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  • 1. Azcarate, Juan
    et al.
    Haas, Jan
    Karlstad University.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    Balfors, Berit
    Dilemmas for green infrastructure and accessibility to ecosystem services in compact cities: Stockholm case studiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 2. Azcarate, Juan
    et al.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    Haas, Jan
    Balfors, Berit
    Reaching compact green cities: A study of the provision of and pressure on cultural ecosystem services in Stockholm2015Other (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Blumenthal, Barbara
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Haas, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Andersson, Jan-Olov
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    A GIS-based multivariate approach to identify flood damage affecting factorsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates causal factors leading to pluvial flood damages, beside rainfall amount and intensity, in two Swedish cities. Observed flood damage data from a Swedish insurance database, collected under 13 years, and a set of spatial data, describing topography, demography, land cover and building type were analyzed through principal component analysis (PCA). The topographic wetness index (TWI) is the only investigated variable that indicates a significant relationship with to the number and amount of insurance damage. The Pearson correlation coefficient is 0.68 for the number of insurance damages and 0.63 for amount of insurance damages. With a linear regression model TWI explained 41% of the variance of the number of insurance flood damages and 34% of variance of amount of insurance flood damage.

    Future studies on this topic should consider implementing TWI as a potential measure in urban flood risk analyses.

  • 4.
    Fredman, David
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Haas, Jan
    Kungliga Tekniska Hogskolan (KTH), Sweden.
    Ban, Yifang
    Kungliga Tekniska Hogskolan (KTH), Sweden.
    Jonsson, Martin
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Svensson, Leif
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Djarv, Therese
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Hollenberg, Jacob
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nordberg, Per
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Ringh, Mattias
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Claesson, Andreas
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Use of a geographic information system to identify differences in automated external defibrillator installation in urban areas with similar incidence of public out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A retrospective registry-based study2017In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, no 5, article id e014801Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Early defibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is of importance to improve survival. In many countries the number of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) is increasing, but the use is low. Guidelines suggest that AEDs should be installed in densely populated areas and in locations with many visitors. Attempts have been made to identify optimal AED locations based on the incidence of OHCA using geographical information systems (GIS), but often on small datasets and the studies are seldom reproduced. The aim of this paper is to investigate if the distribution of public AEDs follows the incident locations of public OHCAs in urban areas of Stockholm County, Sweden. Method OHCA data were obtained from the Swedish Register for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and AED data were obtained from the Swedish AED Register. Urban areas in Stockholm County were objectively classified according to the pan-European digital mapping tool, Urban Atlas (UA). Furthermore, we reclassified and divided the UA land cover data into three classes (residential, non-residential and other areas). GIS software was used to spatially join and relate public AED and OHCA data and perform computations on relations and distance. Results Between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2014 a total of 804 OHCAs occurred in public locations in Stockholm County and by December 2013 there were 1828 AEDs available. The incidence of public OHCAs was similar in residential (47.3%) and non-residential areas (43.4%). Fewer AEDs were present in residential areas than in non-residential areas (29.4% vs 68.8%). In residential areas the median distance between OHCAs and AEDs was significantly greater than in non-residential areas (288 m vs 188 m, p<0.001). Conclusion The majority of public OHCAs occurred in areas classified in UA as 'residential areas' with limited AED accessibility. These areas need to be targeted for AED installation and international guidelines need to take geographical location into account when suggesting locations for AED installation.

