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  • 1.
    Appelby, Ralph
    et al.
    Northumbria University.
    Davis, Paul
    Northumbria University.
    Davis, Louise
    Northumbria University.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    Umeå universitet.
    An Examination of the Influence of Training Hours on Athlete Burnout.2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Augustsson, Christian
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Andersson, J
    Användning av målsättning hos elitjuniorer i höjdhopp2010In: SVEBI:s årsbok / [ed] Patriksson, G, SVEBI , 2010Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Davis, L.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Appleby, R.
    Northumbria university Newcastle.
    Davis, P.
    Umeå universitet.
    Wetherell, M.
    Northumbria university Newcastle.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    The role of coach-athlete relationship quality in team sport athletes’ psychophysiological exhaustion: implications for physical and cognitive performance2018In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 17, p. 1985-1992Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to examine associations between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athlete exhaustion by assessing physiological and cognitive consequences. Male and female athletes (N = 82) representing seven teams across four different sports, participated in a quasi-experimental study measuring physical performance on a 5-meter multiple shuttle test, followed by a Stroop test to assess cognitive performance. Participants provided saliva samples measuring cortisol as a biomarker of acute stress response and completed questionnaires measuring exhaustion, and coach-athlete relationship quality. Structural equation modelling revealed a positive relationship between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and Stroop performance, and negative relationships between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and cortisol responses to high-intensity exercise, cognitive testing, and exhaustion. The study supports previous research on socio-cognitive correlates of athlete exhaustion by highlighting associations with the quality of the coach-athlete relationship. © 2018 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

  • 4.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Örebro universitet.
    Burnout in competitive and elite athletes2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Intensified training regimes and increasing competitive pressure make some athletes leave sports with shattered hopes and dreams. A number of these athletes drop out of sports due to burnout, which is characterized by an enduring experience of emotional and physical exhaustion, reduced sense of accomplishment and devaluation of sport participation as a consequence of prolonged chronic stress. Loss of engagement and diminished motivation also characterize burnout. But burnout is more than just a simple stress reaction, as not all athletes who experience stress burn out. Study I investigates the prevalence of burnout among competitive athletes. The number of athletes showing high levels of burnout was found to be between 1 and 9%. The number of athletes suffering from severe burnout was estimated at 1-2%. Contrary to what has been speculated, burnout was not more common in individual sports than in team sports. Study II investigated the burnout process using a case-study approach. It was found that burnout can evolve with different levels of severity, time perspectives and characteristics. There appears to be a relationship between overtraining syndrome and burnout, and the study gave support to the notion that burnout is the most severe outcome on the training fatigue continuum. Early success might lead to high expectations and an inner pressure to train, which in the three cases made the athletes ignore signs of maladaptation. Performance-based self-esteem appears to be a “driving force” in the burnout process. In Study III the burnout experience was investigated using qualitative interviews. Lack of recovery, “too much sports” and high external demands were described as causes of burnout. A stressful situation with multiple demands from sport, school and social relationships leads to a total overload, which has both physiological and psychological consequences. Critical factors were a unidimensional identity, performance-based self-esteem, an inflexible organization and feelings of entrapment. These restraining factors made the athletes remain in sports despite negative outcomes. Thus the three studies indicate that burnout is a serious problem in competitive and elite sports, that restraining factors offer an explanation for why athletes remain in sport despite negative outcomes, and that striving for self-esteem is crucial in the development of burnout.

  • 5.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Örebro universitet.
    Jakten på den perfekta prestationen2005In: Årsbok k: Svensk idrottspsykologisk förening, Örebro, 2005Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Augustsson, Christian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Wagnsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Föräldrar och idrott. Föräldrainitierat motivationsklimat.2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Carlin, Maicon
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Podlog, Leslie
    USA.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Motivational profiles and burnout in elite athletes: A person-centered approach2018In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 35, p. 118-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to assess the link between elite athletes' motivational profiles and burnout using a person-centered approach. Participants were 391 Spanish elite athletes (201 males and 190 females), aged 16-30 years who completed questionnaires measuring demographic information, self-determined motivation, and athlete burnout. Latent profile analysis resulted in a five profile solution labeled: amotivation (Class 1), low motivation (Class 2), moderately autonomous motivation (Class 3), amotivated and moderately controlled motivation (Class 4), and highly motivated (Class 5). While no significant differences were found in emotional/physical exhaustion, Class 4 (amotivated and moderately controlled motivation) scored higher than classes 2 (low motivation), 3 (moderately autonomous motivation), and 5 (highly motivated) on a Reduced sense of Accomplishment and Sport Devaluation. Findings are discussed in relation to Self-Determination Theory, suggesting that the quality of one's motivation may be equally, if not more important than the quantity of motivation in determining subsequent health, well-being, and performance outcomes.

