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  • 1.
    Jansson, Håkan
    et al.
    Gothenburg University.
    Johansson Kokkinakis, Sofie
    Gothenburg University.
    Ribeck, Judy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Sköldberg, Emma
    Gothenburg University.
    A Swedish Academic Word List: Methods and Data2012In: Proceedings of the 15th EURALEX International Congress / [ed] Ruth Vatvedt Fjeld & Julie Matilde Torjusen, Oslo: University of Oslo , 2012, p. 555-560Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Academic language often presents a challenge to students, both language learners and native speakers. Therefore there is a need for educational language tools such as academic vocabulary resources. To date, resources developed have mainly focussed on learners of English; similar support is not yet available for Swedish. This paper reports on three different approaches to compiling a corpus of authentic academic text material used in academic settings. The purpose is to compose an empirical basis for the construction of a Swedish academic word list which can be used in language teaching. Because we have chosen to follow the method used for the creation of The Academic Word List (Coxhead 2000), the corpus content is crucial to the final content of our word list.

  • 2.
    Ribeck, Judy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013). Göteborgs universitet.
    Automatically identifying typical vocabulary in Swedish textbooks in the natural sciences2016In: ECER 2016, Leading Education: The Distinct Contributions of Educational Research and Researchers, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to functional linguistic theory, the acquisition of knowledge and that of language are parallel phenomena (see for example Halliday 1985). At the same time, different subjects and disciplines have developed their own ways to describe the world, to construe meaning and their own linguistic means to exploit and present this knowledge. As concluded by Ribeck and Borin (in press) within the field of Swedish textbook studies, subjects cannot be generalized with respects to lexical features. Sadly, both Nordic and international studies have indicated that subject-specific linguistic distinctions rarely are made explicit to the students (Chandler 1995, Dysthe et al. 2006). A direct consequence of this situation is that students often perceive form level transitions as ‘’discoursal shocks’’ (Ask 2005). To prevent language related traumas from occurring and to instead be able to offer well-informed and adequate linguistic support to students, the school needs to be more aware of specific linguistic demands at different form levels. Altogether there seems to be an undisputed call for subject-specific language studies.

    My poster presentation will be of a study that constitutes a subset of my newly published dissertation in natural language processing within the field of subject-specific language. The overall purpose of my thesis is to account for subject-specific grammatical features on the educational levels of the Swedish secondary and upper secondary school. This undertaking includes identification of typical linguistic patterns related to vocabulary, phraseology and syntax. I am also interested in describing the linguistic progression in the textbooks from different subjects, from secondary school textbooks, though upper secondary school textbooks, up to academic (university-level) texts.

    In my poster presentation, I intend to focus the lexical inventory part of this task, which includes automatic identification of core-vocabulary with subject-specific usages. I will show examples of index lists over vocabulary extracted from a corpus of 5.2 million words originating from Swedish secondary and upper secondary textbooks in the natural sciences, social sciences and mathematics. The linguistic investigation focuses on features in the natural sciences, i.e., biology, physics and chemistry, and textbooks from other disciplines are mainly included for comparative purposes. Besides internally comparing the textbook registers from different disciplines to one another, the textbooks in natural science are also compared to reference corpora, comprising narrative and academic texts.

    Method

    My work describes a quantitative procedure for characterizing the register of Swedish textbooks in natural sciences, i.e. from the subject fields of biology, chemistry and physics. The method is corpus-based and uses tools from language technology to automatically produce, what I call, index lists. This empirical, corpus-based method relies on automatic linguistic annotations produced by language technology tools to calculate what I call index lists, rank-ordered lists of characteristic linguistic features of specific text corpora as compared to reference texts. The idea of such lists originates from the project to develop an academic word list for Swedish (Ribeck et al. 2014). I produce index lists for typical vocabulary, extracted from a 5.2 million word textbook corpus. As well as being frequent and well dispersed, the linguistic variables selected for the index lists are also characteristic of the text type in question, as is evident when they are compared to a reference corpus, comprising textbooks in the social sciences and mathematics, as well as narrative and academic texts.

