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  • 1. Endres, Isabel
    et al.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre.
    Influence of Calendaring Condition on Paper Surface Characteristics: A Comparison between Hard-Nip, Soft-Nip and Extended Soft-Nip2005In: Tappi Journal, Vol. 4 no 9, 9-14,(2005)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Endres, Isabel
    et al.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre.
    Local Characterisation of Coated Paper Surface Using a Novel Technique2005Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Engstrom, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Causes of back-trap mottle in lithographic offset prints on coated papers2016In: TAPPI Journal, ISSN 0734-1415, Vol. 15, no 2, 91-101 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Back-trap mottle is a common and serious print quality problem in lithographic offset printing of coated papers. It is caused by nonuniform ink retransfer from an already printed surface when it passes through a subsequent printing nip with the print in contact with the rubber blanket in that nip. A nonuniform surface porosity gives rise to mottle. A key parameter in mottling contexts is the coating mass distribution, which must be uniform. Good relationships between mottle and mass distribution have also been reported; the mottle pattern coincides with that of the coating mass distribution. High blade pressures, compressible base papers, and high water pick-up between application and metering, which plasticizes the paper, yield uniform mass distributions, but these parameters might have a detrimental effect on the runnability in blade coating in terms of web breaks. The general opinion has been that nonuniform surface porosity is caused by binder migration and enrichment of binder in the coating surface, more in the high coat weight areas and less in the low coat weight areas. Recent research has suggested that a more probable mechanism is depletion of binder in the coating surface. Nonuniform shrinkage of the pigment matrix (filter cake) formed during the consolidation between the first critical concentration (FCC) and the second critical concentration (SCC) is another possible mechanism. Relevant relaxation times for latex and the time scales for consolidation show that the high coat weight areas shrink more than the low coat weight areas in the coating layer. A recent pilot-scale experiment has shown that the drying strategy did not affect the differences in shrinkage between high and low coat weight areas. The drying strategy has a pronounced impact on mottle. A high evaporation rate at the beginning of the evaporation results in less mottle than a low evaporation rate. The least mottle is obtained if the drying is performed with a gap in the course of evaporation between the FCC and the SCC.

  • 4. Eriksson, U.
    et al.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre.
    Rigdahl, M.
    Strukturelle und rheologische Unterschiede zwischen CMC- und stärkehaltigen Streichfarben auf Kaolinbasis1991Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5. Jäder, Jerker
    et al.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre.
    Frequency Analysis Evaluation of Basesheet Structure in a Pilot Coating Trial Using Different Thickening Systems2004In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, 19(3), 360–365 (2004)Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of dwell time and blade pressure on base sheet roughness was studied using frequency analysis. The compressibility of the base sheet and water retention of the coating colours were used to explain the changes in base sheet roughness

  • 6. Jäder, Jerker
    et al.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    An Approach to Rheological Evaluation of Dynamic Water Retention Measurements for Paper Coating Suspensions2003In: Annual Trans. Nord. Rheol. Soc., Vol. 11, S. L. Mason (ed.), pp. 145-148. (2003), 2003Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7. Jäder, Jerker
    et al.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    An Approach to Rheological Evaluation of Dynamic Water Retention Measurements for Paper Coating Suspensions2003Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8. Jäder, Jerker
    et al.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Effects of Rheology, Dewatering and Consolidation on Coating Layer Structure2005In: Professional Papermaking (published by Wochenblatt für Papierfabrikation), vo1 3 no 1, 56-61, (2005)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9. Jäder, Jerker
    et al.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Effects of Rheology, Dewatering and Consolidation on Coating Layer Structure2003Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10. Jäder, Jerker
    et al.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Extensional Viscosity of Paper Coating Suspensions studied by Converging Channel-Flow and Filament Stretching2004In: Annual Trans. Nord. Rheol. Soc., Vol. 12, 229234, (2004), 2004Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11. Jäder, Jerker
    et al.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Extensional Viscosity of Paper Coating Suspensions studied by Converging Channel-Flow and Filament Stretching2004Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12. Jäder, Jerker
    et al.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Shear-stability Testing for Shear-Induced Flocculation of Flows in Narrow Gaps2002Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13. Jäder, Jerker
    et al.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre.
    The immobilization cell revisited: Prediction of dewatering kinetics and immobilized layer properties for coating colours2003In: Nordic Pulp Paper Res.J.,18(4),.382-387(2003)Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results obtained with an immobilization cell have been compared with those from scrape-ofts on a pilot coaler. The results showed good correlation and immobilization cell has the possibility of being a valuable tool for evaluating coating colour runnability