  • 8.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Carlin, Maicon
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Podlog, Leslie
    University of Utah.
    Wagnsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Ericsson, Helena
    Örebro universitet.
    Perfectionism and athlete burnout: Does the motivational climate matter?2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Davis, Paul
    Northumbria Univ, Fac Hlth & Life Sci, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 8ST, Tyne & Wear, England..
    Skoog, Therese
    Univ Orebro, Sch Law Psychol & Social Work, Orebro, Sweden..
    Kentta, Goran
    Haberl, Peter
    Mindfulness and Its Relationship With Perceived Stress, Affect, and Burnout in Elite Junior Athletes2015In: Journal of clinical sport psychology, ISSN 1932-9261, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 263-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and burnout and whether this relationship is mediated by perceived stress, negative affect, and positive affect in elite junior athletes. Participants were 233 (123 males and 107 females) adolescent athletes, ranging in age from 15-19 years (M = 17.50; SD = 1.08).Bivariate correlations revealed that mindfulness had a significant negative relationship with both perceived stress and burnout. To investigate mediation, we employed nonparametric bootstrapping analyses. These analyses indicated that positive affect fully mediated links between mindfulness and sport devaluation. Further, positive affect and negative affect partially mediated the relationships between mindfulness and physical/emotional exhaustion, as well as between mindfulness and reduced sense of accomplishment. The results point toward mindfulness being negatively related to burnout in athletes and highlight the role of positive affect. Future research should investigate the longitudinal effect of dispositional mindfulness on stress and burnout.

  • 10.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    DeFreese, J. D.
    USA.
    Madigan, Daniel J.
    England.
    Athlete burnout: review and recommendations2017In: Current opinion in psychology, ISSN 2352-250X, Vol. 16, p. 109-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last two decades, growing concerns regarding the negative implications of athlete burnout have spurred empirical research on the topic. In their citation network analysis of the burnout literature, Gustafsson et al. (2014), cited well over 100 publications on the syndrome. Despite considerable investigation into athlete burnout, there remain a number of unresolved questions and issues. Four main aims guide the current review. First, we highlight various models of athlete burnout. Second, we discuss the measurement of athlete burnout. Third, we describe the symptoms, antecedents, and consequences of athlete burnout with a focus on social perceptions and perfectionism. Finally, we provide suggestions for the prevention and treatment of athlete burnout via an illustration of links between theory and practice. It is our hope that this review can stimulate future research in order to help athletes avoid burnout and other severe forms of training maladaptation.

  • 11.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Hancock, David
    Indiana university.
    Coté, Jean
    Queens university Canada.
    Describing citation structures in sport burnout literature: a citation network analysis2014In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 620-625Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Hassmén, P
    Hassmén, N
    Are athletes burning out with passion?2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Hassmén, P
    Hassmén, N
    Ragnarsson, H
    Burnout in relation to performance based self-esteem and athletic identity2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Hassmén, P
    Kenttä, G
    Praktisk idrottspsykologi2009Book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Hassmén, P
    Podlog, L
    Exploring the relationship between hope and burnout in competitive sport2010In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 28, no 14, p. 1495-1504Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Hassmén, Nathalie
    Are athletes burning out with passion?2011In: European Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1746-1391, E-ISSN 1536-7290, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 387-395Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Hill, Andrew
    Leeds University.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet.
    Wagnsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    The interaction betweenperfectionism and parent-initiated climate when predicting burnout among juniorcompetitive athletes2013In: The 13th ISSP World congress in sport psychology, Beijing, China, June, 2013., 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Hill, A.P.
    UK.
    Stenling, A.
    Umeå University.
    Wagnsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Profiles of perfectionism, parental climate, and burnout among competitive junior athletes2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 26, no 10, p. 1256-1264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research suggests that groups of athletes which differ in terms of perfectionism and perceptions of achievement climate can be identified. Moreover, these groups also differ in terms of burnout symptoms. The purpose of the current study was to extend this research by examining whether discernible groups can be identified based on scores of perfectionism and perceptions of parent-initiated climate and, then, whether these groups differ in terms of burnout. Two-hundred and thirty-seven Swedish junior athletes (124 males and 113 females aged 16-19) from a variety of sports completed measures of athlete burnout, multidimensional perfectionism, and parent-initiated motivational climate. Latent profile analysis identified four groups: non-perfectionistic athletes in a task-involving climate, moderately perfectionistic athletes in a task-involving climate, highly perfectionistic athletes in a task-involving climate, and highly perfectionistic athletes in a mixed climate. The latter two groups reported higher levels of burnout in comparison to other groups. The findings suggest that junior athletes high in perfectionism may be at comparatively greater risk to burnout and that this may especially be the case when they perceive their parents to emphasize concerns about failure and winning without trying one’s best.

