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  • 1.
    Hägerhed-Engman, Linda
    et al.
    SP Tech Res Inst Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Knutz, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Shu, Huan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Bornehag, Carl Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences. SP Tech Res Inst Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Early life exposure of self-reported mold odor is associated with asthma in children 10 years later2014In: 13th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate 2014, International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate , 2014, p. 612-614Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Lindström, C.B
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Kobyletzki von, Laura
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Hallerbäck, M.U.
    Central Hospital Karlstad.
    Lindh, C.H.
    Lund University.
    Jönsson, B.A.
    Lund University.
    Knutz, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Shu, Huan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Perfluorinated compounds in serum from 2, 373 pregnant women in Sweden2014In: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, p. 927-929Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Shu, Huan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Phthalates: On the issue of sources, human uptake, time trends and health effects2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Human health depends on a well-functioning endocrine system to regulate hormone release for normal bodily functions. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) constitutes a group of chemicals, included in many commonly used products, (e.g., PVC flooring), with properties proven or suspected to interact with the natural hormone system in humans and animals. EDCs are manmade compounds (there are also natural compounds with such properties) that can bind to cell receptors and mimic or block the functions of natural hormones potentially resulting in adverse human health effects.

    One type of widely concerning EDC is phthalates. Since phthalates create weak chemical bonds when they are added into different products, they readily leach into the surrounding environment. Phthalate metabolites can therefore be frequently measured in human biological samples. Major public health concerns regarding EDCs over the past three decades have focused on phthalates. According to the World Health Organization, EDCs are suspected to be associated with altered reproductive function in males and females, increased incidence of breast cancer, abnormal growth patterns and neurodevelopmental delays in children, as well as changes in immune function.

    The thesis shows that PVC flooring in the home is a source for human uptake of phthalates, that replacement of phthalates in soft PVC products have an impact on human uptake of these chemicals, and that exposure for phthalates in early life increase the risk for airway disorders in children.

    As we have shown, ongoing regulations on phthalates is of importance for human uptake. Ultimately, individuals can make small changes in their consumer product choices that can lead to changes in uptake of chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties. Philosophically, we all have a responsibility to protect future generations from dangerous chemicals.

  • 4.
    Shu, Huan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Jönsson, Bo A
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University.
    Larsson, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Nånberg, Eewa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    PVC flooring at home and development of asthma among young children in Sweden, a 10-year follow-up2014In: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 227-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of asthma and allergy has increased throughout the developed world over the past decades. During the same period of time the use of industrial chemicals such as phthalates, commonly used as plasticizers in polyvinylchloride (PVC) flooring material, has increased.

    AIMS: To investigate if PVC-flooring in the home of children in the age of 1-5 years is associated with the development of asthma in 5-year and 10-year follow-up investigations (n=3,228).

    METHODS: Dampness in Buildings and Health Study (DBH Study) commenced in 2000 in Värmland, Sweden. The current analyses included subjects who answered all baseline and follow-up questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were applied to questionnaire results.

    RESULTS: Children who had PVC floorings in the bedroom at baseline were more likely to develop doctor diagnosed asthma during the following 10 years period when compared with children living without. There were indications that PVC flooring in the parents' bedrooms were stronger associated with the new cases of doctor diagnosed asthma when compared with child's bedroom.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest PVC flooring exposure during pregnancy could be a critical period in the development of asthma in children at a later time, prenatal exposure and measurements of phthalate metabolites should be included in the future. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Shu, Huan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Jönsson, Bo AG
    Lunds Universitet.
    Gennings, Chris
    Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, USA.
    Svensson, Åke
    Lunds Universitet.
    Nånberg, Eewa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Lindh, Christian H
    Lunds universitet.
    Knutz, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Takaro, Tim K.
    Simon Fraser University, Canada.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Temporal Trends of Phthalate Exposures during 2007-2010 in Swedish Pregnant Women2018In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 437-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The general population is exposed to phthalates, a group of chemicals with strong evidence for endocrine disrupting properties, commonly used in a large number of consumer products. Based on published research and evidence compiled by environmental agencies, certain phthalate applications and products have become restricted, leading to an increasing number of “new generation compounds” coming onto the market during recent years replacing older phthalates. Some examples of such newer compounds are di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), di-iso-decyl phthalate (DiDP), and most recently di-isononyl-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DiNCH). Objectives: In order to evaluate temporal trends in phthalate exposure, first trimester urinary biomarkers of phthalates were measured in the Swedish SELMA study over a period of 2.5 years (2007–2010). Methods: We collected first morning void urine samples around week 10 of pregnancy from 1651 pregnant women. Spot samples were analyzed for 13 phthalate metabolites and one phthalate replacement and least square geometric mean (LSGM) levels of the metabolites were compared between the sampling years when adjusted for potential confounders. Results: All 14 metabolites were detectable in more than 99% of the SELMA subjects. The levels were generally comparable to other studies, but the SELMA subjects showed slightly higher exposure to butyl-benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di-butyl phthalate (DBP). Di-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites levels decreased while DiNP, DiDP/di-2-propylheptyl phthalate (DPHP), and DiNCH metabolites levels increased during the sampling period. Conclusions: Urinary metabolite levels of the older phthalates and more recently introduced phthalate replacement compound changed during the short sampling period in this Swedish pregnancy cohort. Our results indicate that replacement of phthalates can make an impact on human exposure to these chemicals. During this particularly vulnerable stage of life, phthalate exposures are of particular concern as the impacts, though not immediately noticeable, may increase the risk for health effects later in life.