  • 5.
    Haas, Jan
    KTH.
    Kontinuerlig urbanisering påverkar ekosystemtjänster i Kina2012In: Kart och Bildteknik, ISSN 1651-8705, E-ISSN 1651-792X, no 3, p. 26-28Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Haas, Jan
    Karlstad University.
    Mapping Urban Ecosystems from Spaceborne High-Resolution Optical Images: Preliminary Results2014Other (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Haas, Jan
    Karlstad University.
    Object-based fusion of ENVISAT ASAR and HJ-1B Optical Data for Urban Land Cover Mapping2011Other (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Haas, Jan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Remote Sensing of Urbanization and Environmental Impacts2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to establish analytical frameworks to map urban growth patterns with spaceborne remote sensing data and to evaluate environmental impacts through Landscape Metrics and Ecosystem Services. Urbanization patterns at regional scale were evaluated in China's largest urban agglomerations and at metropolitan scale in Shanghai, Stockholm and Beijing using medium resolution optical satellite data. High-resolution data was used to investigate changes in Shanghai’s urban core. The images were co-registered and mosaicked. Tasseled Cap transformations and texture features were used to increase class separabilities prior to pixel-based Random Forest and SVM classifications. Urban land cover in Shanghai and Beijing were derived through object-based SVM classification in KTH-SEG. After post-classification refinements, urbanization indices, Ecosystem Services and Landscape Metrics were used to quantify and characterize environmental impact. Urban growth was observed in all studies. China's urban agglomerations showed most prominent urbanization trends. Stockholm’s urban extent increased only little with minor environmental implications. On a regional/metropolitan scale, urban expansion progressed predominately at the expense of agriculture. Investigating urbanization patterns at higher detail revealed trends that counteracted negative urbanization effects in Shanghai's core and Beijing's urban-rural fringe. Beijing's growth resulted in Ecosystem Services losses through landscape structural changes, i.e. service area decreases, edge contamination or fragmentation. Methodological frameworks to characterize urbanization trends at different scales based on remotely sensed data were developed. For detailed urban analyses high-resolution data are recommended whereas medium-resolution data at metropolitan/regional scales is suggested. The Ecosystem Service concept was extended with Landscape Metrics to create a more differentiated picture of urbanization effects.​

  • 9.
    Haas, Jan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Remote Sensing of Urbanization and Environmental Impacts2013Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The unprecedented growth of urban areas all over the globe is nowadays maybe most apparent in China having undergone rapid urbanization since the late 1970s. The need for new residential, commercial and industrial areas leads to new urban regions challenging sustainable development and the maintenance and creation of a high living standard as well as the preservation of ecological functionality. Therefore, timely and reliable information on land-cover changes and their consequent environmental impacts are needed to support sustainable urban development.The objective of this research is the analysis of land-cover changes, especially the development of urban areas in terms of speed, magnitude and resulting implications for the natural and rural environment using satellite imagery and the quantification of environmental impacts with the concepts of ecosystem services and landscape metrics. The study areas are the cities of Shanghai and Stockholm and the three highly-urbanized Chinese regions Jing-Jin-Ji, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta. The analyses are based on classification of optical satellite imagery (Landsat TM/ETM+ and HJ-1A/B) over the past two decades. The images were first co-registered and mosaicked, whereupon GLCM texture features were generated and tasseled cap transformations performed to improve class separabilities. The mosaics were classified with a pixel-based SVM and a random forest decision tree ensemble classifier. Based on the classification results, two urbanization indices were derived that indicate both the absolute amount of urban land and the speed of urban development. The spatial composition and configuration of the landscape was analysed by landscape metrics. Environmental impacts were quantified by attributing ecosystem service values to the classifications and the observation of value changes over time.

    ivThe results from the comparative study between Shanghai and Stockholm show a decrease in all natural land-cover classes and agricultural areas, whereas urban areas increased by approximately 120% in Shanghai, nearly ten times as much as in Stockholm where no significant land-cover changes other than a 12% urban expansion could be observed. From the landscape metrics analysis results, it appears that fragmentation in both study regions occurred mainly due to the growth of high density built-up areas in previously more natural environments, while the expansion of low density built-up areas was for the most part in conjunction with pre-existing patches. Urban growth resulted in ecosystem service value losses of ca. 445 million US dollars in Shanghai, mostly due to a decrease in natural coastal wetlands. In Stockholm, a 4 million US dollar increase in ecosystem service values could be observed that can be explained by the maintenance and development of urban green spaces. Total urban growth in Shanghai was 1,768 km2 compared to 100 km2 in Stockholm. Regarding the comparative study of urbanization in the three Chinese regions, a total increase in urban land of about 28,000 km2 could be detected with a simultaneous decrease in ecosystem service values corresponding to ca. 18.5 billion Chinese Yuan Renminbi. The speed and relative urban growth in Jing-Jin-Ji was highest, followed by the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta. The increase in urban land occurred predominately at the expense of cropland. Wetlands decreased due to land reclamation in all study areas. An increase in landscape complexity in terms of land-cover composition and configuration could be detected. Urban growth in Jing-Jin-Ji contributed most to the decrease in ecosystem service values, closely followed by the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta.