  • 19.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Holmberg, H-C
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Stockholms universitet.
    An elite endurance athlete’s recovery from underperformance aided by a multidisciplinary sport science support team2008In: European Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1746-1391, E-ISSN 1536-7290, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 267-276Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Hassmén, Peter
    Athlete Burnout: An Integrated Model and Future Directions2011In: International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1750-984X, E-ISSN 1750-9858, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 3-24Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Gymnastik och Idrottshögskolan.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Stockholms universitet.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Stockholms universitet.
    Prevalence of burnout in adolescent competitive athletes2007In: The Sport psychologist, ISSN 0888-4781, E-ISSN 1543-2793, Vol. 21, p. 21-37Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Gymnastik och Idrottshögskolan.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Stockholms universitet.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Durand-Bush, Nathalie
    University of Ottowa.
    The process of burnout: A multiple case study of three elite endurance athletes2007In: International Journal of Sport Psychology, ISSN 0047-0767, Vol. 38, p. 388-416Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Lemyre, P-N
    Motivation and burnout in elite athletes2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    University of St Andrews, U.
    Podlog, Leslie
    University of Utah.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Conceptual Confusion and Potential Advances in Athlete Burnout Research2016In: Perceptual and Motor Skills, ISSN 0031-5125, E-ISSN 1558-688X, Vol. 123, no 3, p. 784-791Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Working with perfectionism in elite sport: A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy perspective2016In: The psychology of perfectionism in sport, dance, and exercise / [ed] Andrew Hill, Routledge, 2016, 1Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Tod, David
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Liverpool, Merseyside, England.
    Cognitive behavioral intervention in sport psychology: A case illustration of the exposure method with an elite athlete2017In: Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, ISSN 2152-0704, E-ISSN 2152-0712, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 152-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One common method in Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) to treat anxiety problems is exposure, but there are few articles examining its applicability to sport. The aim of this article is to give a background of the use of exposure in sport and present a case of how exposure can be used with athletes. The athlete was a 17-year-old female cross-country skier with high levels of performance anxiety. In the case description, common procedures in CBT such as behavioral analysis, psychoeducation, and exposure are presented, as well as how anxiety can be managed. After the intervention the athlete perceived lower levels of anxiety as well as improved behavioral repertoire (e.g., less avoidant behaviors and more functional sport-specific behaviors). This case may be used to help practitioners consider the use of exposure in competitive sports.

