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  • 1.
    Grice, Marie
    et al.
    Uddevalla kommun.
    Mogren, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Grantz, Helene
    Uddevalla kommun, Grundskolans utvecklingsenhet.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Kompetenser för lärare inom utbildning förhållbar utveckling – konstruktionen av ett enkätinstrument2018In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 23, no 3-4, p. 262-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Empiriska studier om lärares kompetens för undervisning inom utbildning för hållbar utveckling (UHU) är efterfrågade, men få forskningsinstrument finns tillgängliga. Studiens syfte är att ta fram ett enkätinstrument som kan beskriva lärares kompetens att implementera UHU. Ett andra syfte är att undersöka samband mellan UHU-kompetens och bakgrundsvariablerna: kön, ålder, undervisningsämne och antal år i yrket. I studien undersöks gymnasielärares (n=183) förhållningssätt till undervisning om UHU på en skola med ett uttalat UHU-arbete där förhållningssätt ses som ett uttryck för lärares UHU-kompetens. Utvecklingen av enkätinstrumentet baseras på det internationellt vedertagna OECD-ramverket DeSeCo:s (Definition and Selection of Competencies) definition av kompetensbegreppet. Explorativ faktoranalys identifierade fyra dimensioner av UHU-kompetens: didaktik, motivation, kapacitet och hinder. Inga korrelationer hittades mellan dimensionerna och bakgrundsvariablerna, vilket kan bero på en gemensam skolkultur. I framtida studier behöver instrumentets validitet för lärare som inte arbetat med UHU studeras.

  • 2.
    Mogren, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Implementering av lärande för hållbar utveckling: En studie av rektors förståelse av kvalitet i skolans organisation2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Student outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is reported to be weak and empirical studies investigating the underlying causes have been called for. School organization is pointed out as essential, which highlights the role of school leaders in realizing ESD. This study aims to identify characteristic features of ESD active school organizations, by investigating how school leaders maintain high quality in their organizations. ESD is thus studied from an internal organizational perspective. Fourteen school leaders at ten upper secondary schools, active in ESD implementation, were interviewed and qualitative data quantified. A special focus was on school leaders’ transformative statements, in response to earlier criticism that ESD implementation has been too structural. Results consist of 26 identified quality criteria. By means of cluster analysis, the quality criteria were merged into four principal quality criteria: collaborative interaction and school development, student-centred education, cooperation with local society and proactive leadership and continuity. The school leaders’ quality strategies were identified through correlation analysis of their principal quality criteria. The quality strategies reveal a difference in the schools’ internal or external focus. An analysis of the school leaders’ quality statements in relation to their quality strategy implementation indicates that ESD to a large degree is introduced from a transformative perspective. One school in the study stands out as highly transformation-oriented, and has a quality strategy combining an internal and external focus, thus making it a possible benchmark for successful ESD-implementation. The study contributes a suggestion on how a progression of ESD implementation can take place and as well as possible obstacles.  

  • 3.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Education forSustainable Development, ESD implementation and transformative schoolorganization: a Swedish perspective of Whole school approach2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    ESD, a matter of School Organization2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    ESD implementation at the school organisation level, part 1 – investigating the quality criteria guiding school leaders’ work at recognized ESD schools2017In: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 972-992Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) implementation tends to focus primarily on student and teacher outcomes, and there have been few studies on leadership practices at the school organisation level that provide information on how quality in education contributes to ESD implementation. To address this issue, we conducted an empirical mixed methods study of existing practices in 10 highly ESD-active upper secondary schools in Sweden. The schools’ principals, who were responsible for implementing ESD, were interviewed to obtain information on the quality criteria they used to guide their work. Twenty-six criteria were identified and grouped into four main principal quality criteria on the basis of statistical analysis: Collaborative interaction and school development; Student centred education; Cooperation with local society; and Proactive leadership and continuity. This categorization both supports existing research on ESD quality criteria and highlights new criteria that are important but were previously unrecognized. Trends in the identified quality criteria are discussed and related to prior research in order to identify potentially fruitful school leadership and management for implementing ESD at the school organisational level. Research on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) implementation tends to focus primarily on student and teacher outcomes, and there have been few studies on leadership practices at the school organisation level that provide information on how quality in education contributes to ESD implementation. To address this issue, we conducted an empirical mixed methods study of existing practices in 10 highly ESD-active upper secondary schools in Sweden. The schools’ principals, who were responsible for implementing ESD, were interviewed to obtain information on the quality criteria they used to guide their work. Twenty-six criteria were identified and grouped into four main principal quality criteria on the basis of statistical analysis: Collaborative interaction and school development; Student centred education; Cooperation with local society; and Proactive leadership and continuity. This categorization both supports existing research on ESD quality criteria and highlights new criteria that are important but were previously unrecognized. Trends in the identified quality criteria are discussed and related to prior research in order to identify potentially fruitful school leadership and management for implementing ESD at the school organisational level.

