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  • 1.
    Andreassen, Tor
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    To co-produce or not? The case of technology-enabled services2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Fischer, Thomas
    et al.
    University of S.t Gallen, Switzerland.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    EAVAG, Switzerland.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Managerial Recommendations for Service Innovations in Different Procuct-service systems2009In: Introduction to Product/Service-Design Systems / [ed] Tomohiko Sakao & Martin Lindahl, Springer London, 2009, p. 237-259Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    Swiss Fed Inst Aquat Sci & Technol, Eawag, Dept Innovat Res Util Sectors Cirus, Dubendorf, Switzerland.;Karlstad Univ Sweden, Serv Res Ctr, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Exploring the contribution of management innovation to the evolution of dynamic capabilities2011In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 40, no 8, p. 1238-1250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies that find innovative ways to manage capabilities gain competitive advantages. The results of multiple case studies of capital goods manufacturing companies suggest that management innovation contributes to dynamic capabilities. The findings confirm the importance of sensing, seizing, and reconfiguring as dynamic capabilities. Management innovation differs in terms of whether it contributes to sensing, seizing, or reconfiguring. The findings describe issues of management innovation, such as key change agents and utilization (motivation, invention, implementation, as well as theorizing and labeling), which facilitate sensing, seizing, and reconfiguring. Maintaining capability-driven competitive advantages is not limited to the innovation of products and services, but should also address management innovation that drives dynamic capabilities. The present study relies on a novel conceptualization of dynamic capabilities through management innovation. This conceptualization advances theory-building on the issue of dynamic capabilities. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). ITEM-HSG, University of St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Bjurklo, Margareta
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    The Impact of Service Orientation in Corporate Culture on Business Performance in Manufacturing Companies2010In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 237-259Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    University of St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Match or Mismatch: Strategy-Structure Configuration in the Service Business of Manufacturing Companies2010In: Journal of Service Research, ISSN 1094-6705, E-ISSN 1552-7379, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 198-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new trend seems to be emerging for multinational manufacturing companies to make a strategic reorientation into becoming service providers. For some companies, such as Kone and IBM, the revenues from services are 50% or more of their total sales. Despite the increasing interest in exploring various aspects of the service part of the business in manufacturing companies, existing research has not focused on the interdependencies between different service strategies and organizational designs. This article studies different service strategies in manufacturing companies and highlights the organizational design necessary for implementing each service strategy. The service strategies explored are aftersales service providers, customer support service providers, outsourcing partners, and development partners. Each service strategy is supported by organizational design factors related to the service orientation of corporate culture, the service orientation of human resource management, and the service orientation of organizational structures. This research concludes that a specific strategy-structure configuration is needed in order to succeed with a chosen service strategy

  • 6.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    Eawag Swiss Fed Inst Aquat Sci & Technol, Innovat Res Util Sect Cirus, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Witell, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013).
    Competitive advantage through service differentiation by manufacturing companies2011In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 64, no 12, p. 1270-1280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the relationship among the complexity of customer needs, customer centricity, innovativeness, service differentiation, and business performance within the context of companies that have made a service transition from pure goods providers to service providers. A survey of 332 manufacturing companies provides the basis for the empirical investigation. One key finding is that a strong emphasis on service differentiation can lead to a manufacturing firm's strategies for customer centricity being less sensitive to increasingly complex customer needs, which can increase a firm's payoff for customer centricity. In contrast, the payoff from innovativeness appears to be higher if the firm focuses its resources on either product or service innovation; that is, a dual focus does not work well. This paper discusses the implications of these findings for researchers and managers.