  • 10.
    Haas, Jan
    Karlstad University.
    Satellite monitoring of urbanization and estimation of environmental impact in Stockholm and Shanghai2013Other (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Haas, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Spatio-temporal Analysis of Urban Ecosystem Services with Sentinel 2-A MSI data2017Other (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Haas, Jan
    Karlstad University.
    Synergies of Sentinel-1A SAR and Sentinel-2A MSI Data for Urban Ecosystem Mapping2015Other (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Haas, Jan
    KTH, Geodesi och geoinformatik.
    Utbud och efterfrågan på ekosystemtjänster i kinesiska megastäder2014In: Kart och Bildteknik, ISSN 1651-8705, E-ISSN 1651-792X, Vol. 4, p. 18-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Haas, Jan
    et al.
    KTH, Geodesi och geoinformatik.
    Ban, Yifang
    KTH, Geodesi och geoinformatik.
    Bidecadal urban land cover and ecosystem service changes in three highly urbanized regions2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past 20 years, China has experienced rapid urbanization as a consequence of economic reforms and population growth.  Urbanization is still proceeding at staggering speed. Therefore, the development of effective analytical methods to monitor the unprecedented growth of Chinese cities and the resulting environmental impacts are crucial for urban planning and sustainable development. The overall objective of this research is to investigate urban land cover change between 1990 and 2010 and the resulting effects upon ecosystem services by analysis of multitemporal Landsat 5 and HJ1-A/B images in three highly urbanized regions.

  • 15.
    Haas, Jan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Ban, Yifang
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Contribution of fused Sentinel-1A SAR and Sentinel-2A MSI Data to the City Biodiversity Index (CBI)2015Other (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Haas, Jan
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, KTH.
    Ban, Yifang
    Royal Institute of Technology, KTH.
    Fusion of ENVISAT ASAR and HJ-1B optical data for urban land cover mapping in Beijing, China2011Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Haas, Jan
    et al.
    KTH.
    Ban, Yifang
    KTH.
    Mapping and Monitoring Urban Ecosystem Services Using Multitemporal High-Resolution Satellite Data2016In: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, ISSN 1939-1404, E-ISSN 2151-1535, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 669-680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at providing a new method to efficiently analyse detailed urban ecological conditions at the example of Shanghai, one of the world’s most densely populated megacities. The main objective is to develop a method to effectively analyse high-resolution optical satellite data for mapping of ecologically important urban space and to evaluate ecological changes through the emerging ecosystem service supply and demand budget concept. Two IKONOS and GeoEye-1 scenes were used to determine land use/land cover change in Shanghai's urban core from 2000 to 2009. After pre-processing, the images were segmented and classified into seven distinct urban land use/land cover classes through SVM. The classes were then transformed into ecosystem service supply and demand budgets based on ecosystem functions. Decreases of continuous urban fabric and industrial areas in the favour of urban green sites and high-rise areas with commercial/residential function could be observed resulting in an increase of at least 20% in service supply budgets. Main contributors to the change are mainly the decrease of continuous urban fabric and industrial areas. The overall results and outcome of the study strengthen the suggested application of the proposed method for urban ecosystem service budget mapping with hitherto for that purpose unutilized high-resolution data. The insights and results from this study might further contribute to sustainable urban planning, prove common grounds for inter-urban comparisons or aid in enhancing ecological intra-urban functionality by analysing the distribution of urban eco-space and lead to improved accessibility and proximity to ecosystem services in urban areas

