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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Bestoun S.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    An Automated Testing Framework For Smart TVapps Based on Model Separation2020In: IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops (ICSTW), IEEE Computer Society, 2020, p. 62-73Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart TV application (app) is a new technological software app that can deal with smart TV devices to add more functionality and features. Despite its importance nowadays, far too little attention has been paid to present a systematic approach to test this kind of app so far. In this paper, we present a systematic model-based testing approach for smart TV app. We used our new notion of model separation to use sub-models based on the user preference instead of the exhaustive testing to generate the test cases. Based on the constructed model, we generated a set of test cases to assess the selected paths to the chosen destination in the app. We also defined new mutation operators for smart TV app to assess our testing approach. The evaluation results showed that our approach can generate more comprehensive models of smart TV apps with less time as compared to manual exploratory testing. The results also showed that our approach can generate effective test cases in term of fault detection.

  • 2.
    Ahmed, Bestoun S.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Avocado: Open-Source Flexible ConstrainedInteraction Testing for Practical Application2020In: IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops (ICSTW), IEEE Computer Society, 2020, p. 185-190Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the outcome of a research collaboration between academia and industry to implement and utilize the capabilities of constrained interaction testing for an open-source tool for industrial-scale application. The project helps promote flexibility in generating constrained interaction test suites, executing them, and setting up a test oracle to report them–all within the same tool called Avocado. Avocado employs a constraint solver with computational algorithms to generate constrained interaction test suites. The environment of the application under test can be set up to execute the generated test suite with minimum effort. A test oracle can be set up by the tool to report the status and the results of the executed test cases. Avocado represents a comprehensive and flexible solution for conducting combinatorial interaction testing (CIT) and constrained CIT on an industrial application. In this paper, we present the structure of the tool and our method of implementing the algorithms in detail.

  • 3.
    Ahmed, Bestoun S.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Open-source Defect Injection Benchmark Testbedfor the Evaluation of Testing2020In: IEEE 13th International Conference on Software Testing, Validation and Verification (ICST), IEEE Computer Society, 2020, p. 442-447Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A natural method to evaluate the effectiveness of a testing technique is to measure the defect detection rate when applying the created test cases. Here, real or artificial software defects can be injected into the source code of software. For a more extensive evaluation, injection of artificial defects is usually needed and can be performed via mutation testing using code mutation operators. However, to simulate complex defects arising from a misunderstanding of design specifications, mutation testing might reach its limit in some cases. In this paper, we present an open-source benchmark testbed application that employs a complement method of artificial defect injection. The application is compiled after artificial defects are injected into its source code from predefined building blocks. The majority of the functions and user interface elements are covered by creating front-end-based automated test cases that can be used in experiments.

  • 4.
    Ahmed, Bestoun S.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Bures, Miroslav
    Czech Technical University, Czech Republic.
    EvoCreeper: Automated Black-Box Model Generation for Smart TV Applications2019In: IEEE transactions on consumer electronics, ISSN 0098-3063, E-ISSN 1558-4127, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 160-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract—Smart TVs are coming to dominate the televisionmarket. This accompanied by an increase in the use of the smartTV applications (apps). Due to the increasing demand, developersneed modeling techniques to analyze these apps and assess theircomprehensiveness, completeness, and quality. In this paper, wepresent an automated strategy for generating models of smartTV apps based on a black-box reverse engineering. The strategycan be used to cumulatively construct a model for a given app byexploring the user interface in a manner consistent with the use ofa remote control device and extracting the runtime information.The strategy is based on capturing the states of the user interfaceto create a model during runtime without any knowledge ofthe internal structure of the app. We have implemented ourstrategy in a tool called EvoCreeper. The evaluation results showthat our strategy can automatically generate unique states anda comprehensive model that represents the real user interactionswith an app using a remote control device. The models thusgenerated can be used to assess the quality and completeness ofsmart TV apps in various contexts, such as the control of otherconsumer electronics in smart houses.

