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  • 1.
    Flygare, Mattias
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013).
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013).
    Quantifying crystallinity in carbon nanotubes and its influence on mechanical behaviour2019Ingår i: Materials Today Communications, ISSN 2352-4928, Vol. 18, s. 39-45Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The different fabrication methods that have been developed for making carbon nanotubes will provide materials with different levels of crystallinity. As crystallinity is qualitatively known to have a profound influence on material properties, this raises the need for standardised quantitative analysis. Here we show how transmission electron microscopy can be used to provide quantitative information about effective crystallite sizes in individual nanotubes which we link to the mechanical behaviour of the tubes. The method relies on a thorough analysis of diffraction patterns and a careful extraction of instrumental and sample contributions to the peak shapes. We find that arc-discharge grown tubes have crystallite sizes that are comparable to the circumference of the outer tube walls, while commercial catalytically grown tubes have much smaller crystallites implying that each cylindrical nanotube wall can be thought of as a patchwork of small graphene-like grains. The clear differences in crystallite sizes are then compared to known differences in mechanical behaviour, such as a substantial disparity in stiffness and significantly different behaviours under bending stress.

  • 2.
    Kuzmenko, Volodymyr
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Saleem, Amin
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Staaf, Henrik
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Haque, Mazharul
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Bhaskar, Arun
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Flygare, Mattias
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013).
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013).
    Desmaris, Vincent
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Enoksson, Peter
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Hierarchical cellulose-derived CNF/CNT composites for electrostatic energy storage2016Ingår i: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 26, nr 12, artikel-id 124001Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Today many applications require new effective approaches in energy delivery on demand. Supercapacitors are viewed as essential energy storage devices that can continuously provide quick energy. The performance of supercapacitors is mostly determined by electrode materials that can store energy via electrostatic charge accumulation. This study presents new sustainable cellulose-derived composite electrodes which consist of carbon nanofibrous (CNF) mats covered with vapor-grown carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The CNF/CNT electrodes have high electrical conductivity and surface area: two most important features that are responsible for good electrochemical performance of supercapacitor electrodes. The results show that the composite electrodes have fairly high values of specific capacitance, energy and power density and can retain excellent performance over at least 2 000 cycles. All of that makes us think that sustainable cellulose-derived composites can be extensively used in future as supercapacitor electrodes.

  • 3.
    Kuzmenko, Volodymyr
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wang, Nan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Haque, Mazharul
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Naboka, Olga
    National Research Council Canada, Montreal, Canada.
    Flygare, Mattias
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013).
    Svensson, Krister
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013).
    Gatenholm, Paul
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Liu, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Enoksson, Peter
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cellulose-derived carbon nanofibers/graphene composite electrodes for powerful compact supercapacitors2017Ingår i: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 7, s. 45968-45977Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein, we demonstrate a unique supercapacitor composite electrode material that is originated from a sustainable cellulosic precursor via simultaneous one-step carbonization/reduction of cellulose/ graphene oxide mats at 800 C. The resulting freestanding material consists of mechanically stable carbon nanofibrous (CNF, fiber diameter 50–500 nm) scaffolds tightly intertwined with highly conductive reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets with a thickness of 1–3 nm. The material is mesoporous and has electrical conductivity of 49 S cm 1, attributed to the well-interconnected graphene layers. The electrochemical evaluation of the CNF/graphene composite electrodes in a supercapacitor device shows very promising volumetric values of capacitance, energy and power density (up to 46 F cm 3, 1.46 W h L 1 and 1.09 kW L 1, respectively). Moreover, the composite electrodes retain an impressive 97% of the initial capacitance over 4000 cycles. With these superior properties, the produced composite electrodes should be the “looked-for” components in compact supercapacitors used for increasingly popular portable electronics and hybrid vehicles. 

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