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  • 1.
    Andersson, Jonatan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics.
    A lattice model for topological phases2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Matter exists in many different phases, for example in solid state or in liquid phase. There are also phases in which the ordering of atoms is the same, but which differ in some other respect, for example ferromagnetic and paramagnetic states. According to Landau's symmetry breaking theory every phase transition is connected to a symmetry breaking process. A solid material has discrete translational symmetry, while liquid phase has continuous translational symmetry. But it has turned out that there also exist phase transitions that can occur without a symmetry breaking. This phenomenon is called topological order. In this thesis we consider one example of a theoretical model constructed on a two dimensional lattice in which one obtains topological order.

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