  • 5.
    Ahmed, Bestoun S.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Bures, Miroslav
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague.
    Frajtak, Karel
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague.
    Cerny, Tomas
    Baylor University, Waco.
    Aspects of Quality in Internet of Things (IoT) Solutions: A Systematic Mapping Study2019In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 13758-13780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging technology that has the promising power to change our future. Due to the market pressure, IoT systems may be released without sufficient testing. However, it is no longer acceptable to release IoT systems to the market without assuring the quality. As in the case of new technologies, the quality assurance process is a challenging task. This paper shows the results of the first comprehensive and systematic mapping study to structure and categories the research evidence in the literature starting in 2009 when the early publication of IoT papers for IoT quality assurance appeared. The conducted research is based on the most recent guidelines on how to perform systematic mapping studies. A set of research questions is defined carefully regarding the quality aspects of the IoT. Based on these questions, a large number of evidence and research papers is considered in the study (478 papers). We have extracted and analyzed different levels of information from those considered papers. Also, we have classified the topics addressed in those papers into categories based on the quality aspects. The study results carry out different areas that require more work and investigation in the context of IoT quality assurance. The results of the study can help in a further understanding of the research gaps. Moreover, the results show a roadmap for future research directions.

  • 6.
    Ahmed, Bestoun S.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Eduard, Enoiu
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Wasif, Afzal
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Kamal Z, Zamli
    University Malaysia Pahang, Pekan, Malaysia.
    An evaluation of Monte Carlo-based hyper-heuristic for interaction testing of industrial embedded software applications2020In: Soft Computing - A Fusion of Foundations, Methodologies and Applications, ISSN 1432-7643, E-ISSN 1433-7479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyper-heuristic is a new methodology for the adaptive hybridization of meta-heuristic algorithms to derive a general algorithm for solving optimization problems. This work focuses on the selection type of hyper-heuristic, called the exponential Monte Carlo with counter (EMCQ). Current implementations rely on the memory-less selection that can be counterproductive as the selected search operator may not (historically) be the best performing operator for the current search instance. Addressing this issue, we propose to integrate the memory into EMCQ for combinatorial t-wise test suite generation using reinforcement learning based on the Q-learning mechanism, called Q-EMCQ. The limited application of combinatorial test generation on industrial programs can impact the use of such techniques as Q-EMCQ. Thus, there is a need to evaluate this kind of approach against relevant industrial software, with a purpose to show the degree of interaction required to cover the code as well as finding faults. We applied Q-EMCQ on 37 real-world industrial programs written in Function Block Diagram (FBD) language, which is used for developing a train control management system at Bombardier Transportation Sweden AB. The results show that Q-EMCQ is an efficient technique for test case generation. Addition- ally, unlike the t-wise test suite generation, which deals with the minimization problem, we have also subjected Q-EMCQ to a maximization problem involving the general module clustering to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. The results show the Q-EMCQ is also capable of outperforming the original EMCQ as well as several recent meta/hyper-heuristic including modified choice function, Tabu high-level hyper-heuristic, teaching learning-based optimization, sine cosine algorithm, and symbiotic optimization search in clustering quality within comparable execution time.

  • 7.
    Ahmed, Bestoun S.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). Czech Technical University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Gargantini, Angelo
    University of Bergamo, Italy.
    Zamli, Kamal Z.
    University Malaysia Pahang, Pahang, Malaysia.
    Yilmaz, Cemal
    Sabanci University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Bures, Miroslav
    Czech Technical University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Szeles, Marek
    Czech Technical University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Code-Aware Combinatorial Interaction Testing2019In: IET Software, ISSN 1751-8806, E-ISSN 1751-8814, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 600-609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combinatorial interaction testing (CIT) is a useful testing technique to address the interaction of input parameters in software systems. In many applications, the technique has been used as a systematic sampling technique to sample the enormous possibilities of test cases. In the last decade, most of the research activities focused on the generation of CIT test suites as it is a computationally complex problem. Although promising, less effort has been paid for the application of CIT. In general, to apply the CIT, practitioners must identify the input parameters for the Software-under-test (SUT), feed these parameters to the CIT tool to generate the test suite, and then run those tests on the application with some pass and fail criteria for verification. Using this approach, CIT is used as a black-box testing technique without knowing the effect of the internal code. Although useful, practically, not all the parameters having the same impact on the SUT. This paper introduces a different approach to use the CIT as a gray-box testing technique by considering the internal code structure of the SUT to know the impact of each input parameter and thus use this impact in the test generation stage. We applied our approach to five reliable case studies. The results showed that this approach would help to detect new faults as compared to the equal impact parameter approach.

