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  • 1.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Eawag, Business Innovat Grp, Environm Social Sci Dept, Dubendorf, Switzerland.;Karlstad Univ, Ctr Serv Res CTF, Karlstad, Sweden.;Linkoping Univ, Dept Management & Engn, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Haldimann, Mirella
    Eawag, Business Innovat Grp, Environm Social Sci Dept, Dubendorf, Switzerland.;Linkoping Univ, Dept Management & Engn, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Jennings Saul, Caroline
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Eawag, Business Innovat Grp, Environm Social Sci Dept, Dubendorf, Switzerland.;Karlstad Univ, Ctr Serv Res CTF, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Business model innovations for overcoming barriers in the base-of-the-pyramid market2017In: Industry and Innovation, ISSN 1366-2716, E-ISSN 1469-8390, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 543-568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many barriers must be overcome when entering the base-of-the-pyramid (BoP) market. Firms facing these barriers need to innovate new business models and reinvent existing ones to suit the BoP context. While previous literature has focused on the innovations of particular components of business models in BoP markets, we investigate the reconfigurations in the business model components that underpin the successful business model innovations. This study is based on multiple case studies in the water sector that we carried out in several different countries. Our findings suggest five business model innovations: (a) design, (b) renewal, (c) expansion, (d) diversification and (e) replication. Each business model innovation is a specific response to the barriers met in the BoP market and requires consistent configuration between its various components (i.e. value proposition, value creation and profit equation). These findings add, in two important aspects, to the academic realm of the business model domain: by contributing to the debate of business models in BoP markets and by advancing the configurational view of business models.

  • 2. Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    Haldimann, Mirella
    Jennings Saul, Caroline
    Capabilities for providing socially beneficial services to consumers in low-income markets2018In: SMR - Journal of Service Management Research, ISSN 2511-8676, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 16-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing socially beneficial services to people living close to the poverty line is an exceptionally complex task, due to limited disposable income for such services and little knowledge to understand the actual service benefits. In addition, service providers face capability constraints to provide these types of services. This article examines capabilities for providing services to consumers in low-income markets. Based on a multiple case study on providing drinking water as a service, we show that service providers require three capabilities: (a) adapting the service operation model, (b) converting latent customer needs into value-added services, and (c) extending the customer portfolio. These capability descriptions advance previous capability descriptions about services for low-income consumers.

  • 3.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    Business Innovation Group, Environment Social Science Department, Eawag, Switzerland.
    Jennings Saul, Caroline
    Environmental Social Sciences Department, Business Innovation Group, Swiss Federal Institute for Aquatic Research (Eawag), Switzerland.
    Haldimann, Mirella
    Environmental Social Sciences Department, Business Innovation Group, Swiss Federal Institute for Aquatic Research (Eawag), Switzerland.
    Business model innovation in base of the pyramid markets2017In: Journal of Business Strategy, ISSN 0275-6668, E-ISSN 2052-1197, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 38-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper aims to highlight how initial business models can be converted into a larger-scale solution for tapping into the emerging base-of-the-pyramid markets. Design/methodology/approach: This study uses a qualitative, multi-case research design with 20 organizations tapping into the water market at the base-of-the-pyramid. Findings: This paper explores three business models innovations: fostering value-in-context, allowing for modifiability and embracing organizational ambidexterity. Research limitations/implications: Due to our qualitative research approach, generalizability of our findings is limited. Practical implications: The description of the three business model innovations offers guidance for executives to make their business models financially more sustainable in base-of-the-pyramid markets. Social implications: The water sector represents one especially interesting sector to examine business model innovations. For, among social goods, safe water remains a huge challenge to date where 700 million people remain without access to an improved water source. Originality/value: Previous business model discussion in base-of-the-pyramid markets focuses on commercial goods. The authors focus on water as a social good. They demonstrate that the existing recommendations that business models in base-of-the-pyramid markets should be inclusive, complex, collaborative and scalable are mandatory, but not sufficient. In addition, business models should foster value-in-context, allow for modifiability and embrace organizational ambidexterity. © 2017, © Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 4.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    Department of Business Innovation, Eawag, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Jennings Saul, Caroline
    Department Environmental Social Sciences, Eawag, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Halidmann, Mirella
    Department of Business Innovation, Eawag, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Kramer, Sasha
    SOIL Haiti, Cap-Haïtien, Hait.
    When one business model is not enough for a social business2017In: Strategic Direction, ISSN 0258-0543, E-ISSN 1758-8588, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 10-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose This paper aims to illustrate how managing multiple business models can become a key factor for succeeding in base-of-the-pyramid markets.Design/methodology/approach Case study was conducted through an engaged scholarship approach.Findings The authors highlight that companies can manage multiple business models, if they are following these three steps: recognition of costs-and-benefits, improvement and growth and creation of synergies.Practical implications The study provides guidance on how to manage multiple business models.Social implications This paper discusses Sustainable Organic Integrated Livelihoods, a social enterprise, which provides basic sanitation in bade-of-the-pyramid markets.Originality/value Operating more than one business model could cause often strategic failures. Sustainable Organic Integrated Livelihoods explored the advantages of having multiple business models in following three steps: recognition of costs-and-benefits, improvement and growth and creation of synergies.

  • 5.
    Jennings Saul, Caroline
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Extending Access: Perspectives on Business Model Innovation in Water and Sanitation Service Provision2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many organizations are attempting to improve the well-being of people living in poverty, whether it be philanthropic, through offering transformative services, or buying into the doing well by doing good ethos of corporate Base of the Pyramid (BoP) strategies. Some of these efforts are being directed towards extending access to safely managed water and sanitation services to everyone. There are many factors that contribute to the complexity of reaching universal water and sanitation coverage including limited finance, cultural practices, and localized effects of climate change. Once a community has access, sustaining it can be hindered by poor design, maintenance, or governance.

    The aim of this dissertation is to examine the roles of business models and business model innovation in providing and later scaling water and sanitation services in low-income countries. In doing so, it brings together poverty alleviation and business model theories to address barriers specific to the water and sanitation sectors. This dissertation is a compilation of seven different papers that follow a case study approach. The cases used in these studies are of non-governmental organizations, social businesses, small and medium-sized enterprises, and multinational enterprises that work in the water and sanitation sector in low-income countries.

    The findings of this dissertation span theoretical levels: business models, business model innovation, and capability development and sectors: water and sanitation. Each paper contributes to the intersection of at least two of these factors, e.g., by classifying business models and business model innovations in water service providers or examining the multiple business models used by a single sanitation service provider.

    Overall, this dissertation has analysed key theories in market-based approaches to poverty alleviation with regard to business model thinking and provides insights into offering services and expanding social impact in BoP markets.

  • 6.
    Jennings Saul, Caroline
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Environmental Social Sciences, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Environmental Social Sciences, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Digital transformation as an enabler for advanced services in the sanitation sector2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 3, article id 752Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People in Base of the Pyramid markets still face difficulties when it comes to sanitation. Container-based Sanitation (CBS) services represent a promising advanced sanitation service. Despite the observed outcomes of CBS services, organizations face obstacles when providing these services. To overcome these obstacles, digital transformations of these services are being carried out. We rely on multiple case studies to understand these digital transformations. Our findings highlight (1) the challenges these case organizations faced before engaging in the digital transformation, (2) their individual digital transformation pathways, and (3) a general framework for digital transformations in BoP markets.

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