  • 6.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    ESD implementation at the school organisation level, part 2 – investigating the transformative perspective in school leaders’ quality strategies at ESD schools2017In: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 993-1014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has suggested that adopting a transformative school organisation perspective when implementing ESD may be more productive than the previously recommended transmissive perspectives, but it is not clear how transformative perspectives could be introduced. To address this issue, we conducted an empirical mixed methods study of existing practices in 10 highly ESD-active upper secondary schools in Sweden. The schools’ leaders, who were responsible for implementing ESD, were interviewed to obtain information on the quality criteria they used to guide their work. The arguments used by the leaders to justify their criteria were analysed and categorised based on their relationships with the transmissive and transformative quality strategies. Both school organisation perspectives were found to co-exist within the schools. A detailed analysis of schools where the transformative perspective was dominant revealed three distinct quality strategies, one of which was found to embody a strong focus on a transformative approach. This specific quality strategy is discussed and suggested as a way for interested schools to implement ESD in a more transformative way at the school organisation level.

  • 7.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Failed Quality in ESD Implementation – School Leaders in Evidence Seeking of School Legitimacy to Become Whole School Organisations2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study seeks to investigate and understand the already established anchoring structures of quality education in schools that actively implement ESD (Laurie, Nonoyama-Tarumi, Mckeown and Hopkins 2016). The anchoring structures on leadership level are criticised for building   cultures of standards and conformity (Bottery Wright and James 2012), rather than progress change and renewal in education, which is considered a way to prevent a negative societal development (Huckle and Wals 2015). Standards and conformity is found to coexist with transformative expressions of progress and change in education.  In recent research the anchoring qualities are criticised as being too structural, predefined and apart from a real school context (Scott in Jucker and Reiner 2015) and referred to as counteracting a fruitful ESD implementation (Peters, Michael and Wals 2016; Lotz-Sisitka, Wals, Kronlid and McGarry 2015).

    The focus of this study is to outline which role the qualities that constitute structures and conformity (in this study called transmissive) play in schools, and what specific quality criteria the empirics underpin as necessary structures that anchor quality at ESD active schools? Qualities in transformative ESD implementation distinguish from qualities in transmissive ESD implementation. The gap between these two ESD implementation strategies can be described by qualities related to improve schools in transmissive ESD implementation to qualities used to develop schools in transformative ESD implementation (Hargreaves 2008).    

    The term ESDquality criteria is a specific term used in studies that directly inquired about the qualities related to ESD settings in education (Breiting, Mayer and Mogensen 2005). The study investigates the school leaders understanding of transmissive quality criteria at ESD active schools and especially those appointed high importance in the school organisation.

    The authors have in earlier studies investigated ESD implementation at school organisation level with the focus of qualities that are process orientated (transformative). It was found that the school organisations most frequently based on transformative qualities in education also displayed the highest degrees of transmissive qualities (Mogren and Gericke a, b). The result of high levels of transmissive qualities in schools with a successful ESD implementation created research interest for their role. The study also intends to indicate transmissive quality criteria that seems to threatens a sound ESD implementation in that they display a vague anchoring function or hinder the transformative ESD implementation. 