  • 8.
    Ahmed, Bestoun S.
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Pahim, Amador
    Red Hat Czech s.r.o., Brno, Czech Republic .
    Rosa Junior, Cleber R
    Red Hat, Inc., Westford, USA .
    Kuhn, D. Richard
    Natl Inst of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, USA .
    Bures, Miroslav
    Dept of Computer Science, Czech Technical Univ, Prague, Czech Republic .
    Towards an Automated Unified Framework to Run Applications for Combinatorial Interaction Testing2019In: EASE '19 Proceedings of the Evaluation and Assessment on Software Engineering, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2019, p. 252-258Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combinatorial interaction testing (CIT) is a well-known technique,but the industrial experience is needed to determine its effectivenessin different application domains. We present a case study introducinga unified framework for generating, executing and verifyingCIT test suites, based on the open-source Avocado test framework.In addition, we present a new industrial case study to demonstratethe effectiveness of the framework. This evaluation showed thatthe new framework can generate, execute, and verify effective combinatorialinteraction test suites for detecting configuration failures(invalid configurations) in a virtualization system.

  • 9.
    Bures, Miroslav
    et al.
    Czech Technical University, Czech Republic.
    Ahmed, Bestoun S.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). Czech Technical University, Czech Republic.
    Employment of multiple algorithms for optimal path-based test selection strategy2019In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 114, p. 21-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context

    Executing various sequences of system functions in a system under test represents one of the primary techniques in software testing. The natural method for creating effective, consistent and efficient test sequences is to model the system under test and employ an algorithm to generate tests that satisfy a defined test coverage criterion. Several criteria for preferred test set properties can be defined. In addition, to optimize the test set from an economic viewpoint, the priorities of the various parts of the system model under test must be defined.

    Objective

    Using this prioritization, the test cases exercise the high-priority parts of the system under test by more path combinations than those with low priority (this prioritization can be combined with the test coverage criterion that determines how many path combinations of the individual parts of the system are tested). Evidence from the literature and our observations confirm that finding a universal algorithm that produces a test set with preferred properties for all test coverage criteria is a challenging task. Moreover, for different individual problem instances, different algorithms provide results with the best value of a preferred property. In this paper, we present a portfolio-based strategy to perform the best test selection.

    Method

    The proposed strategy first employs a set of current algorithms to generate test sets; then, a preferred property of each test set is assessed in terms of the selected criterion, and finally, the test set with the best value of a preferred property is chosen.

    Results

    The experimental results confirm the validity and usefulness of this strategy. For individual instances of 50 system under test models, different algorithms provided results having the best preferred property value; these results varied by the required test coverage level, the size of the priority parts of the model, and the selected test set preferred property criteria.

    Conclusion

    In addition to the used algorithms, the proposed strategy can be used to assess the optimality of different path-based testing algorithms and choose a suitable algorithm for the testing.