  • 27.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Lundqvist, E
    Hassmén, P
    Hjälm, S
    Stress och utmattning hos elitfotbollstränare: Organisationens roll2009In: Årsbok: Svensk Idrottspsykologisk Förening / [ed] Lindwall, M., & Johnson, U, Örebro: Svensk idrottspsykologisk förening , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, S
    Mindfulnessförmågan och dess relation till affekt och stressrelaterad utmattning hos elitjuniorer2010In: Årsbok: Svensk Idrottspsykologisk Förening / [ed] Lindwall, M., & Johnson, U, Örebro: Svensk idrottspsykologisk förening , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Podlog, L
    Westin, M
    Lochbaum, M
    Werner, S
    Alricsson,
    Predictors of Hope Among Youth Swedish Downhill Skiers: The Influence of Autonomy Support, Need Satisfaction and Motivation2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Podlog, L
    Westin, M
    Lochbaum, M
    Werner, S
    Alricsson, M
    Developing Engagement Among High Performance Youth Athletes: The Role of Autonomy Support, Need Satisfaction and Motivation2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Podlog, Leslie
    University of Utah, USA.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Gymnastik och Idrottshögskolan.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Gymnastik och Idrottshögskolan.
    Positive Psychology and Elite Sport: a Potential Nurturing Relationship?2013In: The 13th European Congress of Psychology, Stockholm 9-12 July. , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Sagar, S. S.
    Leeds Beckett Univ, Fac Hlth & Social Sci, England.
    Stenling, A.
    Umeå universitet.
    Fear of failure, psychological stress, and burnout among adolescent athletes competing in high level sport2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 27, no 12, p. 2091-2102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate fear of failure in highly competitive junior athletes and the association with psychological stress and burnout. In total 258 athletes (152 males and 108 females) ranged in age from 15 to 19years (M=17.4years, SD=1.08) participated. Athletes competed in variety of sports including both team and individual sports. Results showed in a variable-oriented approach using regression analyses that one dimension, fear of experiencing shame and embarrassment had a statistically significant effect on perceived psychological stress and one dimension of burnout, reduced sense of accomplishment. However, adopting a person-oriented approach using latent class analysis, we found that athletes with high levels of fear failure on all dimensions scored high on burnout. We also found another class with high scores on burnout. These athletes had high scores on the individual-oriented dimensions of fear of failure and low scores on the other oriented fear of failure dimensions. The findings indicate that fear of failure is related to burnout and psychological stress in athletes and that this association is mainly associated with the individual-oriented dimensions of fear of failure.

  • 33.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Sandrine, Isoard-Gautheur
    1Laboratoire Sport et Environnement Social, Université de Grenoble .
    Trouilloud, David
    1Laboratoire Sport et Environnement Social, Université de Grenoble .
    Gulliet-Descas, Emma
    Centre de Recherche et d’Innovation sur le Sport, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1.
    Jowett, Sophia
    Loughborough University.
    Athlete Burnout and theCoach-Athlete relationship2013In: The 13th ISSP World congress in sport psychology, Beijing, China, June, 2013., 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Skoog, Thérese
    The mediational role of stress in the relation between optimism and burnout in competitive athletes2012In: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, ISSN 1061-5806, E-ISSN 1477-2205, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 183-199-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Skoog, Thérese
    Örebro universitet.
    Podlog, Leslie
    University of Utah.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Sweden.
    Wagnsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Hope and athlete burnout: Stress and affect as mediators2013In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 640-649Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    In this study we examined the relationship between trait hope and burnout in elite junior soccer players and whether stress and positive and negative affect mediated this relationship.

    Methods

    Participants were 238 Swedish soccer players (166 males, 71 females; one did not indicate gender) aged 15–19 years who completed questionnaires measuring trait hope, perceived stress, positive and negative affect, and athlete burnout (i.e., emotional/physical exhaustion, a reduced sense of accomplishment, and sport devaluation).

    Results

    Bivariate correlations were consistent with hope theory contentions indicating significant negative relationships between hope and all three burnout dimensions. The relationship between hope and emotional/physical exhaustion was fully mediated by stress and positive affect. For sport devaluation and reduced sense of accomplishment, stress and positive affect partially mediated the relationship with hope. In contrast, negative affect did not mediate the relationship between hope and any of the burnout dimensions.

    Conclusion

    The results support earlier findings that hope is negatively related to athlete burnout. Support was also found for the hypothesis that high hope individuals would experience less stress and therefore less burnout. Promoting hope may be relevant in reducing the likelihood of this detrimental syndrome.