    The study will answer the questions:

    1, What characterizes the transmissive weighted quality criteria that ESD active schools use (as anchoring) in governing a school organisation of high quality?

    2, Can the realization of ESD WSA at teacher level indicate which transmissive weighted quality criteria (anchors in quality criteria) that is important for a school organisation to consider?

    The experience of schools with an active ESD implementation is informative and crucial in breaking new ground for ESD of a high quality (Jucker and Reiner2015). Research based on school leadership within such schools is accounted for in the study.  Temporarily ´role model-schools´ are used to stand model and learn from for schools seeking information and proof on the power of a transformative ESD implementation as to redirect education to a higher quality in accordance to the local and global sustainability problems (Hargreaves 2008; Laurie, Robert, et al. 2016).The attention given to the transmissive quality criteria in this study is an attempt to find the anchoring structures  that not previously  has been the central interest for researchers  studying ESD implementation (Schwarzin 2012). Rickinson, Hall and Reid (2016) urge the need to be more curious to which factors that do make implementation programmes to work overtime beyond the fact that they are present as a tool within educational settings.

    In this study two different datasets are used that relates to two levels of the same school organisations. One dataset is collected at the school leader level by interviews with principals. The other dataset is based on a questionnaire study with teachers. ESD schools from a Swedish nationwide sample are identified. This is done by investigating the schools ESD activity in national ESD award systems and national databases on ESD schools. The 10 most active ESD schools are selected and validated by interviewing local school personal and ESD stakeholders. In the first data collection semi structured interviews were conducted with the principals. The main objective for the interviews was to collect data about the way principals choose to organize their schools in relation to their perception of high quality in education. During the interviews concept maps were constructed by the researcher based on the interviewees’ statements. The concept maps hold information of which quality criteria that were highlighted by different schools, and the argumentation for those choices. The trustworthiness of the concept map is confirmed by each principal. Qualitative data in the form of concept maps are translated into quantitative data by using an assessment system in which each quality criteria were given a score depending on the emphasis given by the principal. The scores separate transmissive and transformative statements. The statements formed 26 quality criteria. In this study, we compare the ranking of single quality criteria to their ranking as transmissive weighted. We identify in that way the transmissive quality criteria that is used to anchor ESD. Excerpts by school leaders help us to interpret quantitative data. The datasets on teacher level at selected ESD schools consist of a survey about school development measuring the teacher’s opinion on quality in school development. This survey was developed and used within a larger school development project in Sweden (Scherp 2013). It is an operationalisation of a school organisation model. The model is used to understand high quality in ESD active schools in an earlier study by the Authors. This study assumes the use of the model one step further; as a tool to define ESD Whole School Approach, WSA. We define what is meant by WSA and explain how the model can be used to judge the realisation of WSA at ESD active schools. This allows an identification of transmissive qualities used in schools realising ESD.

    Our research contributes to an empirically based understanding on the impact of the transmissive quality criteria at school organization level in schools with an active ESD implementation. This gives new arguments and input to the design of implementation programmes on ESD that holds the ambition to scale up ESD. Universally the study also contributes to the definition on quality education related to actual policy documents on ESD realisation, Global Action Programme on ESD (UN 2014). The concept of Whole School Approach, WSA is introduced as the benchmark for high quality in education. Finally, the study is designed with an interdisciplinary approach where the ESD research field rapproach the research field of educational organisation and leadership, which contributes to a modest field of research. Our first results indicate that political support is an important transmissive weighted quality criterion that leads to ESD WSA implementation. I Hence, the sharing of ideological ideas within the school or networks to measure one owns practice and organisation against seems to be an important anchoring for ESD implementation. School organisation with a lower realization of ESD WSA search their legitimization of school organisation in evidence by external actors but seems less successful in their strategy. At time for the ECER conference we foresee that we will have even more detailed results to share.