  • 10.
    Mahmoud, Thair Shakir
    et al.
    Edith Cowan University, Australia.
    Ahmed, Bestoun S.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). Czech Technical University, Czech Republic.
    Hassan, Mohammed Y.
    University of Technology, Iraq.
    The role of intelligent generation control algorithms in optimizing battery energy storage systems size in microgrids: A case study from Western Australia2019In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 196, p. 1335-1352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Battery energy storage systems can play a substantial role in maintaining low-cost operation in microgrids, and therefore finding their optimal size is a key element of microgrids’ planning and design. This paper explores the optimal sizing options for batteries in microgrids that include wind turbines, solar photovoltaics, synchronous machines and a grid connection supply under various types of retail tariff schemes. The optimal size of batteries is hypothesized to be significantly related to the intelligent control rules applied to dispatch the microgrid sources. This problem can be formulated as a mixed linear integer problem and can be solved using linear/non-linear solvers depending on the complexity of the generation control plan. The main objective of this work is to apply online intelligent adaptation mechanism to tune the economic generation control (dispatch) rules of the microgrid. This tuning objectives are maintaining secure operation, maximizing profitable utilization of batteries and managing their charging life-cycles. While sizing options exploration has been formulated as a linear programming based optimization problem, Fuzzy-Logic is proposed to control the charging/discharging time and quantity for batteries. For the sake of performance comparison, various optimization techniques, i.e., Particle Swarm Optimization, Genetic Algorithm and Flower Pollination Algorithm are applied to perform the economic dispatch calculation. As a case study, a commercial type load connected to the 22 kV distribution network in south Western Australia was used in the testing and validation if the results of the proposed sizing method. The operation condition data was obtained from Western Power the distribution and transmission company in south Western Australia, the Australian Bureau Of Meteorology (BOM) and the Australian Energy Market Operator (AEMO). The results showed that employing intelligent batteries in operation can reduce the annual generation cost of microgrids. However, the decision on selecting the size of batteries depends heavily on the amount of upfront investment cost. The simulation results showed that the intelligence added to batteries’ control could achieve 6.5%, 7.6% and 11.5% of the annual generation cost in the Islanded, Grid-connected with no-export and Grid-connected with export operating modes respectively. Also, intelligent batteries operation control was proven to minimize their payback time to 2.8, 2.7 and 2.7 years in the Islanded, Grid-connected with no-export and Grid-connected with export operating modes respectively.

  • 11.
    Salihu, Ibrahim-Anka
    et al.
    Department of Software Engineering, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Parit Raja, Malaysia.
    Ahmed, Bestoun S.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Zamli, Kamal Z
    Faculty of Computer Systems and Software Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Gambang, Malaysia.
    Usman, Asmau
    Department of Software Engineering, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Parit Raja, Malaysia.
    AMOGA: A Static-Dynamic Model Generation Strategy for Mobile Apps Testing2019In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 17158-17173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past few years, mobile devices have been increasingly replacing traditional computers, as their capabilities, such as CPU computation, memory, RAM size, and many more, are being enhanced almost to the level of conventional computers. These capabilities are being exploited by mobile apps developers to produce apps that offer more functionalities and optimized performance. To ensure acceptable quality and to meet their specifications (e.g., design), mobile apps need to be tested thoroughly. As the testing process is often tedious, test automation can be the key to alleviating such laborious activities. In the context of the Android-based mobile apps, researchers and practitioners have proposed many approaches to automate the testing process mainly on the creation of the test suite. Although useful, most existing approaches rely on reverse engineering a model of the application under test for test case creation. Often, such approaches exhibit a lack of comprehensiveness, as the application model does not capture the dynamic behavior of the applications extensively due to the incompleteness of reverse engineering approaches. To address this issue, this paper proposes AMOGA, a strategy that uses a hybrid, static-dynamic approach for generating a user interface model from mobile apps for model-based testing. AMOGA implements a novel crawling technique that uses the event list of UI element associated with each event to dynamically exercise the events ordering at the run time to explore the applications’ behavior. An experimental evaluation was performed to assess the effectiveness of our strategy by measuring the code coverage and the fault detection capability through the use of mutation testing concept. The results of the experimental assessment showed that AMOGA represents an alternative approach for model-based testing of mobile apps by generating comprehensive models to improve the coverage of the applications. The strategy proved its effectiveness by achievin...

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