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  • 1. Elster, Ellen
    et al.
    Sørensen, Majken Jul
    Women Conscientious Objectors: An Anthology2010Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 2. Johansen, Jørgen
    et al.
    Frykberg, Henrik
    Elmeadawy, Mohamed
    Vinthagen, Stellan
    Sørensen, Majken Jul
    A study of prospects for cooperation on Nonviolence and Dialogue Projects with SweFOR and partners in Egypt2013Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Sørensen, Majken Jul
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-Violent Action from Gandhi to the Present2012In: Australian journal of politics and history (Print), ISSN 0004-9522, E-ISSN 1467-8497, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 156-157Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Sørensen, Majken Jul
    War Resisters’ International, London.
    Competing Discourses of Aggression and Peacefulness2007In: Peace Review, ISSN 1040-2659, E-ISSN 1469-9982, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 603-609Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Sørensen, Majken Jul
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Constructive Resistance: Conceptualising and Mapping the Terrain2016In: Journal of Resistance Studies, ISSN 2001-9947, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 49-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People living in systems of domination and exploitation resist in many different ways. Some modes of resistance build and experiment with alternatives to the present in various forms, from the small to the large, the hidden to the open. An overall term for these efforts is “constructive resistance,” which covers initiatives in which people start to build the society they desire independently of the dominant structures already in place. This is initiatives which not only criticise, protest, object, and undermine what is considered undesirable and wrong, but simultaneously acquire, create, built, cultivate and experiment with what people need in the present moment, or what they would like to see replacing dominant structures or power relations. Within peace and conflict studies, this has been approached through Gandhi’s concept of the constructive programme. In the anarchist and Marxists traditions and social movement literature, a related notion is prefigurative politics.

  • 6.
    Sørensen, Majken Jul
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Glorications and Simplications in Case Studies of Danish WWII Nonviolent Resistance2017In: Journal of Resistance Studies, ISSN 2001-9947, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 99-137Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Sørensen, Majken Jul
    Coventry University, UK.
    Humor as a Serious Strategy of Nonviolent Resistance to Oppression2008In: Peace and Change, ISSN 0149-0508, E-ISSN 1468-0130, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 167-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores how humor can be used as one aspect of a strategy of nonviolent resistance to oppression and dictatorship. It combines sociological and philosophical theories about humor's duality and incongruity with theories of nonviolent resistance to oppression in order to investigate the links between topics that have previously been considered unrelated. Experiences from the Serbian Otpor movement, which used humorous actions as a part of its strategy to bring down Slobodan Milošević from power, serve to illustrate the dynamics of humor as a form of resistance. Empirical examples and existing theory are combined to make an outline of an innovative theory of the functions of humor in nonviolent resistance.

  • 8.
    Sørensen, Majken Jul
    University of Wollongong, Australien.
    Humorous Political Stunts: Nonviolent Public Challenges to Power2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 9. Sørensen, Majken Jul
    Humorous political stunts: Speaking “truth” to power?2013In: European Journal of Humour Research, ISSN 2307-700X, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 69-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article introduces the concept of humorous political stunt and a new model of five types of stunts that in distinct ways challenge the prevailing order and transcend established power relations. The five types, named supportive, corrective, naive, absurd and provocative, each relate to those in power and their rationality in a different way. Supportive stunts are framed as ostensible attempts to help and protect from harm, here exemplified with a search for landmines in a Belgian bank investing in dubious companies. Corrective stunts present an alternative version of the power holders’ truth, illustrated with a Swedish peace organisation’s parody webpage of a government agency established to support arms export. In an example of a naive stunt, Burmese opposition challenges the military junta from behind a pretended innocence. Polish resistance to socialist rule shows how the absurd stunt defies all rationality. In a contemporary Russian provocative stunt directed towards the secret police, the pranksters transcend power by appearing not to care about the consequences of infuriating the powerful. In all instances, humour is the tool of serious dissent and protest attempting to humiliate and undermine the powerful. The model has been applied to more than 40 stunts and illustrates methods of speaking truth to power that exploit humorous techniques such as irony, exaggeration or impersonation. The examples also document that humour is not always carried out at the expense of those at the bottom of society, but can indeed kick upwards in order to aim for change of the status quo.

  • 10.
    Sørensen, Majken Jul
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Humour in Political Activism: Creative Nonviolent Resistance2016Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Annotation This book analyses how humour in political activism contributes to facilitating outreach, mobilisation and the sustaining of cultures of resistance. Drawing on examples of attention-grabbing stunts from around the world, Humour in Political Activism demonstrates how they succeed in turning relations of power upside down. The ambiguity and unpredictability of humour, Sørensen argues, makes it difficult to respond to this form of political activism when it is performed in public. Humorous political stunts can therefore challenge state power, help influence changes in law and make significant contributions to the conversations about how societies should be organised. The book also investigates the potential risks and limitations of using humour in nonviolent action and what makes humour unique compared with other forms of non-humorous political activism.

