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  • 1.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ekman, Mats
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Vaccination nudges: A study of pre-booked COVID-19 vaccinations in Sweden2022Ingår i: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 309, s. 1-11, artikel-id 115248Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A nudge changes people’s actions without removing their options or altering their incentives. During the COVID-19 vaccine rollout, the Swedish Region of Uppsala sent letters with pre-booked appointments to inhabitants aged16–17 instead of opening up manual appointment booking. Using regional and municipal vaccination data, wedocument a higher vaccine uptake among 16- to 17-year-olds in Uppsala compared to untreated control regions(constructed using the synthetic control method as well as neighboring municipalities). The results highlight pre-booked appointments as a strategy for increasing vaccination rates in populations with low perceived risk.

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  • 2.
    Bonander, Carl
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ekman, Mats
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    When do default nudges work?2023Ingår i: Oxford Open Economics, E-ISSN 2752-5074, Vol. 2, artikel-id odad094Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nudging is a burgeoning topic in science and in policy, but evidence on the effectiveness of nudges among differentially incentivized groups is lacking. This paper exploits regional variations in the rollout of the Covid-19 vaccine in Sweden to examine the effect of a nudge on groups whose intrinsic incentives are different: 16- to 17-year-olds, for whom Covid-19 is not dangerous, and 50- to 59-year-olds, who face a substantial risk of death or severe disease. We find a significantly stronger response in the younger group compared with the older (11.7 vs 3.6 percentage point increase in our study period), consistent with the theory that nudges are more effective for choices that are not meaningful to the individual.

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  • 3.
    Ekman, Mats
    Hanken School of Economics, FIN.
    A coasian solution to problems of initial acquisitions2017Ingår i: Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics, E-ISSN 1876-9098, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 45-60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article extends the Coase Conjecture to ethical issues of initial acquisitions of property rights. The Coase Conjecture complements the Lockean labour-mixing criterion to limit the boundaries of morally legitimate initial acquisitions of unowned property; whenever the Coase Conjecture applies, the Lockean Proviso that there be "enough and as good" left is automatically satisfied. This holds provided that, when a claim is made, the marginal willingness to pay for the last portion of it is zero (infra-marginally, willingness to pay may be arbitrarily high). Thus, the market price of the claim is zero, except for the part of it that the claimant inhabits or improves. "Excessive" claims therefore come to have a zero market price, so anyone may take possession of them, by purchase or theft. In either case they must compensate the original claimant by a zero amount. It follows that non-claimants do not lose by putatively "excessive" grabs by claimants. This article argues that any initial claims are just under these circumstances.

  • 4.
    Ekman, Mats
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Advance voting and political competition2022Ingår i: Constitutional Political Economy, ISSN 1043-4062, E-ISSN 1572-9966, Vol. 33, nr 1, s. 53-66Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper appears to be the first to analyse political campaign incentives when the electorate vote at different moments before Election Day, a phenomenon known as early or advance voting. Many jurisdictions accommodate such voting by accepting mail-in ballots or by opening polling places before Election Day. Since politicians can thereby add campaign promises while citizens vote, they have an incentive to add promises valued by late-voting segments as Election Day approaches. This implies that early-voting segments of the electorate will pay higher taxes and receive lower transfers than had been announced when they voted. Late-voting segments benefit.

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  • 5.
    Ekman, Mats
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Buildings and Welfare2022Ingår i: Rationality and Society, ISSN 1043-4631, E-ISSN 1461-7358, Vol. 34, nr 4, s. 526-547Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    If welfare stigma depends upon social attitudes, only the neediest apply for welfare when they can more easily be seen to do so. Using GoogleMaps' 'StreetView' feature, this article finds that the approval rate of applications for social assistance is higher in welfare offices with building characteristics that enhance the visibility of entry. A fitting explanation for this finding is that persons looking for social assistance dislike being thought of as 'welfare cases', and apply more conservatively when others can see it. The effects decline in the rate of poverty, suggesting that the self-reliance norm weakens as poverty increases.

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  • 6.
    Ekman, Mats
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013). Hanken School of Economics, FIN.
    Puzzling evidence on voter turnout2017Ingår i: Rationality and Society, ISSN 1043-4631, E-ISSN 1461-7358, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 449-470Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this empirical analysis of voting patterns in five countries on days when one or more national referenda were held, voter turnout appears to decline in the number of concurrent referenda, in contrast to standard theories' predictions and regardless of method used to hold constant the quality of the referenda. Multiple concurrent referenda imply quantity discounts' as one may vote on more ballots in one visit to the polling station. They should also draw more voters due to the wider range of interests attracted when more issues are up for vote. Yet, none of this seems to happen in the data. More recent developments, such as rule utilitarian and information-based theories of voting, fare similarly poorly in light of the evidence presented in this article; a social theory of voting does better.

  • 7.
    Ekman, Mats
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Jakobsson, Niklas
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    The impact of earlier pub closing hours on emergency calls to the police during the COVID-19 pandemic in Sweden2024Ingår i: Addiction Research and Theory, ISSN 1606-6359, E-ISSN 1476-7392, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. 138-142Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    On 20 November 2020, the government of Sweden banned on-premise alcohol sales after 10:30 p.m. and then after 8 p.m. on December 24. This study aims to estimate the impact of earlier pub closing hours on emergency calls to the police. We use a quasi-experimental hybrid differences-in-differences design, drawing on data for emergency calls in Sweden. The primary outcome measure is the daily number of emergency calls to the police in Sweden 70 days before the intervention and 70 days after the intervention. The primary control series is the daily number of emergency calls to the police in Sweden during the preceding year, 70 days before the intervention and 70 days after the intervention. We fail to find an effect on daily emergency calls, or nighttime emergency calls to the police, from the restrictions on the sale of alcohol. There is, however, some evidence indicating that weekend emergency calls may have been affected, but that potential effect does not translate into an overall effect. While our study is limited in its focus, it contributes to using a wide range of time windows and a large geographical area (the whole of Sweden) to inform on displacement effects, as well as in considering a broader set of robustness checks. We suggest that our results and future work should be seen in light of our limitations and our contribution, respectively.

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