  • 14. Jäder, Jerker
    et al.
    Willenbacher, N.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    The Influence of Extensional Properties on the Dewatering of Coating Colours2005In: J. Pulp Paper Sci., 31(4), 181-187 (2005)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15. Kjellgren, Henrik
    et al.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre.
    Influence of base paper on the barrier properties of chitosan-coated papers2006In: Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal 21 (5) pp 685-689Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A kraft paper and three greaseproof papers with different porosities were coated with chitosan to see whether the cheaper kraft paper can be used as a base paper for this coating and whether the final coated paper meets the demand for a low oxygen transmission rate. The coating was performed on a bench scale and two coat weights were applied: 3.4 and 6.0 g/m2. Besides the oxygen transmission rate, the coated material was also tested with respect to air permeance, grease resistance and water vapour transmission rate. The results showed that the coated kraft papers did not meet the demand for a low oxygen transmission rate. A lower oxygen transmission rate was obtained on the greaseproof paper with the lowest porosity, where the coating stayed on the surface and formed a continuous film without cracks. The chitosan coating gave a high grease resistance on the two densest greaseproof papers. Chitosan provided no barrier against water vapour transmission

  • 16.
    Kjellgren, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Influence of paper structure on barrier properties of starch-coated greaseproof paper2008In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, Vol. 23, no 1, 87-90 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Kjellgren, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Oxygen permeability of polyethylene-extrusion-coated greaseproof paper2008In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, Vol. 23, no 3, 272-276 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyethylene-extrusion-coated greaseproof paper exhibited significantly lower oxygen permeability than predicted from the oxygen permeability of polyethylene and greaseproof paper itself. Two mechanisms proposed for the superior oxygen permeability of polyethylene-extrusion-coated greaseproof paper were compared. 

  • 18. Kjellgren, Henrik
    et al.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre.
    The relationship between energy requirements and barrier properties in the production of greaseproof paper2005In: Tappi Journal (2005), vol. 4, no 8, pp7-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A full-scale mill trial surveyed the energy required to produce greaseproof paper. The furnishes studied were a 100% sulfite pulp and a 50/50 sulfite/sulfate pulp, refined to two freeness levels. The papers produced were then calendered at two line-loads using a soft-nip laboratory calender and tested with respect to air permeability, water vapor transmission rate, grease resistance, tear strength, and tensile strength. The least energy-demanding (beating + drying) process was that used to produce the paper from 100% sulfite pulp of low freeness. This paper exhibited approximately the same water vapor transmission rate and grease resistance as the paper made from high freeness 100% sulfite pulp. The papers produced from 50/50 sulfite/sulfate furnish exhibited poorer barrier properties. The mechanical properties of all the papers produced satisfied the specifications for standard greaseproof paper. Beating improved the barrier properties, but required additional energy. Results showed that the same or better barrier properties can be achieved with calendering or surface coating, with lower energy input. We also found that the furnish composition and beating and the calendering affected air permeability in different ways. The former affected both the pore volume fraction and the pore dimensions, while the latter mainly affected the pore volume fraction

  • 19. Kjellgren, Henrik
    et al.
    Gällstedt, M.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Barrier and Surface Properties of Chitosan Coated Greaseproof Paper2003Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Greaseproof papers of different air permeance (AP) were coated with chitosan, both on a bench scale and a pilot scale to study the conditions to obtain a packaging material with low oxygen permeability (OP) and high grease resistance. The results showed that excellent OP, in the same range as for PETP poly(polyethylene terphatalate), was obtained at coat weights exceeding 5 g/m². Also, at this coat weight excellent grease resistance were obtained. On the other hand, the coated papers did not yield any barrier against water. However, that coat weight could only be obtained on papers coated on a bench scale. On a pilot scale the maximum coat weight was 0.2 g/m². That low coat weight was due to the low solids of the coating solution used which was only 1.0%. The coating on a pilot scale was performed using metered size press technique. To increase the coat weight the solids of the solution must be increased to approximately 20%. This presupposes a considerably lower molecular mass of the chitosan than that of the product used in this study. A coating technique which allows higher coat weights might also be necessary

  • 20. Kjellgren, Henrik
    et al.
    Gällstedt, M.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Barrier and Surface Properties of Chitosan Coated Greaseproof Paper2005Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Greaseproof papers with different air permeances were coated with chitosan, both on a bench scale and on a pilot scale to study the conditions necessary to obtain a packaging material with good oxygen barrier and high grease resistance. The results showed that an oxygen transmission rate in the same range as that of poly(ethylene terephatalate) was obtained at coat weights exceeding 5 g/m². High grease resistance values were also obtained at this coat weight while water resistance was slightly deteriorated due to the hygroscopic character of chitosan. However, that coat weight could only be achieved on papers coated on a bench scale. On a pilot scale, the maximum coat weight was 0.2 g/m² because the solids content of the coating solution used was limited to 1.0 wt%. The coating on a pilot scale was performed using the metered size press technique. To increase the coat weight, the solids content of the solution must be increased considerably. A coating technique which yields higher coat weights might also be necessary.