  • 18.
    Haas, Jan
    et al.
    KTH, Geodesi och geoinformatik.
    Ban, Yifang
    KTH, Geodesi och geoinformatik.
    Remote sensing of bidecadal urbanization and its impact on ecosystem service in the yangtze river delta2013In: Proceedings of Dragon 2 Final Results & Dragon 3 Kick-Off Symposium: 25-29 June 2012, Beijing, P.R. China, ESA Communications , 2013, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The degree of urbanization and resulting effects on Ecosystem Services is investigated in the Yangtze River Delta in China within a 20 year time frame from 1990 to 2010. A Random forest classifier is used to classify the Landsat mosaic from 1990 and the HJ-1A/B mosaic dating from 2010. Urban Land Index (UI) and Urban Expansion Index (UX) are used to represent the intensity and rapidity of urbanization. Post-Classification Change Detection is then performed and Ecosystem Service value losses for the land-cover classes water, wetland, forest and cropland that transitioned to urban areas are calculated according to a valuation scheme adapted to the Chinese market. The results showed that Yangtze River Delta experienced significant urbanization during 1990 to 2010. Urban areas increased alongside a major decrease in cropland resulting in a substantial loss of 4.2 billion CNY in Ecosystem Services.

  • 19.
    Haas, Jan
    et al.
    KTH, Geodesi och geoinformatik.
    Ban, Yifang
    KTH, Geodesi och geoinformatik.
    Remote Sensing of Bidecadal Urbanization and its Impacts on Ecosytstem Service in the Yangtze River Delta2013In: Proceedings of Dragon 2 Final Results & Dragon 3 Kick-Off Symposium, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The degree of urbanization and resulting effects on Ecosystem Services is investigated in the Yangtze River Delta in China within a 20 year time frame from 1990 to 2010. A Random forest classifier is used to classify the Landsat mosaic from 1990 and the HJ-1A/B mosaic dating from 2010. Urban Land Index (UI) and Urban Expansion Index (UX) are used to represent the intensity and rapidity of urbanization. Post-Classification Change Detection is then performed and Ecosystem Service value losses for the land-cover classes water, wetland, forest and cropland that transitioned to urban areas are calculated according to a valuation scheme adapted to the Chinese market. The results showed that Yangtze River Delta experienced significant urbanization during 1990 to 2010. Urban areas increased alongside a major decrease in cropland resulting in a substantial loss of 4.2 billion CNY in Ecosystem Services.

  • 20.
    Haas, Jan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Ban, Yifang
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Division of Geoinformatics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sentinel-1A SAR and sentinel-2A MSI data fusion for urban ecosystem service mapping2017In: Remote Sensing Applications: Society and Environment, ISSN 2352-9385, Vol. 8, p. 41-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The two main objectives of this study are to evaluate the potential use and synergetic effects of ESA Sentinel-1A C-band SAR and Sentinel-2A MSI data for classification and mapping of ecologically important urban and peri-urban space and to introduce spatial characteristics into ecosystem service analyses based on remotely sensed data. Image resolutions between 5 m and 20 m provided by the Sentinel satellites introduce a new relevant spatial scale in-between high and medium resolution data at which not only urban areas but also their important hinterlands can be effectively and efficiently mapped. Sentinel-1/2 data fusion facilitates both the capture of ecologically relevant details while at the same time also enabling large-scale urban analyses that draw surrounding regions into consideration. The combined use of Sentinel-1A SAR in Interferometric Wide Swath mode and simulated Sentinel-2A MSI (APEX) data is being evaluated in a classification of the Zürich metropolitan area, Switzerland. The SAR image was terrain-corrected, speckle-filtered and co-registered to the simulated Sentinel-2 image. After radiometric and spatial resampling, the fused image stack was segmented and classified by SVM. After post-classification, landscape elements were investigated in terms of spatial characteristics and topological relations that are believed to influence ecosystem service supply and demand, i.e. area, contiguity, perimeter-toarearatio and distance. Based on the classification results, ecosystem service supplies and demands accounting for spatial and topological patch characteristics were attributed to 14 land cover classes. The quantification of supply and demand values resulted in a positive ecosystem service budget for Zürich. The spatially adjusted service budgets and the original budgets are similar from a landscape perspective but deviate up to 50% on thepatch level. The introduction of spatial and topological patch characteristics gives a more accurate impression of ecosystem service supply and demands and their distributions, thus enabling more detailed analyses in complexurban surroundings. The method and underlying data are considered suitable for urban land cover and ecosystem service mapping and the introduction of spatial aspects into relative ecosystem service valuation concepts is believed to add another important aspect in currently existing approaches.