  • 7.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Eawag, Business Innovat Grp, Environm Social Sci Dept, Dubendorf, Switzerland.;Karlstad Univ, Ctr Serv Res CTF, Karlstad, Sweden.;Linkoping Univ, Dept Management & Engn, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Haldimann, Mirella
    Eawag, Business Innovat Grp, Environm Social Sci Dept, Dubendorf, Switzerland.;Linkoping Univ, Dept Management & Engn, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Jennings Saul, Caroline
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Eawag, Business Innovat Grp, Environm Social Sci Dept, Dubendorf, Switzerland.;Karlstad Univ, Ctr Serv Res CTF, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Business model innovations for overcoming barriers in the base-of-the-pyramid market2017In: Industry and Innovation, ISSN 1366-2716, E-ISSN 1469-8390, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 543-568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many barriers must be overcome when entering the base-of-the-pyramid (BoP) market. Firms facing these barriers need to innovate new business models and reinvent existing ones to suit the BoP context. While previous literature has focused on the innovations of particular components of business models in BoP markets, we investigate the reconfigurations in the business model components that underpin the successful business model innovations. This study is based on multiple case studies in the water sector that we carried out in several different countries. Our findings suggest five business model innovations: (a) design, (b) renewal, (c) expansion, (d) diversification and (e) replication. Each business model innovation is a specific response to the barriers met in the BoP market and requires consistent configuration between its various components (i.e. value proposition, value creation and profit equation). These findings add, in two important aspects, to the academic realm of the business model domain: by contributing to the debate of business models in BoP markets and by advancing the configurational view of business models.

  • 8. Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    Haldimann, Mirella
    Jennings Saul, Caroline
    Capabilities for providing socially beneficial services to consumers in low-income markets2018In: SMR - Journal of Service Management Research, ISSN 2511-8676, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 16-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing socially beneficial services to people living close to the poverty line is an exceptionally complex task, due to limited disposable income for such services and little knowledge to understand the actual service benefits. In addition, service providers face capability constraints to provide these types of services. This article examines capabilities for providing services to consumers in low-income markets. Based on a multiple case study on providing drinking water as a service, we show that service providers require three capabilities: (a) adapting the service operation model, (b) converting latent customer needs into value-added services, and (c) extending the customer portfolio. These capability descriptions advance previous capability descriptions about services for low-income consumers.

  • 9.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Business Innovation for Sustainable Infrastructure Services Group, Department of Environmental Social Sciences, Eawag, Dübendorf, Switzerland).
    Haldimann, Mirella
    Business Innovation for Sustainable Infrastructure Services Group, Department of Environmental Social Sciences, Eawag, Dübendorf, Switzerland).
    Saul, Caroline Jennings
    Business Innovation for Sustainable Infrastructure Services Group, Department of Environmental Social Sciences, Eawag, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Competing in business-to-business sectors through pay-per-use services2017In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 914-935Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Despite the opportunities provided by pay-per-use (PPU) services, product companies in business-to-business sectors often fail to compete systematically by using them. The purpose of this paper is to explain how companies can avoid failures when it comes to PPU services. The paper describes the "seizing" capabilities needed to achieve the strategic objectives of PPU services. Design/methodology/approach - The research process is divided into a pilot and an in-depth study. Altogether, 17 companies participated in the study. Findings - The findings reveal that the seizing capabilities depend on the strategic objectives of PPU services. To expand the market share with PPU services, companies need to broaden the customer portfolio for PPU services, to align individual services within the entire service portfolio and to balance profits made by PPU services and other business lines. For strategic objectives such as rapid sales growth early in the market development and new market creation other seizing capabilities are required. Research limitations/implications - The findings are not generalizable, due to the use of a qualitative study. The study is restricted to product companies in the business-to-business sector. Practical implications - Managers often believe that extending and modularizing the service portfolio is beneficial. When achieving sales growth during the market development phase, these capabilities are in fact sometimes counterproductive. Practitioners have to look into the costs and benefits of setting-up their own financing company and working with banks. Social implications - PPU services contribute to a more sustainable consumption and make product design more resource-efficient. Originality/value - The study is original by virtue of systematically studying PPU services, providing a microfoundation for seizing capabilities and developing testable propositions for future research.