  • 11. Sørensen, Majken Jul
    På barrikaderne for fred: inspirerende historier om ikkevold2012Book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Sørensen, Majken Jul
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Radical Clowning: Challenging Militarism through Play and Otherness2015In: Humor: An International Journal of Humor Research, ISSN 0933-1719, E-ISSN 1613-3722, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 25-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, radical clowning has become an increasingly popular tactic among participants in the global justice movement in the western world. In order to discuss how radical clowns differ from conventional clowns and what they have in common, radical clowning can be interpreted through the lenses of clown theory and the four concepts of play, otherness, incompetence, and ridicule. Ethnographic data from the Swedish anti-militarist network Ofog reveals how play and otherness contribute to radical clowns' attempts to communicate nonviolent values, negotiate space, and recognize the human in the other. The findings demonstrate one way that humor can be rebellious and challenge established relations of power.

  • 13. Sørensen, Majken Jul
    Responses to Nonviolent Campaigns: Beyond Repression or Support2015Book (Other academic)
  • 14. Sørensen, Majken Jul
    Swedish Women's Civil Defence Refusal 1935-19562010In: Women Conscientious Objectors - An Anthology / [ed] Elster, Ellen, Sørensen, Majken Jul, London: War Resisters' International , 2010, p. 33-37Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Sørensen, Majken Jul
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies. University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Johansen, Jorgen
    Nonviolent Conflict Escalation2016In: Conflict Resolution Quarterly, ISSN 1536-5581, E-ISSN 1541-1508, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 83-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Escalation of conflict is frequently deemed undesirable and problematic, as it is often assumed to refer to the escalation of violence. However, there exists a different form of escalation that we call "nonviolent conflict escalation." This occurs when previously unrecognized conflicts are intensified using nonviolent means to a point where the conflict can no longer be ignored. Five aspects of nonviolent escalations of methods are examined through case studies, showing how different forms of intensification can work together to escalate the conflict. Nonviolent escalations of unrecognized conflicts can serve as potent tools in struggles against tyranny, injustice, and human rights violations.

  • 16.
    Sørensen, Majken Jul
    et al.
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Martin, Brian
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    The Dilemma Action: Analysis of an Activist Technique2014In: Peace and Change, ISSN 0149-0508, E-ISSN 1468-0130, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 73-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When nonviolent activists design an action that poses a dilemma for oppo-nents—for example whether to allow protesters to achieve their objectiveor to use force against them with consequent bad publicity—this is calleda dilemma action. These sorts of actions have been discussed among acti-vists and in activist writings, but not systematically analyzed. We presenta preliminary classification of different aspects of dilemma actions andapply it to three case studies: the 1930 salt march in India, a jail-in usedin the Norwegian total resistance movement in the 1980s, and the free-dom flotillas to Gaza in 2010 and 2011. In addition to defining what isthe core of a dilemma action, we identify five factors that can make thedilemma more difficult for opponents to “solve.” Dilemma actions derivesome of their effectiveness from careful planning and creativity that pushopponents in unaccustomed directions.

  • 17.
    Sørensen, Majken Jul
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Rigby, Andrew
    Coventry University, UK.
    Frontstage and backstage emotion management in civil resistance2017In: Journal of Political Power, ISSN 2158-379X, E-ISSN 2158-3803, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 219-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Civil resistance requires significant forms of emotion management by activists. In this paper, we distinguish between the different foci of emotion management carried out frontstage and backstage – the frontstage focus is typically oriented to influencing the emotions of onlookers, opponents and other targets, the backstage focus is typically concerned with managing the emotions of the activists themselves in preparation for their frontstage performances. Of course, in any particular resistance activity the two dimensions of emotion management interact more or less continuously. Activists need to continually engage in impression-management to ensure they are maintaining their display of the appropriate emotions intended to evoke the desired emotional response in the targets of their performance.

  • 18.
    Sørensen, Majken Jul
    et al.
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Vinthagen, Stellan
    University West & University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nonviolent Resistance and Culture2012In: Peace and Change, ISSN 0149-0508, E-ISSN 1468-0130, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 444-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates what culture means for nonviolent resistance. While literature on nonviolence has had a tendency to look instrumentally at culture, this article suggests an intertwined relationship. Activists are themselves embedded in their own cultures, and there is no “outside culture.” The authors suggest an innovative model of three strategies for analyzing the cultural aspects of a nonviolent struggle: (1) occasionally borrowing existing powerful symbols and cultural elements, such as flags or religious symbols, which is then applied; (2) partially remodeling“old” culture in the spirit of nonviolence. This strategy is illustrated through the Khudai Khidmatgar of the North-West Frontier Province in the 1930s and shows how the nonviolent struggle there, was “negotiated” with Islam and a traditional code of honor; and finally, (3) systematically creating a nonviolent movement culture, which is a much more complex process, is illustrated through the movement for landless workers in Brazil, the Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra.

1 - 18 of 18
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