  • 21.
    Haas, Jan
    et al.
    KTH Sweden.
    Ban, Yifang
    KTH Sweden.
    Synergies of Sentinel-1A and Sentinel-2A MSI Data for Urban Ecosystem Service Mapping2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the potential use and synergetic effects of novel ESA Sentinel-1A C-band SAR and Sentinel-2A MSI data for mapping of ecologically important urban and peri-urban space. Image resolutions between 5 m and 20 m provided by the Sentinel satellites introduce a new relevant spatial scale in-between high and medium resolution data at which not only urban areas but also their important hinterlands are expected to be effectively and efficiently mapped. The fusion of Sentinel-1/2 facilitates both the capture of ecologically relevant details but at the same time also enables large-scale urban analyses that draw surrounding regions into consideration. The combined use of Sentinel-1A SAR in Interferometric Wide Swath mode and simulated Sentinel-2A MSI (APEX) data is being evaluated in classification of a metropolitan area over Zürich, Switzerland. The SAR image was pre-processed using Range-Doppler terrain correction. A 5x5 adaptive Lee speckle filter was applied to the VH and VV intensity bands before co-registration to the simulated Sentinel-2 image. After radiometric and spatial resampling, the fused images were segmented by the KTH-SEG algorithm before being classified by SVM. After reclassification under masks and sieve-filtering, the resulting landscape patches were investigated in terms of spatial characteristics and topological relations that are deemed to be influential for ecosystem service provision. Based on the classification result, ecosystem service supply and demand values that account for spatial and topological patch characteristics were attributed to 14 different land cover classes. The method and underlying data were found suitable for urban land-cover and ecosystem service mapping. The introduction of spatial aspects into ecosystem service providing areas is believed to add another important aspect in currently existing valuation approaches.

  • 22.
    Haas, Jan
    et al.
    KTH, Geodesi och geoinformatik.
    Ban, Yifang
    KTH.
    Urban growth and environmental impacts in Jing-Jin-Ji, the Yangtze, River Delta and the Pearl River Delta2014In: International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, ISSN 0303-2434, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 42-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates land cover changes, magnitude and speed of urbanization and evaluates possible impacts on the environment by the concepts of landscape metrics and ecosystem services in China's three largest and most important urban agglomerations: Jing-Jin-Ji, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta. Based on the classifications of six Landsat TM and HJ-1A/B remotely sensed space-borne optical satellite image mosaics with a superior random forest decision tree ensemble classifier, a total increase in urban land of about 28,000 km(2) could be detected alongside a simultaneous decrease in natural land cover classes and cropland. Two urbanization indices describing both speed and magnitude of urbanization were derived and ecosystem services were calculated with a valuation scheme adapted to the Chinese market based on the classification results from 1990 and 2010 for the predominant land cover classes affected by urbanization: forest, cropland, wetlands, water and aquaculture. The speed and relative urban growth in Jing-Jin-Ji was highest, followed by the Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta, resulting in a continuously fragmented landscape and substantial decreases in ecosystem service values of approximately 18.5 billion CNY with coastal wetlands and agriculture being the largest contributors. The results indicate both similarities and differences in urban-regional development trends implicating adverse effects on the natural and rural landscape, not only in the rural-urban fringe, but also in the cities' important hinterlands as a result of rapid urbanization in China.

  • 23.
    Haas, Jan
    et al.
    KTH.
    Ban, Yifang
    KTH.
    Urban Land Cover and Ecosystem Service Changes based on Sentinel-2A MSI and Landsat TM Data2018In: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, ISSN 1939-1404, E-ISSN 2151-1535, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 485-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development in metropolitan regions is challenging in the light of continuous urbanization. Remote sensing provides timely and reliable information on urban areas and their changing patterns. This study's objectives are to evaluate the contribution of Sentinel-2A (S-2A) data to urban ecosystem service mapping and to investigate spatial ecosystem service characteristics with landscape metrics through a novelmethod. Service pattern changes between 2005 and 2015 are mapped for Beijing, China. Landscape metrics are used to qualitatively evaluate urban ecosystem service provision bundle changes. S-2A and Landsat TM data are segmented and classified with SVM, distinguishing three artificial and four natural classes based on ecosystem function. Spatial characteristics influencing ecosystem services are quantified with seven landscape metrics. Beijing's urban development is characterized by reduction in agricultural areas in the urban fringe in favor of built-up areas, urban green space, and golf courses. A transformation of old suburban agglomerations into urban green space can be observed. The planar increase in urban areas is accompanied by the creation of managed urban green space. Service bundles based on land cover classes and spatial characteristics decreased more than 30% for bundles that represent food supply, noise reduction, waste treatment, and global climate regulation. Temperature regulation/moderation of climate extremes, recreation/place values/social cohesion, and aesthetic benefits/cognitive development are least affected. This new approach of extending the ecosystem service concept through integration of spatial characteristics of ecosystem service provisional patches through landscape metrics is believed to give a more realistic appraisal of ecosystem services in urban areas.