  • 6.
    Shu, Huan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Jönsson, Bo
    Gennings, Chris
    Lindh, Christian
    Nånberg, Eewa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    PVC flooring at home and uptake of phthalates in pregnant womenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Shu, Huan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Jönsson, Bo
    Lund University.
    Lindh, Christian
    Lund University.
    Knutz, Malin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Nånberg, Eewa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Åke
    Malmö University Hospital.
    Bornehag, Carl Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    PVC flooring in the home is related to urinary levels of phthalates in swedish pregnant women in the selma study2014In: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, p. 976-978Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Shu, Huan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Wikstrom, Sverre
    Jonsson, Bo A. G.
    Lindh, Christian H.
    Svensson, Åke
    Nånberg, Eewa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with croup in Swedish infants2018In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 107, no 6, p. 1011-1019Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study examined whether prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with lower or upper airway inflammation in infants. Methods: From 2007 to 2010, we used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, adjusted for creatinine, to analyse 14 phthalate metabolites and one phthalate replacement in the urine of 1062 Swedish mothers at a median of 10 weeks of pregnancy. This was used to determine any associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and croup, wheezing or otitis in their offspring until 12 months of age, using logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders. Results: There were significant associations between phthalate metabolites of butyl-benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP) concentrations in maternal prenatal urine and croup in 1062 infants during the first year of life, when adjusted for potential confounders. A dose-response relationship was found between prenatal phthalates exposure and maternal reported croup in the children, with a significant association in boys. There was no clear indication with regard to associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and wheezing or otitis media in the children during the first year of life. Conclusion: Our analysis suggests that exposure to BBzP and DEHP phthalates was associated with maternal reports of croup in infants up to 12 months of age

  • 9.
    Shu, Huan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Wikström, Sverre
    Örebro universitet.
    Jönsson, Bo AG
    Lunds universitet.
    Svensson, Åke
    Lunds universitet.
    Nånberg, Eewa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Prenatal phthalates exposure and the association to infant’s croup in the Swedish SELMA studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Takaro, T. K.
    et al.
    Simon Fraser Univ, Burnaby, BC, Canada..
    Joffres, Y.
    Simon Fraser Univ, Burnaby, BC, Canada..
    Shu, Huan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Brook, J.
    Univ Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Becker, A. B.
    Univ Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada..
    McLean, K.
    BC Ctr Dis Control, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Wheeler, A. J.
    Edith Cowen Univ, Perth, WA, Australia..
    Scott, J. A.
    Univ Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Lefebvre, D. L.
    McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Sbihi, H.
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Mandhane, P. J.
    Univ Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada..
    Subbarao, P.
    Univ Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Turvey, S. E.
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Sears, M. R.
    Firestone Inst, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Early Life Indoor Inflammatory Exposures And Asthma Risk At Three Years Of Age In The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (child) Birth Cohort2016In: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, ISSN 1073-449X, E-ISSN 1535-4970, Vol. 193, article id A2877Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Takaro, Tim K.
    et al.
    Simon Fraser Univ, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Scott, James A.
    Univ Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Allen, Ryan W.
    Simon Fraser Univ, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Anand, Sonia S.
    McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Becker, Allan B.
    Univ Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada..
    Befus, A. Dean
    Univ Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada..
    Brauer, Michael
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9, Canada..
    Duncan, Joanne
    McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Lefebyre, Diana L.
    McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Lou, Wendy
    Univ Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Mandhane, Plush J.
    Univ Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada..
    McLean, Kathleen E.
    Simon Fraser Univ, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Miller, Gregory
    Northwestern Univ, Evanston, IL USA..
    Sbihi, Hind
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9, Canada..
    Shu, Huan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences. Simon Fraser Univ, Vancouver, BC, Canada.;Karlstad Univ, Karlstad, Varmland, Sweden..
    Subbarao, Padmaja
    Univ Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Hosp Sick Children, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada..
    Turvey, Stuart E.
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9, Canada..
    Wheeler, Amanda J.
    Edith Cowan Univ, Joondalup, WA, Australia.;Hlth Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0L2, Canada..
    Zeng, Leilei
    Univ Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada..
    Sears, Malcolm R.
    McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Brook, Jeffrey R.
    Univ Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Environm Canada, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study: assessment of environmental exposures2015In: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 1559-0631, E-ISSN 1559-064X, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 580-592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort was designed to elucidate interactions between environment and genetics underlying development of asthma and allergy. Over 3600 pregnant mothers were recruited from the general population in four provinces with diverse environments. The child is followed to age 5 years, with prospective characterization of diverse exposures during this critical period. Key exposure domains include indoor and outdoor air pollutants, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake of chemicals, mold, dampness, biological allergens, pets and pests, housing structure, and living behavior, together with infections, nutrition, psychosocial environment, and medications. Assessments of early life exposures are focused on those linked to inflammatory responses driven by the acquired and innate immune systems. Mothers complete extensive environmental questionnaires including time-activity behavior at recruitment and when the child is 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months old. House dust collected during a thorough home assessment at 3-4 months, and biological specimens obtained for multiple exposure-related measurements, are archived for analyses. Geo-locations of homes and daycares and land-use regression for estimating traffic-related air pollution complement time-activity-behavior data to provide comprehensive individual exposure profiles. Several analytical frameworks are proposed to address the many interacting exposure variables and potential issues of co-linearity in this complex data set.

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