  • 21. Kjellgren, Henrik
    et al.
    Gällstedt, M.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Barrier and Surface Properties of Chitosan Coated Greaseproof Paper2003Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22. Kjellgren, Henrik
    et al.
    Gällstedt, M.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Barrier and Surface Properties of Chitosan-Coated Greaseproof Paper2006In: Carbohydrate Polymers, 65(4) 453-460 (2006)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23. Kjellgren, Henrik
    et al.
    Gällstedt, M.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Barrier and Surface Properties of Chitosan-Coated Greaseproof Paper2003Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Larsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Vidal, D
    Zou, X
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre.
    Impact of calendering on coating structures2007In: NORDIC PULP AND PAPER RESEARCH JOURNAL 22(2): 267-274Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Larsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Vidal, D
    Zou, X
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre.
    Paper coating properties as affected by pigment blendning and calendering study2007In: TAPPI JOURNAL 6(8): 16-22Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Larsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Vidal, David
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre.
    Lepoutre, Pierre
    Zou, Xuejun
    Paper Coating Properties as Affected by Pigment Blending and Calendering: An Experimental Study2005Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Many end-use properties of coated papers can be improved by optimizing coating formula-tions, more specifically by selecting and/or blending different types of pigments and binders. Although clay and GCC, with very different particle shapes, are known to create different coating structure, it is not well understood how and why blending these pigments affects the micro-structure. In addition, since most of the coated papers are subjected to calendering, it is also important to know to which extent the structures created by pigment blending are compressed by calendering. The aim of this work was, therefore, to gain insights into how and why pigment blending affects coating pore and surface structure, before and after cal-endering. Coating colours with different blending ratios of GCC and clay were prepared with a constant level of binder and co-binder. The coatings (30 g/m2) were then applied on plastic films and calendered using a paper sheet backing beneath to account for the part of com-pression absorbed by the base paper. Mercury porosimetry was used to characterize the pore structure of the coatings, while an AFM and an interference microscope were used to characterize the surface structure at a pigment size level. The results obtained from these techniques were also compared with and complemented by measurements of gloss and op-tical properties. The results showed that synergy occurs for various coating properties when blending GCC and clay. For example, the pore volume and pore size reached a maximum value around 70% clay and 30% GCC. This confirms the predictions obtained from particle packing simulation. Synergistic effect was also observed on light scattering which is con-trolled by the coating pore structure. However, no synergy was observed for smoothness and gloss. The gloss actually reached a minimum at low clay content and this was attributed to disordering of GCC structure by clay plates. It was found that calendering significantly compressed the coating layers (up to 45% decrease in pore volume), and some of the syn-ergies created by the blending were lost after calendering. Although the pure clay coating was twice more compressed by the calendering than the pure GCC coating, the blending of clay and GCC at a wide range of ratios showed a similar extent of compression. A mecha-nism is proposed to explain the observed synergies by blending and the compression caused by calendering

  • 27. Mesic, Behudin
    et al.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre.
    Lestelius, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Water-Borne and Solvent-Based Flexographic Inks Influence on Uncovered Area and Ink Leveling on PEcoated Paperboard2008In: TAGA Journal Vol 4 2008Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28. Mesic, Behudin
    et al.
    Lestelius, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre.
    Convertability Effects on Printability of Low-Density Polyethylene-Coated Packaging Material2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29. Mesic, Behudin
    et al.
    Lestelius, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre.
    Influence of corona treatment decay on print quality in water-born flexographic printing of Low-Density Polyethylene-coated paperboard2006In: Packaging Technology and Science, 19(2), 61-70 (2006)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30. Mesic, Behudin
    et al.
    Lestelius, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre.
    Edholm, Birger
    Printability of PE-coated paperboard using water-borne inks2003Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31. Mesic, Behudin
    et al.
    Lestelius, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre.
    Edholm, Birger
    Printability of PE-coated paper-board with water-borne flexography: Effects of corona treatment and surfactants addition2005In: Pulp & Paper Canada,T 229-234,p.36-41;106:11, (2005)Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32. Mesic, Behudin
    et al.
    Lestelius, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre. Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Materials Science.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Paper Surface Centre.
    Edholm, Birger
    Printability of PE-coated paper-board with water-borne flexography: Effects of corona treatment and surfactants addition2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Ragnarsson, Micael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering. M Real, SE-89035 Husum, Sweden..
    Engstrom, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Porosity variations in coating layers - impact on back-trap mottle2013In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 28, no 2, 257-263 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A pilot coating trial was performed to study 1) whether the drying strategy introduces porosity variations in the coating layer and 2) whether porosity variations caused by the subsequent supercalendering are linked to back-trap mottle in offset prints. The porosity variations and the mean porosity were indirectly measured using a burn-out test. Coating colours were compared with three different binder systems 1) carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC)/SB-latex, 2) dextrin/SB-latex and 3) oxidized starch/SB-latex. The results showed that neither the mean porosity nor the porosity variations were affected by the drying strategies studied. During calendering the coating with the CMC/SB-latex binder system was compressed the most, but the porosity variations were nevertheless small. Both the compression and the porosity variations induced by calendering were affected by the drying strategy, which shows that the strategy had an impact on the mechanical properties of the dry coating layer. With CMC/SB-latex and dextrin/SB-latex, the mottle increased when the porosity variations introduced by the calendering increased. In the case of the oxidized starch/SB-latex, the opposite was true. It was concluded that with CMC/SB-latex and dextrin/SB-latex, print mottle is caused by calendering and with oxidized starch/SB-latex by non-uniformities introduced during dewatering and drying, possibly binder migration.