  • 24.
    Haas, Jan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). KTH, Geodesi och geoinformatik.
    Furberg, Dorothy
    KTH, Geodesi och geoinformatik.
    Ban, Yifang
    KTH, Geodesi och geoinformatik.
    Satellite monitoring of urbanization and environmental impacts: A comparison of Stockholm and Shanghai2015In: International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, ISSN 0303-2434, Vol. 38, p. 138-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates urbanization and its potential environmental consequences in Shanghai andStockholm metropolitan areas over two decades. Changes in land use/land cover are estimated fromsupport vector machine classifications of Landsat mosaics with grey-level co-occurrence matrix fea-tures. Landscape metrics are used to investigate changes in landscape composition and configurationand to draw preliminary conclusions about environmental impacts. Speed and magnitude of urbaniza-tion is calculated by urbanization indices and the resulting impacts on the environment are quantified byecosystem services. Growth of urban areas and urban green spaces occurred at the expense of croplandin both regions. Alongside a decrease in natural land cover, urban areas increased by approximately 120%in Shanghai, nearly ten times as much as in Stockholm, where the most significant land cover changewas a 12% urban expansion that mostly replaced agricultural areas. From the landscape metrics results,it appears that fragmentation in both study regions occurred mainly due to the growth of high densitybuilt-up areas in previously more natural/agricultural environments, while the expansion of low densitybuilt-up areas was for the most part in conjunction with pre-existing patches. Urban growth resulted inecosystem service value losses of approximately 445 million US dollars in Shanghai, mostly due to thedecrease in natural coastal wetlands while in Stockholm the value of ecosystem services changed very lit-tle. Total urban growth in Shanghai was 1768 km2and 100 km2in Stockholm. The developed methodologyis considered a straight-forward low-cost globally applicable approach to quantitatively and qualitativelyevaluate urban growth patterns that could help to address spatial, economic and ecological questions inurban and regional planning.

  • 25.
    Haas, Jan
    et al.
    KTH, Geodesi och geoinformatik.
    Jacob, Alexander
    KTH, Geodesi och geoinformatik.
    Ban, Yifang
    KTH, Geodesi och geoinformatik.
    Urban ecosystems mapping from spaceborne high-resolution optical data2014In: Proc. ‘Dragon 3 Mid-Term Results Symposium’, Chengdu, P.R. China 26–29 May 2014 (ESA SP-724, November 2014), 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of high-resolution optical satellite images for mapping of ecologically important urban space is investigated in this study. Both a GeoEye-1 and a Landsat 8 scene over central Shanghai were first segmented by two different algorithms and then classified into seven urban classes by SVM. Shadows in the pan-sharpened GeoEye-1 image were masked out and replaced by the corresponding pan-sharpened classified Landsat 8 image. Largest confusions occurred between sealed and permeable but non-vegetated surfaces, and between low-rise residential and high-rise commercial buildings. Based on the classification result, ecosystem service balances, supply and demand was modelled for each particular land cover class. Classification accuracies of 88% and 91% could be reached, indicating the suitability of the underlying data and method for this application domain. The KTH-SEG segmentation algorithm slightly outperformed the one implemented in eCognition. The highest supply of ecosystem services was found in water bodies whereas high-rise built-up areas revealed largest demands.