    Expected Outcomes

    The results show that textbooks in natural science contain a lot of content-specific, technical vocabulary. This characteristic not only distinguishes natural scientific language from everyday language, but also from social scientific language, which on the lexical level has more in common with narrative texts. In the transition between secondary and upper secondary school, there is an evident increase in linguistic demands on the readers. In the upper secondary textbooks the words are longer and the vocabulary more varied. Notably, the linguistic development between the form levels is more marked in the natural-science textbooks, compared to social sciences and mathematics. Nevertheless, the textbook language overall shows a relatively low lexical complexity in comparison to academic language. To this day, the Swedish curriculum lacks explicit descriptions of the expected linguistic progression in relation to different subjects and form levels. With my results I make an empiric contribution to the theoretical foundation on how the language in natural science is construed in Swedish educational context. My wish is that my study will give educational researchers, language instructors and other educationists, who actively work to support students' development of subject-specific linguistic competence, the basis for further discussion on how an effective development of language teaching should be designed. I also hope that presenting this study to educational researchers from other countries will inspire them to conduct similar linguistic investigations of texts that students in their country need to master during their years of schooling.

    References

    Ask, Sofia 2005. Tillgång till framgång. Lärare och studenter om stadieövergången till högre utbildning. Växjö: University of Växjö, Department of arts.

    Chandler, Daniel 1995. The act of writing. A media theory approach. Aberystwyth: University of Wales.

    Dysthe, Olga, Siri Breistein, Jens Kjeldsen and Liv Ingeborg Lied 2006. Studentperspektiv på rettleiing. Dysthe, Olga and Akylina Samara (eds.), Forskningsveiledning på master- og doktorgradsnivå, 207–227. Oslo: Abstrakt Forlag.

    Halliday, Michael Alexander Kirkwood 1985. An introduction to functional grammar. London: Edward Arnold Ltd.

    Ribeck, Judy and Lars Borin 2014. Lexical bundles in Swedish secondary school textbooks. Human language technology challenges for computer science and linguistics. Lecture notes in computer science, 238–249. Berlin: Springer International Publishing.

    Ribeck, Judy, Håkan Jansson and Emma Sköldberg 2014. Från aspekt till övergripande – en ordlista över svensk akademisk vobabulär. Vatvedt Fjeld, Rut and Marit Hovdenak (eds.), Nordiska studier i lexikografi 12. Rapport från konferensen om lexikografi i Norden, August 2013. Oslo, 370-384.

  • 3.
    Ribeck, Judy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Do Scandinavian dictionaries take a stand on language policy?2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Danish dictionary, the Norwegian Academy’s dictionary and the Swedish Academy glossary constitute central linguistic Scandinavian works of reference. However, users often want to check if a word really 'exists', and view the words included as approved by authorities.  Modern lexicography, however, builds on instances in major corpora.

    In Sweden, a debate on the use and the political connotations of the gender neutral pronoun 'hen' started in 2012 (e.g. Milles 2011, Ledin 2012, Parkvall 2012, Sabuni 2012, Språkrådet 2015, Språktidningen 2016). In 2015, however, the word 'hen' was used sufficiently for inclusion in the Swedish Academy glossary. The new edition was launched under the heading, 'Hen is here now', which ended the debate. Presently, the pronoun is relatively neutral in Sweden.

    High status dictionaries are doubtless political actors in a language community. What is the responsibility of the glossary editors? Would a representative corpus be a solution to linguicism?

  • 4.
    Ribeck, Judy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013). University of Gothenburg.
    Identifying Lexical Bundles in Secondary School Textbooks2011In: Proceedings of the 5th Language & Technology Conference: Human Language Technologies as a Challenge for Computer Science and Linguists / [ed] Xygmunt Vetualani, 2011, p. 202-206Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes the process of identifying lexical bundles, i.e. frequently recurring word sequences such as by means of and in the end of, in secondary school textbooks of history and physics. In its determination of finding genuine lexical bundles, i.e. the word boundaries between lexical bundles and surrounding arbitrary words, it proposes a new approach to come to terms with the problem of extracting overlapping bundles of different lengths. The results show that surprisingly few bundles are common to both subjects. The structural distribution across the subjects indicates that history uses more NP/PP-based and less dependent-clause-based bundles than physics. The comparative analysis manages to restrict this difference to the referential function. History almost only refers to phrases, i.e. within clauses, while physics much more tends to make references across clauses.

  • 5.
    Ribeck, Judy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013). Göteborgs universitet.
    Introducing index lists as a tool for identifying typical linguistic features of specialized registers: With examples from Swedish textbooks in Natural Sciences2015In: 13th International Conference on Textbooks and Educational Media, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both Nordic and international studies have indicated that subject-specific linguistic distinctions rarely are made explicit to students (chandler, 1995; dysthe et al., 2006). To be able to offer students adequate support, we need to be more knowledgeable of specific linguistic demands at different form levels. This calls for large-scale subject-specific empi-rical language studies.