  • 10.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    Business Innovation Group, Environment Social Science Department, Eawag, Switzerland.
    Jennings Saul, Caroline
    Environmental Social Sciences Department, Business Innovation Group, Swiss Federal Institute for Aquatic Research (Eawag), Switzerland.
    Haldimann, Mirella
    Environmental Social Sciences Department, Business Innovation Group, Swiss Federal Institute for Aquatic Research (Eawag), Switzerland.
    Business model innovation in base of the pyramid markets2017In: Journal of Business Strategy, ISSN 0275-6668, E-ISSN 2052-1197, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 38-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper aims to highlight how initial business models can be converted into a larger-scale solution for tapping into the emerging base-of-the-pyramid markets. Design/methodology/approach: This study uses a qualitative, multi-case research design with 20 organizations tapping into the water market at the base-of-the-pyramid. Findings: This paper explores three business models innovations: fostering value-in-context, allowing for modifiability and embracing organizational ambidexterity. Research limitations/implications: Due to our qualitative research approach, generalizability of our findings is limited. Practical implications: The description of the three business model innovations offers guidance for executives to make their business models financially more sustainable in base-of-the-pyramid markets. Social implications: The water sector represents one especially interesting sector to examine business model innovations. For, among social goods, safe water remains a huge challenge to date where 700 million people remain without access to an improved water source. Originality/value: Previous business model discussion in base-of-the-pyramid markets focuses on commercial goods. The authors focus on water as a social good. They demonstrate that the existing recommendations that business models in base-of-the-pyramid markets should be inclusive, complex, collaborative and scalable are mandatory, but not sufficient. In addition, business models should foster value-in-context, allow for modifiability and embrace organizational ambidexterity. © 2017, © Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 11.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    Department of Business Innovation, Eawag, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Jennings Saul, Caroline
    Department Environmental Social Sciences, Eawag, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Halidmann, Mirella
    Department of Business Innovation, Eawag, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Kramer, Sasha
    SOIL Haiti, Cap-Haïtien, Hait.
    When one business model is not enough for a social business2017In: Strategic Direction, ISSN 0258-0543, E-ISSN 1758-8588, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 10-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose This paper aims to illustrate how managing multiple business models can become a key factor for succeeding in base-of-the-pyramid markets.Design/methodology/approach Case study was conducted through an engaged scholarship approach.Findings The authors highlight that companies can manage multiple business models, if they are following these three steps: recognition of costs-and-benefits, improvement and growth and creation of synergies.Practical implications The study provides guidance on how to manage multiple business models.Social implications This paper discusses Sustainable Organic Integrated Livelihoods, a social enterprise, which provides basic sanitation in bade-of-the-pyramid markets.Originality/value Operating more than one business model could cause often strategic failures. Sustainable Organic Integrated Livelihoods explored the advantages of having multiple business models in following three steps: recognition of costs-and-benefits, improvement and growth and creation of synergies.

  • 12.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    EAWAG.
    Johnson, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Enquist, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    The role of organisational capabilities in the formation of value networks in public transport services2010In: Management Research Review, ISSN 2040-8269, E-ISSN 2040-8277, Vol. 35, no 7, p. 556-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of organisational capabilities (dynamic and operational) in the formation of value networks in the context of public transport services.

    Design/methodology/approach – The theoretical argument is substantiated with qualitative data from four narratives on value network formations in the Swiss public transport system. These four narratives cover two types of new value networks: incremental improvements in established value networks; and radical leaps in emerging value networks.

    Findings – These two types of new value networks entail the co-evolution of different dynamic and operational capabilities.

    Research limitations/implications – The study is limited by the qualitative research approach.

    Practical implications – Public transport operators can utilise the findings on organisational capabilities to guide incremental improvements in their existing value network and/or radical leaps into an emerging value network.

    Social implications – Governments should not only seek to increase transport capacity, but also aim to develop value networks to enhance public transport service experiences.

    Originality/value – The paper applies value-network thinking to public transport services. It offers a comprehensive framework to help organisations manage the formation of value networks. The results provide testable propositions that can be used to guide future research.