  • 26. Johansson, Mats
    et al.
    Haas, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Troglio, Elisabetta
    Gumà Altés, Rosa
    Lundh, Christian
    TOWN: Small and medium sized towns in their functional territorial context2013Report (Other academic)
  • 27. Liebiedieva, Svitlana
    et al.
    Haas, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Andersson, Jan-Olov
    Geospatial support2017In: Handbook of Disaster and Emergency Management / [ed] Amir Khorram-Manesh, Göteborg: Amir Khorram-Manesh , 2017, p. 92-96Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Mugiraneza, Theodomir
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; University of Rwanda, Rwanda.
    Ban, Yifang
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Haas, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Urban land cover dynamics and their impact on ecosystem services in Kigali, Rwanda using multi-temporal Landsat data2019In: Remote Sensing Applications: Society and Environment, ISSN 2352-9385, Vol. 13, p. 234-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Land cover change monitoring in rapidly urbanizing environments based on spaceborne remotely sensed data and measurable indicators is essential for quantifying and evaluating the spatial patterns of urban landscape change dynamics and for sustainable urban ecosystems management. The objectives of the study are to analyse the spatio-temporal evolution of urbanization patterns of Kigali, Rwanda over the last three decades (from 1984 to 2016) using multi-temporal Landsat data and to assess the associated environmental impact using landscape metrics and ecosystem services. Visible and infrared bands of Landsat images were combined with derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) variance texture and digital elevation model (DEM) data for pixel-based classification using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. Seven land cover classes were derived with an overall accuracy exceeding 87% with Kappa coefficients around 0.8. As most prominent changes, cropland was reduced considerably in favour of built-up areas that increased from 2.13 km2 to 100.17 km2 between 1984 and 2016. During those 32 years, landscape fragmentation could be observed, especially for forest and cropland. The landscape configuration indices demonstrate that in general the land cover pattern remained stable for cropland, but that it was highly changed for built-up areas. Ecosystem services considered include regulating, provisioning and support services. Estimated changes in ecosystem services amount to a loss of 69 million US dollars (USD) as a result of cropland degradation in favour of urban areas and in a gain of 52.5 million USD within urban areas. Multi-temporal remote sensing is found as a cost-effective method for analysis and quantification of urbanization and its effects using landscape metrics and ecosystem services. 

  • 29.
    Mugiraneza, Theodomir
    et al.
    KTH; University of Rwanda, Rwanda.
    Haas, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Ban, Yifang
    KTH.
    Spatiotemporal analysis of urban land cover changes in Kigali, Rwanda using multitemporal landsat data and landscape metrics2017In: The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XLII-3/W2, 2017, COPERNICUS GESELLSCHAFT MBH , 2017, p. 137-144Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mapping urbanization and ensuing environmental impacts using satellite data combined with landscape metrics has become a hot research topic. The objectives of the study are to analyze the spatio-temporal evolution of urbanization patterns of Kigali, Rwanda over the last three decades (from 1984 to 2015) using multitemporal Landsat data and to assess the associated environmental impact using landscape metrics. Landsat images, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) variance texture and digital elevation model (DEM) data were classified using a support vector machine (SVM). Eight landscape indices were derived from classified images for urbanization environment impact assessment. Seven land cover classes were derived with an overall accuracy exceeding 88% with Kappa Coefficients around 0.8. As most prominent changes, cropland was reduced considerably in favour of built-up areas that increased from 2,349 ha to 11,579 ha between 1984 and 2015. During those 31 years, the increased number of patches in most land cover classes illustrated landscape fragmentation, especially for forest. The landscape configuration indices demonstrate that in general the land cover pattern remained stable for cropland but it was highly changed in built-up areas. Satellite-based analysis and quantification of urbanization and its effects using landscape metrics are found to be interesting for grassroots and provide a cost-effective method for urban information production. This information can be used for e.g. potential design and implementation of early warning systems that cater for urbanization effects.