    My work describes a quantitative procedure for characterizing the register of Swedish text-books in natural sciences, i.e. from the subject fields of biology, chemistry and physics. The method is corpus-based and uses tools from language technology to automatically produce, what I call, index lists, i.e. lists of salient features of specialized language. The idea of such lists originates from the project to develop an academic word list for Swedish (riBecK et al., 2014). This method, which originally focused purely on lexical items, i.e. words, has been adjusted in order to also extract variables on the phraseological and syntactic levels of language.

    In my presentation I will show examples of index lists over vocabulary, nominal phrases and syntactic structures, extracted from a corpus of 5 million words originating from Swedish secondary and upper secondary textbooks in natural science.

  • 6.
    Ribeck, Judy
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013). Göteborgs universitet.
    Naturvetenskapliga läroböcker ställer höga språkliga krav på eleverna2016Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Ribeck, Judy
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Steg för steg. Naturvetenskapligt ämnesspråk som räknas2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, I present a linguistic investigation of the language of Swedish textbooks in the natural sciences, i.e., biology, physics and chemistry. The textbooks, which are used in secondary and upper secondary school, are examined with respect to traditional readability measures, e.g., LIX, OVIX and nominal ratio. I also extract typical linguistic features of the texts, typicality being determined using a proposed quantitative method, labelled the index principle. This empirical, corpus-based method relies on automatic linguistic annotations produced by language technology tools to calculate what I call index lists, rank-ordered lists of characteristic linguistic features of specific text corpora as compared to reference texts. I produce index lists for typical vocabulary, noun phrase structures and syntactic structures, extracted from a 5.2 million word textbook corpus, compiled as a part of the work presented. As well as being frequent and well dispersed, the linguistic variables selected for the index lists are also characteristic of the text type in question, as is evident when they are compared to a reference corpus, comprising textbooks in the social sciences and mathematics, as well as narrative and academic (university-level) texts. The results show that textbooks in natural science contain a lot of content-specific, technical vocabulary. This characteristic not only distinguishes natural scientific language from everyday language, but also from social scientific language, which on the lexical level has more in common with narrative texts. On the other hand, the textbook language as a whole is structurally distinguishable from narrative texts, as clearly seen, e.g., in its noun phrase complexity. In the transition between secondary and upper secondary school, the scores of almost every readability measure go up, indicating an increase in linguistic demands on the readers. In the upper secondary textbooks the words are longer, the vocabulary more varied, the noun phrases longer and more elaborate, and the most typical syntactic structures more complex. Notably, the linguistic development between the form levels is more marked in the natural-science textbooks, compared to social sciences and mathematics. Nevertheless, the textbook language overall shows a relatively low complexity in comparison to academic language.

  • 8.
    Ribeck, Judy
    et al.
    Gothenburg University.
    Borin, Lars
    Gothenburg University.
    Lexical Bundles in Swedish Secondary School Textbooks2014In: HUMAN LANGUAGE TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGES FOR COMPUTER SCIENCE AND LINGUISTICS / [ed] Zygmunt Vetulani, Joseph Mariani, Cham: Springer, 2014, Vol. 8387, p. 238-249Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper describes the process of identifying lexical bundles, i.e., frequently recurring word sequences such as by means of and in the end of, in secondary school history and physics textbooks. In its determination of finding genuine lexical bundles, i.e. the word boundaries between lexical bundles and surrounding arbitrary words, it proposes a new approach to come to terms with the problem of extracting overlapping bundles of different lengths. The results of the structural classification indicate that history uses more NP/PP-based and less dependent-clause-based bundles than physics. The comparative analysis manages to restrict this difference to the referential function. History almost only refers to phrases, i.e. within clauses, while physics much more tends to make references across clauses. The article also includes a report on an extension of the study, ongoing work where the automatic identification of multi-word expressions in general is in focus.

