfied or not with a specific product or service. One factor is expectations, another performance of the product or service, and a third disconfirmation of expectation. Another possible factor that influences satisfaction is the affective reaction to product/service performance. The present thesis aimed at investigating satisfaction with public transport services. More specifically, the role of critical incidents in satisfaction was examined. In Studies I and IV the characteristics of critical incidents in public transport services were analyzed. Three different methods were in Study I applied to explore perceptual/cognitive experiences of negative critical incidents. The results suggested that employee behavior, reliability, simplicity, and design constitute perceived quality attributes in public transport services. Study IV investigated how individuals respond affectively to and evaluate satisfaction after such encounters. The results showed as expected that the critical incidents varied in both valence (positive-negative feelings) and activation (arousal). Study II confirmed the quality attributes found in Study I by means of further analyses of the covariances of rated frequencies of remembered negative critical incidents as well as of ratings of attributes-specific satisfaction. Some explanations of how frequencies of remembered negative critical incidents are coded in memory were tested in Studies II and III. The results showed that frequency of negative critical incidents, defined as disconfirmation of expectations, negatively affected overall satisfaction with public transport. The relationship was however not direct but mediated by attribute-specific satisfaction. Furthermore, the results obtained in Study IV showed that difference in satisfaction caused by different types of critical incidents were related to the affective reactions to the incidents

  • 37.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Implementing quality improvements in public transport2004In: Journal of Public Transportation 7 (4), 49-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract The present study addresses two questions: (1) what effect do quality improvements have on satisfaction with public transport services? (2) What effect do quality improvements have on passengers perceived frequency of negative critical incidents? A representative sample of persons aged 16-75 years old in the thirteen regions in Sweden conducting quality improvements in public transport were used. Data were collected before it started and also after the improvements had been completed (n=2797). The pre-and post samples consisted of independent groups of respondents. The response rate was 54%. The main conclusion of the study is that the satisfaction people experience when using public transport services is influenced by quality improvements only to a limited extent. Furthermore, the effect was directionally opposite in that the respondents reported less satisfaction and higher frequencies of negative critical incidents after the quality improvements had been implemented

  • 38.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Satisfaction with public transport services1998Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Satisfaction is assumed to be an important cause of attitude change by acting as a mediator between preexposure and postexposure attitudes. A number of factors account for whether one is satisfied or not with a specific performance. One factor is expectations, another one performance, and a third factor disconfirmation of expectations. The aim of the present thesis was to investigate factors that have an impact on the satisfaction with public transport services. More specifically, the relationships were investigated between negative critical incidents, satisfaction with perceived service quality, and overall satisfaction. Also important was to find out what constitute quality and satisfaction in public transport services. Two studies were conducted. In Study I data were analyzed from customer complaints, onboard interviews, and a mail survey. The results suggested that employee behavior, reliability, simplicity, and design constitute perceived quality attributes in public transport services. Study II confirmed these results by means of further analyses of the covariances of rated frequencies of remembered negative critical incidents as well as of ratings of perceived service quality attributes. Furthermore, the frequency of negative critical incidents, defined as disconfirmation of expectations, was found to negatively affect overall satisfaction. However, the relationship was not direct but mediated by satisfaction with perceived service quality attributes. Thus, it is suggested that when the number of negative critical incidents increase, the effect is coded as perceived service quality attributes. In addition, the frequency of negative critical incidents increases with the frequency of use that is directly related to overall satisfaction and the degree of choice with different means of transportation

  • 39.
    Friman, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    The structure of affective reactions to critical incidents2004In: Journal of Economic Psychology, 25, 331-353Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    A content analysis of complaints and compliments2003In: Managing Service Quality, 13, 20-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research question focused on in this study is whether complaint and compliment contain different service quality attributes. A sample of 236 complaints and 69 compliments collected by a public transport company were analyzed by means of the critical incident technique. The results of previous research were confirmed and showed that perceived service quality attributes in public transport involve employee behavior, reliability, simplicity, and design. It was further concluded that reliability of service causes frequently more complaints than compliments. How customers are treated by the employees was found to be more frequent in compliments.

  • 41.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    A content analysis of complaints and compliments2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Att identifiera kvalitetsbrister och missnöje1999In: L. Haglund & A. Stålhammar (Red.), Marknads- och serviceorienterad kollektivtrafik. (s. 19-36), Karlstads universitet , 1999Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Enquist, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T
    Regeringen hotar att rasera kollektivtrafiken2009In: Svenska DagbladetArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T
    How overall satisfaction relate to quality attributes and frequency of negative critical incidents in public transport services1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T.
    Perceived quality of public transport service: A study of negative critical incidents1997Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, T.
    Perceived service quality attributes in public transport: Inferences from complaints and negative critical incidents1998In: Journal of Public Transport, 2 (1), 69-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sample of 200 complaints filed to a public transport company and 210 negative critical incidents (NCIs) obtained from on-board interviews were analyzed with the purpose of inferring perceived service quality (PSQ) attributes of public transport. Most frequent complaints and NCIs concerned employee behavior and punctuality, followed by missing or inaccurate information and inadequate planning. In a follow-up mail survey, a representative sample of 997 respondents reported if they remembered having experienced prototypical NCIs constructed on the basis of the complaints. Confirming the validity of the inferred PSQ attributes, all NCIs were reported to have been experienced by at least some respondents. NCIs related to employee behavior were however less frequently remembered, whereas those related to vehicle design and space, punctuality, and traffic planning were more frequently remembered. Taken together the results suggest that PSQ attributes in public transport refer to employee behavior, reliability, and simplicity. Finally, inferences made from customer complaints and negative critical incidents are shown to extend our knowledge of perceived service quality attributes in public transport.

  • 47.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Frequency of Negative Critical Incidents and Satisfaction with Public Transport Services. I2001In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, Vol. 8, no 2, 95-104 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mail survey was conducted to investigate factors affecting public transport users´ satisfaction with the service. The respondents were residents of a metropolitan area of Sweden. A model was proposed and estimated using the maximum-likelihood method available in LISREL VIII. In the model, overall cumulative satisfaction is positively related to attribute-specific cumulative satisfaction which in turn is negatively related to the remembered frequency of negative critical incidents. In addition, measurement models indicated that both attribute-specific satisfaction and the frequency of negative critical incidents are related to treatment by employee, reliability of service, simplicity of information, and design.

  • 48.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Fellesson, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Service Supply and Customer Satisfaction in Public Transportation: The Quality Paradox2009In: Journal of Public Transportation, ISSN 1077-291X, Vol. 12, no 4, 57-69 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Satisfaction measures obtained from citizens are frequently used in performancebased contracts due to their presumed link with company performance. However, few studies have actually examined the link between traveler satisfaction measures and objective performance measures in public transport. This research analyzes the relationship between the objective performance measures of public transport services and the satisfaction perceived by travelers. Data were collected in six different European cities. Three objective service performance measures were obtained for each city from the UITP Millennium Database. Three subjective satisfaction attribute measures were obtained from Benchmarking in European Service of Public Transport (BEST 2001), answered by 6,021 respondents in total. In addition to subjective attribute measures, overall satisfaction was also used as a subjective measure. Several correlational analyses show that the relationship between satisfaction and service performance in public transport is far from perfect.

  • 49.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Fellesson, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    The quality paradox: discrepancy between service supply and customer satisfaction2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Fellesson, Markus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Camén, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Evaluating service scape in public transport2009Conference paper (Refereed)
1234 1 - 50 of 163
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