  • 36.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Smith, A.L
    Hassmén, P
    Peer motivational climate and burnout perceptions of intensively sport involved adolescents2010In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, no 11, p. 453-460Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Smith, A.L
    Hassmén, P
    Hassmén, N
    Peer motivational climate and burnout perceptions in adolescent athletes2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Wagnsson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Augustsson, Christian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Föräldrar och idrott: Föräldrainitierat motivationsklimat.2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Hassmén, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholms universietet.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    Umeå universitet.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Flett, Gordon
    York University, Canada.
    Hewitt, Paul
    Ottowa University, Canada.
    Perfectionistic Cognitions and Coach Burnout.2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Hjälm, Sören
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Gymnastik och Idrottshögskolan.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Stockholms universitet.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Örebro universitet.
    Burnout in elite soccer coaches2007In: Journal of Sport Behavior, ISSN 0162-7341, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 415-427Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Isoard-Gautheur, Sandrine
    et al.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, UFRAPS, Lab SENS, Grenoble, France..
    Guillet-Descas, Emma
    Univ Lyon 1, Res & Innovat Ctr Sport, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France..
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Athlete Burnout and the Risk of Dropout Among Young Elite Handball Players2016In: The Sport psychologist, ISSN 0888-4781, E-ISSN 1543-2793, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 123-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The negative feelings that are part of burnout syndrome may prompt athletes to drop out of their sport. The objective of the current study was therefore to examine the influence of athlete burnout profiles on playing status 6 years later. The participants of this study were 458 boys and girls between 14 and 18 years old (M = 15.44; SD =.95) enrolled in elite handball training centers. Cluster analysis on athlete burnout and multinomial logistic regressions on the playing status were conducted. The results suggest that those individuals with a "higher burnout" profile at Time 1 were more likely to have stopped playing handball 6 years later. It therefore seems important to develop strategies to prevent burnout in young athletes enrolled in elite training structures and to promote long-term engagement and well-being in elite sporting activity.

  • 42.
    Isoard-Gautheur, Sandrine
    et al.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, UFR STAPS Grenoble, Lab Sport & ENvironm Social, F-38041 Grenoble 9, France..
    Trouilloud, David
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, UFR STAPS Grenoble, Lab Sport & ENvironm Social, F-38041 Grenoble 9, France..
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Guillet-Descas, Emma
    Univ Lyon 1, CRIS, Ctr Rech & Innovat Sport, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France..
    Associations between the perceived quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athlete burnout: An examination of the mediating role of achievement goals2016In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 22, p. 210-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of the current study was to examine (1) associations between the quality of the coach athlete relationship as perceived by athletes and athlete burnout and, (2) the role of achievement goals in mediating the association between the coach athlete relationship and burnout. Design: Cross-sectional. Method: 359 athletes completed measures of the perceived quality of the coach athlete relationship (the 3Cs model), achievement goals (the 2 x 2 model) and burnout (the athlete burnout model). Results: Structural equation modeling revealed negative relationships between the perceived quality of the coach athlete relationship and the three dimensions of athlete burnout (df = 118, chi(2) = 215.37, RMSEA =.05 [.04; .061, TLI = .97, CFI = .97). Moreover, results suggested that mastery-approach goals partially mediated the relationship between the coach athlete relationship and two dimensions of athlete burnout: sport devaluation (i.e., indirect and direct effects: p < .001) and reduced accomplishment (i.e., indirect and direct effects: p < .01). Conclusion: The current study confirms and broadens previous knowledge on the socio-cognitive correlates of athlete burnout by demonstrating that the level of athlete burnout is associated with the perceived quality of the relationship with the coach. Results also highlight that achievement goals partially mediate these relationships. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 43.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Halmstad högskola.
    Johnson, Urban
    Linnaeus University.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Altemyr, Mats
    Halmstad University.
    Could level and change in psychosocial stress during a 10-week period predict sport injuries in a junior elite soccer population?: A latent growth curve analysis.2014In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 366-370Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Johansson, Mattias
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Tuning the instrument: A phenomenological study of the somatic, affective and cognitive qualities of Qigong2016In: Tuning the instrument: A phenomenological study of the somatic, affective and cognitive qualities of Qigong, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Josefsson, Torbjorn
    et al.
    Halmstad University.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Halmstad University.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences (from 2013).
    Stenling, Andreas
    Boroy, Jan
    Umeå University.
    Mattsson, Emil
    Halmstad University.
    Carnebratt, Jakob
    Halmstad University.
    Sevholt, Simon
    Halmstad University.
    Falkevik, Emil
    Halmstad University.
    Mindfulness Mechanisms in Sports: Mediating Effects of Rumination and Emotion Regulation on Sport-Specific Coping2017In: Mindfulness, ISSN 1868-8527, E-ISSN 1868-8535, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 1354-1363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of the project was to examine a proposed theoretical model of mindfulness mechanisms in sports. We conducted two studies (the first study using a cross-sectional design and the second a longitudinal design) to investigate if rumination and emotion regulation mediate the relation between dispositional mindfulness and sport-specific coping. Two hundred and forty-two young elite athletes, drawn from various sports, were recruited for the cross-sectional study. For the longitudinal study, 65 elite athletes were recruited. All analyses were performed using Bayesian statistics. The path analyses showed credible indirect effects of dispositional mindfulness on coping via rumination and emotion regulation in both the cross-sectional study and the longitudinal study. Additionally, the results in both studies showed credible direct effects of dispositional mindfulness on rumination and emotion regulation. Further, credible direct effects of emotion regulation as well as rumination on coping were also found in both studies. Our findings support the theoretical model, indicating that rumination and emotion regulation function as essential mechanisms in the relation between dispositional mindfulness and sport-specific coping skills. Increased dispositional mindfulness in competitive athletes (i.e. by practicing mindfulness) may lead to reductions in rumination, as well as an improved capacity to regulate negative emotions. By doing so, athletes may improve their sport-related coping skills, and thereby enhance athletic performance.