  • 9.
    Ribeck, Judy
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies (from 2013).
    Dyrvold, Anneli
    Uppsala university.
    Subject Language in mathematics textbooks: Verbal text fragments supplemented by other semiotic resources2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different subjects have developed their own ways to construe meaning. To be able to convey the message, specific linguistic means are used in particular ways depending on the subject. The subject language in mathematics is characterized by the utilization of verbal language together with the semiotic resources mathematical notation and images. Each semiotic resource contribute to different functions of language and one resource can modulate the meaning made by another resource. Thus, adding one semiotic resource enhances the affordances of the other, a phenomenon referred to as meaning multiplication(e.g., Lemke, 1998). The intricacy of how the semiotic resources can be used together is indeed an asset, but at the same time this intricacy increases the demand on the reader. There are several reasons why students of mathematics must appropriate the subject language and learn to read mathematics. For example, language not only determines what is possible to communicate within a subject, but also modulates the way we think (e.g., Pederson, Danziger, Wilkins, Levinson, Kita, & Senft, 1998). In addition, texts with multiple semiotic resources are an important means to enhance students’ conceptual knowledge (e.g., Kilpatrick, Swafford, & Findell, 2001). 

    Important contributions have been made to characterize the subject language in mathematics (e.g., Morgan & Tang, 2016; O'Halloran, 2005), but much is still unknown or needs further analysis. There are also features about the subject language in mathematics that are taken for true, but for which the empirical evidence is weak (Österholm, & Bergqvist, 2013). Since knowledge about the particular features of a subject language is a prerequisite for teaching the subject, there is a need to develop our understanding about how we communicate in mathematics to solidify the basis on which language-conscious mathematics teaching must be built. 

    One distinguishing feature of printed mathematics texts is the mixture of mathematical notation and words, even in short fragments of text (Ribeck, 2015). In this study, we aim at characterizing the subject language in mathematics by linguistically analysing such verbal text fragments(hereafter referred to as VTFs), sorting out how the totality of semiotic resources interact to make the message complete. The categories taken into account in the analysis concern information structure (i.e. Theme and Rheme) and semantic roles (i.e. Participant, Process and Circumstance). In line with this focus, the following research questions are posed:

     

    RQ 1) What characterizes VTFsin mathematics textbooks regarding their linguistic content?

    RQ 2) What role do VTFs and the semiotic resources mathematical notationand imagestake in relation to each other to make the message complete?

    The analysis of relations between the different semiotic resources is based on a functional perspective on language, with a particular focus on means that are used to create a mental representation of reality. Royce’s (2007) framework for intersemiotic complementarity between the semantic categories ProcessParticipantand Circumstance is used. Intersemiotic complementarity is a concept that catches how the means of different semiotic resources in a text interact to provide a coherent message. Since mathematical notation is an important resource in mathematics texts the framework is modified to include also mathematical notation (cf. Dyrvold, 2016). In addition, we use the notion of Theme and Rheme (Halliday 1994), which is seen as crucial to the organisation and construal of meaning from a reader’s perspective.

    Method

    The data used in this study builds upon previous results from Ribeck (2015), where VTFs are automatically extracted from a corpus of 5.2 million words originating from Swedish secondary and upper secondary textbooks. For every word in the VTFs, a parser has added information about part of speech and syntactic function. In the current study these VTFs are analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. Two different analyses are conducted, each relating to one research question. The first step aims at identifying the most common types of VTFs. Here, the VTFs are coded and analysed for their linguistic characteristics. This quantitative analysis will reveal patterns among the VTFs as to what information they convey. In the next step, the common VTFs that have been identified are analysed in relation to the other semiotic resources. The focus is laid on how meaning is construed around Themes and Rhemes and the means used to obtain cohesion between Participants, Processes and Circumstances represented by the different semiotic resources. In the analysis of the thematic progression between Themes and Rhemes (see e.g., Danes, 1974) the role of the VTFs is taken as the starting point for the message that is construed in the text. Thereafter, the roles of all semiotic resources are included in the analysis to describe the information structure throughout the text. The analysis of cohesion between Participants, Processes and Circumstances is bidirectional; first potential cohesive relations to other semiotic resources indicated by the VTFs are analysed, second the content represented by the other semiotic resources are analysed in relation to the VTFs.

    Expected Outcomes

    This study is expected to contribute knowledge about a particular feature that distinguishes the mathematical subject language from other subject languages in natural and social sciences, namely its substantial share of VTFs (cf. Ribeck, 2015). The utilization of two different analyses enables us to elucidate the subject language of mathematics from different point of views. It may be argued that verbal language in multimodal texts only makes sense in their context, and consequently is not meaningful to analyse separately. However, the VTFs are present in the textbooks and the reader needs an understanding of their textual function. Thus, we argue that a deepened understanding of the separate semiotic resources is a necessary first step towards understanding the intricacy in how they together construe subject-specific meaning. The analysis of the role of the VTFs in relation to the other semiotic resources is expected to offer a rich understanding of a crucial characteristic of the subject language in mathematics, namely how the semiotic resources complement each other. The combination of resources may either be necessary for a particular message or redundant to each other, something that will be highlighted by the bidirectional analysis. The results will contribute to characterize the subject language in mathematics, which is necessary to plan and implement teaching that strengthen students’ language competence.