  • 8.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Implementering av lärande för hållbar utveckling – den skolorganisatoriska nivån som ett stöd eller hinder?2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    School leaders’ experiences of implementing education for sustainable development: Anchoring the transformative perspective2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 12, article id 3343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we consider the problem of ensuring that Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is firmly embedded in a school through appropriate management and planning of the school’s activities (or characteristics of the school organization). To this end, we identify the domains of school organization that would benefit from particular structures and routines in order to embed ESD. We identify these domains by thematically analyzing responses of interviewed leaders of schools employing a transformative approach to ESD. We divided the leaders into two groups, based on the extent to which their respective schools employed a transformative approach to ESD. We analyzed the differences in responses of the two groups, enabling us to identify and compare the structures that school leaders in the respective groups believe to be important. In addition to reporting the results, we discuss their implications. We focus particularly on how structures identified by leaders of highly transformative schools could contribute to long-lasting transformative implementation of ESD, and how structures identified by leaders of the other group could be used to circumvent barriers to such implementation.

  • 10.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    The role of school organization in ESD implementation2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Scherp, Hans-Åke
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), a matter of school organization2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Scherp, Hans-Åke
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Whole school approaches to education for sustainable development: A model that links to school improvement2018In: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 508-531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study applies a model of school organisation developed by one of the authors to investigate school improvement processes leading to a whole school approach in Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) literature. The model is operationalized to a survey instrument and distributed to Swedish upper secondary teachers. The instrument provides empirical indications of teachers’ perceptions of their schools in terms of four major dimensions of an ESD whole school approach, the importance assigned to a holistic vision, routines and structures, professional knowledge creation, and practical pedagogical work. The aims of the study are to compare the teachers’ perception of their school organisation. We compare perceptions of teachers working in schools actively implementing ESD and teachers in comparable reference schools. Comparisons are also made between teachers from schools applying different strategies and quality approaches in implementing ESD. The results indicate that, relative to teachers in ordinary schools, those in ESD schools perceive their school organisations to have higher quality and coherence, with greater potential to support teaching and pedagogical work in practice. However, there is substantial variation in perceptions of teachers from different ESD schools. The model’s robustness is validated by coherence of earlier results in the same schools.

  • 13.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nikel, Jutta
    Pädagogische Hochschule Freiburg, Germany.
    Varga, Attila
    University of Pécs, Hungary.
    Wals, Arjen
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Könczey, Réka
    Hungarian Institute for Educational Research and Development, Hungary.
    Saly, Erika
    Hungarian Institute for Educational Research and Development, Hungary.
    Conceptual work on ESD from a school improvement perspective2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chair: Anna Mogren, PhD, Karlstad University Sweden

    Discussant: Professor Arjen Wals, Wageningen University, The Netherlands & Gothenburg University,

    Sweden

    This symposium places Education for Sustainable Development ( ESD) within the field of school improvement

    theory and research. In a number of studies, the Whole school approach in ESD is suggested and referred to

    as the work of embedding ESD into existing school visions and action plans (Breiting, Mayer & Mogensen

    2005 “Quality Criteria for ESD-schools”; Hargreaves 2008; Scott 2013.) The symposium therefore focuses on

    how the research field of school improvement – which investigates, how efforts to help schools become

    increasingly effective learning environments for the full range of their students have been more or less

    successful – might inform and challenge ESD and the ESD the Whole school approach.

    If ESD is to be framed and studied from a “within perspective” as an ongoing school improvement process

    rather than as an add-on activity to existing organisational arrangements and educational practices, it is

    necessary to discuss models of school improvement in terms of their contribution to ESD. It is also important

    to identify models of school improvement that can identify drivers and barriers for ESD implementation at

    organisational level as well as on teaching and learning level (see Scherp 2013; Reezigt & Creemers 2005

    “Comprehensive framework for effective school improvement” ; Rolff 2010 “Trias of school development”;

    Rolff 2002 “P.dagogische Qualit.tsmanagement (PQM)”.

    In school improvement theory, a school’s organisation is commonly understood as reflexive in relation to

    context and supportive to the action of all members of the school community and their cooperation.