  • 13.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    University of St. Gallen.
    Johnson, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Enquist, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Value co-creation as a determinant of success in public transport services: A study of the Swiss Federal Railway operator (SBB)2010In: Managing Service Quality, ISSN 0960-4529, E-ISSN 1758-8030, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 511-530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose   of this paper

    This   paper explores how Prahalad’s five activities of co-creation (customer   engagement, self-service, customer involvement, problem-solving, and   co-design) to public transit service enhance the success of a   public-transport service.

    Design/methodology/approach

    This   research was based on a single case study of the Swiss federal railway   operator (SBB).

    Findings

    Our   findings enrich the concept of value co-creation. It is apparent that value   is co-created by one or more of the activities (customer engagement,   self-service, customer experience, problem-solving and co-design). The focus   on only one of the value co-creation activities might be insufficient to   achieve a competitive advantage; rather, organisations should take a   comprehensive view of value co-creation if they are to exploit its full   strategic potential.

    Research   limitations/implications

    Research   limitations are mainly due to the nature of the qualitative research   approach.

    Practical   implications

    That   public-transport operators should open up their processes and systems to   include the active participation of customers. Customer relationship   management should base primarily on the knowledge that customers possess,   rather than focusing on knowledge about customers.

    Social   implications

    Public   transit supports environmental sustainability. However, governments should   not only seek to increase transport capacity. Instead, they should encourage   value co-creation by engaging customers in marketing activities, offering   self-servicing opportunities, creating customer experiences, solving customer   problems, and co-designing services in collaboration with customers.

    Originality/value

    The study   avoids the current tendency of many studies to explore rather isolated   aspects of value co-creation. We provide a comprehensive framework to help   organisations manage the value co-creation process.

  • 14.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    Eawag, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Paiola, M
    University of Padua, Padua, Italy.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    A capability perspective on service business development in small and medium-sized suppliers2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 321-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing research suggests three theoretical pathways for service business development. The first pathway involves incremental enhancement of relational value for existing supplier–buyer relationships (Alpha). The second pathway captures financial value-seeking behavior in existing and new supplier–buyer relationships (Beta). The third pathway is a radical leap toward a new value constellation downstream in the value chain (Gamma). Our main research question aims at the exploration of these three pathways with respect to small and medium-sized suppliers. The research design is based on an exploratory study and an in-depth study. The exploratory study was able to replicate these three pathways in the empirical context of small and medium-sized suppliers. The in-depth study explores and describes co-evolvement of the dynamic and operational capabilities of each pathway. The results provide testable propositions that can be used to guide future research. The paper offers a comprehensive framework that will assist researchers in the conceptualization of paths for service business development and in the operationalization of capabilities. For managers, its value lies in a description of the capabilities needed to achieve an incremental enhancement of relational value in existing supplier–buyer relationships (Alpha), financial value-seeking behavior in existing and new supplier–buyer relationships (Beta), and radical leaps into new value constellations downstream in the value chain (Gamma).