  • 34.
    Ragnarsson, Micael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Effects of the Partial Replacement of SB latex with Dextrin Starch on the Thickness Distribution of Coating Layers2008In: Tappi 2008 Advanced Coatings Fundementals Symposium Proceedings, Atlanta: Tappi press , 2008, 154-163 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A pilot coating trial has been carried out where the synthetic binder in the coating colour was partially replaced with dextrin starch. The coating thickness and the coating thickness distribution were investigated by means of burnout tests and mercury porosity measurements. The coating thickness distribution is governed by the surface profile of the base paper underneath the blade; this surface profile is controlled by the compressibility of the base paper and the blade pressure. Dewatering of the coating colours plasticises the paper and increases its compressibility; a linear relationship between dewatering and the standard deviation in the coating thickness was found for a given blade pressure. The characterization of the coating layers showed a small but measurable increase in the thickness variation for increasing starch content, which was caused by the higher water retention of the starch colours. The surface profile of the uncoated and coated paper was investigated with an optical profilometer. The data from those measurements and the coating thickness distribution investigation were used analytically to calculate the roughness change of the base paper during coating. The roughness change was found to be inversely proportional to the original base paper roughness, indicating that the rougher base paper was more compressible.

  • 35.
    Ragnarsson, Micael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Porosity Variations in Coating Layers - Impact on Back-trap MottleIn: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A pilot coating trial was performed to study 1) whether the drying strategy introduces porosity variations in the coating layer and 2) whether porosity variations caused by the subsequent supercalendering are linked to back-trap mottle in offset prints. The porosity variations and the mean porosity were indirectly measured using a burn-out test. Coating colours were compared with three different binder systems 1) carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC)/SB-latex, 2) dextrin/SB-latex and 3) oxidized starch/SB-latex. The results showed that neither the mean porosity nor the porosity variations were affected by the drying strategies studied. During calendering the coating with the CMC/SB-latex binder system was compressed the most, but the porosity variations were nevertheless small. Both the compression and the porosity variations were influenced by the drying strategy, which shows that the strategy had an impact on the mechanical properties of the dry coating layer. With CMC/SB-latex and dextrin/SB-latex, the mottle increased when the porosity variations introduced by the calendering increased. In the case of the oxidized starch/SB-latex, the opposite was true. It was concluded that with CMC/SB-latex and dextrin/SB-latex, print mottle is caused by calendering and with oxidized starch/SB-latex by non-uniformities introduced during dewatering and drying, possibly binder migration.

  • 36.
    Ragnarsson, Micael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Engstrom, Gunnar
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Shrinkage of Coating LayersIn: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shrinkage of coating layers during the process of consolidation between the first critical concentration (FCC) and the second critical concentration (SCC) has been studied. Ground calcium carbonate (GCC) grades with different particle size distributions together with binder systems based on CMC/latex, dextrin and oxidized starch were used in the formulations of the coating colors. The aim was to investigate differences in shrinkage behavior between these systems. The porosity and the pore radius of the coatings at FCC (filter cake) and SCC (final dry coating) were measured. The coating colors were rheologically characterized. It was shown that the shrinkage was governed by the capillary forces developed in the filter cake during the consolidation process. These forces were greater for dextrin than for CMC/latex and oxidized starch. This was attributed to a weaker chemical interaction between this binder and the pigment. At a given capillary pressure, the dextrin-containing coating was found to shrink more than the other two coatings. This is suggested to be due to a softer or more plastic deformable filter cake.

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