    Further, research suggests there are basic mechanisms contributing to effective school improvement such as

    goal setting for improvement, pressures to improve, cyclical improvement processes and autonomy (see

    Scheerens & Demeuse 2005). Further, the school culture ought to be build up on dialogue supported by

    school leadership. By this definition of school organisation, school improvement refers to collectively

    supporting factors in the organisation, to the end that students’ possibilities for learning in relation to a

    complex surrounding world are enhanced.

    The recognition of multiple perspectives within the school organisation, e.g. cultural, structural, political and

    transformational is central in investing possible models of school improvement. The search for school

    improvement models that can discern those perspectives that are closely linked to ESD is crucial. Such

    models of school improvement have the potential to constitute the link between the research fields of ESD

    and school improvement. They could serve as a tool for further research on how the Whole school approach

    is constructed in formal education, which is searched for in the practical work on ESD implementation.

    In this symposium examples from ongoing research projects on ESD where models of school improvement

    are used, considered or asked for in a German, Swedish and Hungarian context are presented. The

    symposium will explore the potential of integrating, adapting and rejecting theoretical perspectives and

    empirical evidence from school improvement into the ESD research field through intention papers with the

    goal of developing knowledge about

    - how selected conceptual work on the Whole school approach in ESD draw on models and

    perspectives from school improvement theory,

    - how in an empirical case study a school improvement model was used to measure the ESD Whole

    school approach,

    - how school improvement has informed efforts and plan for upscaling ESD implementation in Eco-

    Schools to a larger number of public schools.

    Following questions from the audience, Arjen Wals (Wageningen University, The Netherlands & Gothenburg

    University, Sweden) will draw together the discussion and to explore implications for research in ESD.

  • 14.
    Mogren, Anna
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Sund, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013), Science, Mathematics and Engineering Education Research.
    The work of higher education institutions to promote sustainable development2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In March 2016, the Swedish Higher Education Authority (UKÄ) was tasked by the Swedish government to conduct an evaluation of how universities and university colleges promote sustainable development, pursuant to the provisions of the Higher Education Act (1992:1434) introduced ten years earlier, 2006. The evaluation has resulted in a unique collection of empirical material that would have been difficult for an individual researcher to collect independently. The evaluation includes an analysis, but is related to background theory not a strict scientific study.  The empirical material could, however, form a basis for numerous interesting studies on, for example, the important factors for successfully working to integrate sustainable development into higher education. A comparison between nations is also possible to conduct based on the methodology of self-reporting by Higher Education institutions, HEI:s. 

     

    The evaluation defined sustainable development by the Bruntland detention, that the present and future generations are ensured a healthy and good environment, financial and social welfare, and justice. The evaluation was limited to the educational area of sustainable development, education for sustainable development ESD. 

     

    The purpose of the evaluation was to contribute with knowledge and a national comparison of HEIs, work with ESD,  and also to present the results that have been achieved so far. The evaluation was further conducted to give support to the HEIs development work on ESD.

     

    Success factors of a positive ESD implementation due to pre-defined criteria were identified in the  evaluation; the significance of management and control, building institutional support and providing support in implementation.  Apart from investigated criteria, factors that showed effects on a positive ESD implementation was also identified in the evaluation. An example is that several of the large and medium-sized HEIs referred their ESD work from teaching- and engineering programmes, which is the only two programmes where sustainable development is included in the national qualitative programme targets. Central bodies with specific responsibilities for sustainable development was also appointed an important structure in translating ESD policy document to the local context and practice. An interesting finding  was the link between HEIs rated high in this evaluation, to institutions with an environmental management system intended to improve the organisation’s environmental performance and contribute to national environmental goals and to the achievement of UN global goals for sustainable development. Such system takes a wider responsibility of sustainable development than education but seems influential and important in HEIs ESD work. A remaining challenge for a majority of HEIs in Sweden is the process of sustainable development in education where the ESD perspective is not only accounted for as a specific content in education but also a driving force to reach high quality education and society transformation.

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