  • 15.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Swiss Fed Inst Aquat Res & Sci, CH-8600 Dubendorf, Switzerland. Karlstad Univ, Serv Res Ctr, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Saul, Caroline Jennings
    Business model innovation in the water sector in developing countries2014In: SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, ISSN 0048-9697, Vol. 488, p. 516-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various technologies have been deployed in household devices or micro-water treatment plants for mitigating fluoride and arsenic, and thereby provide safe and affordable drinking water in low-income countries. While the technologies have improved considerably, organizations still face challenges in making them financially sustainable. Financial sustainability questions the business models behind these water technologies. This article makes three contributions to business models in the context of fluoride and arsenic mitigation. Firstly, we describe four business models: A) low-value devices given away to people living in extreme poverty, B) high-value devices sold to low-income customers, C) communities as beneficiaries of micro-water treatment plants and D) entrepreneurs as franchisees for selling water services and highlight the emergence of hybrid business models. Secondly, we show current business model innovations such as cost transparency & cost reductions, secured & extended water payments, business diversification and distribution channels. Thirdly, we describe skills and competencies as part of capacity building for creating even more business model innovations. Together, these three contributions will create more awareness of the role of business models in scaling-up water treatment technologies. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 16.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    et al.
    Eawag/Environmental Social Sciences/Business Innovation for Sustainable Infrastructure Services Group, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Saul, Caroline Jennings
    Eawag/Environmental Social Sciences/Business Innovation for Sustainable Infrastructure Services Group, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Haldimann, Mirella
    Eawag/Environmental Social Sciences/Business Innovation for Sustainable Infrastructure Services Group, Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Organizational capabilities for pay-per-use services in product-oriented companies2017In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 192, p. 157-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pay-per-use services are an interesting phenomenon, both empirically and theoretically. Despite the alleged benefits, companies still struggle to succeed with pay-per-use services. Theoretically, it is common sense that existing service capabilities cannot easily be converted into organizational capabilities for pay-per-use services. Based on multiple case studies, the present article narrows down the existing empirical and theoretical gaps through an inductive research approach. Our findings make the following contributions to the field of services in product-oriented companies and to the servitization literature. We describe the organizational capabilities necessary for pay-per-use services (e.g., financing such services, aligning costs with equipment usage, and collaborating with customers). We reveal that companies should convert these capabilities into three core competencies (strategizing pay-per-use services, utilizing technologies for pay-per-use services, and de-risking pay-per-use services), in order to achieve competitive advantages.

  • 17.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Andreasen, Tor W
    Gebauer, Heiko
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Co-production: a sunny-side syndrome?2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Jennings Saul, Caroline
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Eawag/Environmental Social Sciences/Business Innovation for Sustainable Infrastructure Services Group, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Born solution providers Dynamic capabilities for providing solutions: Dynamic capabilities for providing solutions2018In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 73, p. 31-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our investigation draws on a qualitative study, which explores the anomaly of Born Solution Providers. Compared to the traditional assumption that product companies shift toward solutions during the maturity phase, companies can already offer solutions in the market development phase. We investigate the dynamic capabilities for providing solutions in the market development phase. Our findings reveal a microfoundation of dynamic capabilities. This microfoundation is structured into 10 dimensions along sensing, seizing, and reconfiguring activities. Within these 10 dimensions, we disaggregate the dynamic capabilities into individual skills and organizational routines. Interestingly, organizations utilize routines underlying the options for each dimension (e.g., routines for sensing internal and external opportunities, seizing standardization, and customization), but they tend to stick to routines for one of these options. Individual skills enable organizations to balance the options. Our results suggest that these individual skills evolve through higher-order processes, namely, single- and double-loop learning activities.

  • 19.
    Jennings Saul, Caroline
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Environmental Social Sciences, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Environmental Social Sciences, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Digital transformation as an enabler for advanced services in the sanitation sector2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 3, article id 752Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People in Base of the Pyramid markets still face difficulties when it comes to sanitation. Container-based Sanitation (CBS) services represent a promising advanced sanitation service. Despite the observed outcomes of CBS services, organizations face obstacles when providing these services. To overcome these obstacles, digital transformations of these services are being carried out. We rely on multiple case studies to understand these digital transformations. Our findings highlight (1) the challenges these case organizations faced before engaging in the digital transformation, (2) their individual digital transformation pathways, and (3) a general framework for digital transformations in BoP markets.