  • 46.
    Jouper, John
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Elite Shooter Recoveredfrom Burnout: A Single Case Study2013In: The 13th ISSP World congress in sport psychology, Beijing, China, June, 2013., 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Jouper, John
    et al.
    University Orebro, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences. Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Mindful Recovery: A Case Study of a Burned-Out Elite Shooter2013In: The Sport psychologist, ISSN 0888-4781, E-ISSN 1543-2793, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 92-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on how to recover from athlete burnout is scarce. The current aim is therefore to describe an intervention with an elite shooter suffering from burnout, and the use of mindfulness and Qigong to reestablish sport functioning as well as general well-being. The participant used mindfulness and Qigong exercise on a daily basis. Exercise frequency, exercise time, concentration level and Qigong state were noted daily, and levels of stress, energy and primordial force were self-rated weekly for 20 weeks, and followed up after 30, 40 and 50 weeks. The participant recovered from burnout to a state of general well-being (energy and primordial force changed from weak to strong), and her ability to stay concentrated in a Qigong state changed from weak to strong. Her capacity to shoot high scores was reestablished, even if her shooting endurance was not fully recovered. Mindfulness and Qigong techniques may be useful in the prevention of and recovery from athlete burnout.

  • 48.
    Kenttä, Göran
    et al.
    Gymnastik och Idrottshögskolan.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Gymnastik och Idrottshögskolan.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    From working life to sporting life2013In: the 13th European Congress of Psychology, Stockholm 9-12 July. , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Klockare, Ellinor
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Davis, Paul
    UK.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Track and field athletes’ experiences and perceived effects of flotation-REST: An interpretative phenomenological analysis2015In: International Journal of Sport Psychology, ISSN 0047-0767, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 409-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has highlighted flotation-REST as a promising method for relaxation and performance enhancement in sport; however, to further evaluate the use of flotation-REST in an athletic environment, additional research is warranted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six elite track and field athletes about their experiences and perceived effects of flotation-REST. Athletes were interviewed twice; once for their immediate response and again to explore their perceptions of flotation-REST over time. The data was analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Flotation-REST was perceived as pleasant and relaxing. Five athletes reported less stress and an overall increase in well-being for one or two days afterwards, although they felt physically tired during training sessions. Being in a better mood, placing fewer demands on themselves, and feeling more optimistic and present were also perceived effects. This study shows the potential of flotation-REST as a technique for health promotion, stress management, and a means to practise mindfulness.

  • 50.
    Klockare, Ellinor
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Nordin-Bates, Sanna M.
    Trinity Laban Conservatoire Music & Dance, London, England..
    An interpretative phenomenological analysis of how professional dance teachers implement psychological skills training in practice2011In: Research in Dance Education, ISSN 1464-7893, E-ISSN 1470-1111, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 277-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine how dance teachers work with psychological skills with their students in class. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six female professional teachers in jazz, ballet and contemporary dance. The interview transcripts were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (Smith 1996). Results revealed that all teachers used psychological skills training techniques such as goal setting and imagery and worked toward the following outcomes: group cohesion, self-confidence, and anxiety management. They strove to create a task-involving climate in their classes and the students were encouraged to participate in, for instance, the goal setting process and imagery applications. The teachers also placed significant emphasis on performance preparation, evaluation, and feedback, although some found it difficult to give positive feedback. Many of the findings can be associated with contemporary theories in sport psychology. However, the dance teachers had almost no formal training in performance psychology, but had instead developed their teaching methodology through their own experiences. Further skills development and suggestions for future research are discussed.

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