  • 30.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    et al.
    KTH, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Deal, Brian
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Azcarate, Juan
    KTH, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Haas, Jan
    KTH, Geoinformatik.
    Pang, Xi
    KTH, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Integrating ecosystem services in urban energy trajectories2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Deal, Brian
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Azcarate, Juan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Haas, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Pang, Xi
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Integrating ecosystem services in urban energy trajectories2015In: Biwaes 2015 9Th Biennial International Workshop Advances In Energy Studies: Energy and urban systems / [ed] Hans Schnitzer, Olga Kordas, Sergio Ulgiati, Verlag der Technischen Universität Graz , 2015, p. 89-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in urban development trajectories towards renewable energy sources and compact, energy- efficient urban agglomerations will have major impacts on ecosystem services, which cities are dependent on but tend to overlook. Such ecosystem services can be provisioning, regulating and cultural ecosystem services, around which competition over land and water resources will increase with energy system shifts. Much of the land and water use conflicts can be foreseen to take place within urbanising regions, which simultaneously is the living environment of a major part of the human population today. In order to inform critical policy decisions, integrated assessment of urban energy system options and ecosystem services is necessary. For this purpose, the model integration platform Land Evolution and impact Assessment Model (LEAM) is built and empowered with models representing urban form, energy supply and use, transportation, and ecological processes and services, all related to the land and water use evolution. These types of analyses of interacting sub- systems require an advanced model integration platform, yet open for learning and for further development, with high visualisation capacity. Case studies are performed for the cities of Stockholm, Chicago and Shanghai, where urbanisation scenarios are under development. In the case study LEAMStockholm, scenarios for urban compaction and urban sprawl with different energy and water system solutions are being developed, in order to explore the sustainability of urban policy options. This will enable integrated policy assessment of complex urban systems, with the goal to increase their sustainability.

  • 32.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Haas, Jan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Zetterberg, Andreas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Franklin, Joel
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Deal, Brian
    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA.
    Urban ecosystems and sustainable urban development-analysing and assessing interacting systems in the Stockholm region2013In: Urban Ecosystems, ISSN 1083-8155, E-ISSN 1573-1642, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 763-782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to build competence for sustainability analysis and assessment of urban systems, it is seen as essential to build on models representing urban form, landuse and transportation, urban metabolism, as well as ecological processes. This type of analysis of interacting sub-systems requires an advanced model integration platform, yet open for learning and for further development. Moreover, since the aim is to increase urban experience with ecosystem management in the wide sense, the platform needs to be open and easily available, with high visualisation capacity. For this purpose, the LEAM model was applied to the Stockholm Region and two potential future scenarios were developed, resulting from alternative policies. The scenarios differed widely and the dense urban development of Scenario Compact could be visualised, destroying much of the Greenstructure of Stockholm, while Scenario Urban Nature steered the development more to outer suburbs and some sprawl. For demonstration of the need for further development of biodiversity assessment models, a network model tied to a prioritised ecological profile was applied and altered by the scenarios. It could be shown that the Greenstructure did not support this profile very well. Thus, there is a need for dynamic models for negotiations, finding alternative solutions and interacting with other models. The LEAM Stockholm case study is planned to be further developed, to interact with more advanced transport and land use models, as well as analysing energy systems and urban water issues. This will enable integrated sustainability analysis and assessment of complex urban systems, for integration in the planning process in Stockholm as well as for comparative sustainability studies between different cities, with the goal to build more sustainable urban systems and to increase urban experiences in ecosystem management.

  • 33.
    Rui, Yikang
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ban, Yifang
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wang, Jiechen
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Haas, Jan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Exploring the patterns and evolution of self-organized urban street networks through modeling2013In: European Physical Journal B: Condensed Matter Physics, ISSN 1434-6028, E-ISSN 1434-6036, Vol. 86, no 74, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As one of the most important subsystems in cities, urban street networks have recently been well studied by using the approach of complex networks. This paper proposes a growing model for self-organized urban street networks. The model involves a competition among new centers with different values of attraction radius and a local optimal principle of both geometrical and topological factors. We find that with the model growth, the local optimization in the connection process and appropriate probability for the loop construction well reflect the evolution strategy in real-world cities. Moreover, different values of attraction radius in centers competition process lead to morphological change in patterns including urban network, polycentric and monocentric structures. The model succeeds in reproducing a large diversity of road network patterns by varying parameters. The similarity between the properties of our model and empirical results implies that a simple universal growth mechanism exists in self-organized cities.

1 - 33 of 33
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