  • 20.
    Johnson, Mikael
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Gebauer, HeikoUniversity of St. Gallen.Enquist, BoKarlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Value creation in public transit services2010Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a trend to focus on value creation and to exchange the output between supplier and customer through different activities. The trend ion value creation s describe through various notions such as servicification, service-dominant logic, or prosumption. Understanding value creation is not only beneficial in highly competitive industries, but assists also public sectors. In fact, the term value co- production as a synonym to value creation originated partly from the public service sector. Our intension is to revitalize this concept in the context of value creation in public transit services. The article represents a revitalization of the discussion on value co-production in the context of public services. We continue the research activities started by Christopher Lovelock’s on marketing research on public transit services and combine it with the latest contributions on value creation. Second, by combining value creation opportunities within different activities, we break with the tendency to isolate value creation opportunities from each other. For that reason, our study contributes to argumentation that there is a lack of work directed at providing frameworks to manage the value co-creation process. Third, mapping the value creation opportunities and understanding their impact on public transit services will indicate that value creation opportunities are linked to resource integration within value networks. This guides research on how to bridge the two fundamental premises announced by Vargo and Lusch (2008) on customers are always value co-creators (FP 3) and all social and economic actors are resource integrators (FP 6). The empirical background of the study is based on four case studies in different context of public transit services.

  • 21.
    Rabetino, Rodrigo
    et al.
    Univ Vasa, Dept Management, Vasa, Finland.
    Kohtamaki, Marko
    Univ Vasa, Dept Management, Vasa, Finland.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    Eawag Swiss Fed Inst Aquat Res, Dubendorf, Switzerland.
    Strategy map of servitization2017In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 192, p. 144-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By representing the servitization of three leading corporations via a strategy map, this multiple-case study discusses how the strategic logic of servitization can be explained by linking the key practices adopted by manufacturers to support critical processes while shifting their focus to project-based customer solutions. The results draw on data collected from solution providers operating in the metal and machinery industries headquartered in Finland. By examining the strategic actions, tools, and processes behind the implementation of servitization, this study extends recent debates on the service-based business models of manufacturing companies. For servitization theory, this study develops a strategy map for a solution provider. For manufacturing firms, this study provides a framework and a tool for benchmarking, developing and implementing a strategy while mitigating the processes of long-term value creation and appropriation.

  • 22.
    Sebhatu, Samuel Petros
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    EAWAG.
    Enquist, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Johnson, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Innovating value-configuration spaces: Insights from public transport services in industrialized and newly-industrialized countries2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To really fulfill the ambitious goals for a sustainable public transit, innovations should aim on innovating value-configuration spaces through re-inventing the way value is created between service providers and customers. Solving the upcoming traffic challenges in urban regions, research can either focus on advancing single provision of public transit services, or it could use the perspective of value-configuration spaces. Value-configuration spaces consist of value creation and value networks. We applied the perspective of value-configuration spaces to multiple urban regions in industrialized and newly-industrializing countries. Our findings replicate theoretical contributions of elements for conceptualizing value networks and value cocreation. Theoretical extensions refer to the value-configuration spaces for public transit services in urban regions, which seem to evolve through five distinct stages: (1) establishment of reliability of single transportation modes, (2) integration of different transit modes, (3) regional integration, (4) service extension, and (5) individual mobility. Interestingly, whereas these five stages are relatively stable across urban regions in industrialized and newly-industrializing countries, value network and value creations differ according to whether urban regions are located inindustrialized and newly-industrializing countries

  • 23.
    Sebhatu, Samuel Petros
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    Innovation Research in Utility Sectors (Cirus), Eawag - Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Switzerland.
    Johnson, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Enquist, Bo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT.
    Conceptualization and application of value-configuration spaces in a complex service system: Comparative study of Public Transport Services in industrialized and newly-industrialized countries2012In: / [ed] Jay Kandampully et al, Beijing, China, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public transportation represents a complex service system, which is based on “value-co-production” configuration. Value-co-production configuration involves “…people, technology, other internal and external service systems, and shared information” (Spohrer et al., 2007, p. 2). To fulfil the goals of a sustainable Public transit, innovations should focus the way value is created. The value configuration space (Gebauer et al., 2010; Johnson et al., 2010) is conceptualized consisting of two parties (“customer” and “provider”), who are both resource integrators and beneficiaries in the value configuration space. Both are involved in actor networks (or service systems). Service systems are related to value networks where the value creation relies on resource integration across a value network consisting of firm, network, partners, and customers (Vargo and Lusch, 2008; Edvardsson, et al., 2010). The networks form service systems that survive, adapt, and evolve through exchange and application of resources. Stabell and Fjeldstad (1998) offer another abstraction of value configuration. They have applied the value configuration concept to understand and analyze the firm-level value creation logics across a broad range of industries and firms by exploring the value chain, the value shop, and the value network through mediating technology. The mediating technology delivers value by transforming inputs into products. The value is delivered by resolving unique customer problems by enabling direct and indirect exchanges between customers (ibid).