    References

    Danes, F. (1974). Functional Sentence Perspective and the organization of the text. In F. Danes (ed.). Papers on Functional Sentence Perspective, (pp.106-28). The Hague: Mouton. Dyrvold, A. (submitted and preprint). Relations between various semiotic resources in mathematics tasks – a possible source of students’ difficulties. In Dyrvold, A. (2016). Difficult to read or difficult to solve? The role of natural language and other semiotic resources in mathematics tasks. Diss. Umeå universitet: institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik. Halliday, M.A.K. (1994) An introduction to functional grammar. 2nd ed. London: Edward Arnold. Kilpatrick, J., Swafford, J., & Findell, B. (2001). Adding it up: Helping children learn mathematics. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Lemke, J. L. (1998). Multiplying Meaning: Visual and verbal semiotics in scientific text In J. R. Martin & R. Veel (Eds.), Reading Science (pp. 87-113). London: Routledge Morgan, C. & Tang, S. (2016). To what extent are students expected to participate in specialised mathematical discourse? Change over time in school mathematics in England, Research in Mathematics Education, 18:2, 142-164, doi: 10.1080/14794802.2016.1174145 O'Halloran, K. (2005). Mathematical Discourse: Language, symbolism and visual images. London: Continuum. Pederson, E., Danziger, E. Wilkins, D., Levinson, S., Kita, S., & Senft, G. (1998). Semantic typology and spatial conceptualization. Language, Vol. 74, No. 3 (Sep., 1998), pp. 557-589 Published by: Linguistic Society of America. Royce, T.D. (2007). Intersemiotic Complementarity: A framework for multimodal discourse analysis. In Royce, T. & W. Bowcher, New Directions in the Analysis of Multimodal Discourse, New York: Routledge, 2007, pp. 63-109 Ribeck, J. (2015). Step by step. A computational analysis of Swedish textbook language. Diss. University of Gothenburg: Department of Swedish. Österholm, M. & Bergqvist, E. (2013) What is so special about mathematical texts? Analyses of common claims in research literature and of properties of textbooks. ZDM ‐ The International Journal on Mathematics Education, 45 (5), 751‐763.

  • 10.
    Ribeck, Judy
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jansson, Håkan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson Kokkinakis, Sofie
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Prentice, Julia
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Carlund, Carina
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    An academic word list for Swedish: a support for language learners in higher education2012In: Proceedings of the SLTC 2012: workshop on NLP for CALL, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012, Vol. 80, p. 20-27Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes the ongoing development of compiling and introducing a Swedish academic word list (SAWL), inter alia intended to be used as a lexical resource in CALL-applications in relation to higher academic studies. When it comes to language acquisition, resources like these play an important part in instructed language learning. So far, no such resource exists for Swedish. The format of SAWL has been elaborated in collaboration with the Language Support Service at the University of Gothenburg. SAWL is compiled with methods from corpus linguistics inspired by research on English academic words (Coxhead 2002). Our work includes collection and syntactic annotation of learner corpora of Swedish academic texts from a wide range of university subjects within the Faculty of Arts. The corpora are freely accessible through Språkbanken. SAWL are designed with university students and language learners with Swedish or other linguistic backgrounds in mind. The word list and the corpora can be used for studies of one’s own or in classroom situations, as well as forming a component of computer computerbased language assessment and CALLrelated application platforms.

  • 11.
    Ribeck, Judy
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Jansson, Håkan
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Sköldberg, Emma
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Från aspekt till övergripande: en ordlista över svensk akademisk vokabulär2014In: Nordiske studier i leksikografi 12: Rapport fra Konferense om leksikografi i Norden Oslo 13. - 16. august 2013 / [ed] R. Vatvedt Fjeld & M. Hovdenak, Nordisk forening for leksikografi , 2014, Vol. 13, p. 370-384, article id 978-82-7099-763-3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes a project to develop an academic word list for Swedish. The resulting word list is published at . It comprises 655 headwords, extracted from a 25 million word corpus of Swedish academic texts. Both the word list and the corpus are openly accessible through Språkbanken’s lexical and corpus infrastructures.

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