     

    The aim of this paper is to apply the conceptualization of value-configuration spaces to understand the context of public transit services in a complex service system through different public transit cases. Public transit services in the urban regions of developed countries (Zurich in Switzerland, Hamburg in Germany, and Stockholm in Sweden) and newly-industrialized countries (Cape Town in South Africa, Jakarta in Indonesia and Bogota Guangzhou in China). Despite the importance of sustainable public transit services, existing research does not fully explore how complex service systems drive innovation and value-configuration-spaces; to achieving more sustainable public transit services as a key issue. We are looking for innovative ways to combine service systems and value-configuration spaces; such research in fact substantiates the existing value-configuration-space. The variation in maturity of these different cases allows us to develop a process model of value configuration spaces that assesses social force.

     

    To further embrace these ideas, this paper lays the foundation for enriching the logic of sustainability and value-configuration spaces theories. It extends research on value-configuration spaces. The remainder of the article is organized as follows. The next section presents our conceptual framework. This consists of sub-sections on sustainability and innovation, value creation, value configuration spaces, and the value network. The article continues by applying these four key concepts to our empirical setting based on multiple public transit service networks in Europe. The article concludes with a summary of the main contributions and limitations of the study and directions for future research.

  • 24.
    Sebhatu, Samuel Petros
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center.
    Solis, Jorge
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Physics (from 2013).
    Gebauer, Heiko
    Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology.
    Value co-creation in a complex service system: A case of Building Robots to innovate service2016In: The Service Imperatives in the New Economy: Approaches to Service Management and Change. Proceedings., 2016, p. 256-263Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this study is to assess and analyze value co-creation in a complex service system from a human-centered point of view. In fulfilling the ambitious goal of integrating cooperative and human-friendly robots, value co-creation should innovate service through the reinvention of the creation of value between robots (i.e., the entire service system) and customers.

    Solving the upcoming challenges of co-creating value in the service sector is related to the method we create well-being in a transformative manner. This method could also use the perspective of service innovation in the complex environment by integrating multiple services that can be adjusted to the specific needs of customers, such as the relatively young and healthy seniors.

    This study is explorative and built around the following concepts based on transformative research: value co-creation, complexity, service innovation, and transformative service. This illustrates these concepts with the case of building robots to provide assistance during activities, such as walking and other physical activities, in an old age house. This study also focuses on describing the challenges of understanding service innovation in the complex service system of service offering toward co-creating value. Such challenges are exemplified from the technical point of view (e.g., multipurpose design concept, human-in-the-loop control, etc.) in the development of a human-friendly walking assistive robot vehicle designed to support the walking activity of relatively young and healthy seniors.

    This study applies the perspective of complexity in service innovation to the case of adding robots in co-creating value. Our findings replicate the theoretical contributions of elements for conceptualizing value co-creation and service innovation in the service systems by adding the roles of robots, namely, interaction between care receiver and robot, as well as care receiver and care givers, among others.

    The current study reveals the challenges of transformative service thinking in the human-centered complex service systems in the manner in which service is innovated and understood, as well as the role of integrating services and well-being. This study aims to describe the challenges of understanding complexity and the role of robot services from the service research perspective.

    Furthermore, this study makes an original contribution to the current discussions on service research toward transformative service and complexity based on services that co-create value. Future research in this area should focus on generalizing the present findings by studying the integration and understanding of service research and transformative service in other empirical settings and conceptualizations.

  • 25.
    van Welie, Mara J.
    et al.
    Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Switzerland; Utrecht University, the Netherlands.
    Truffer, Bernard
    Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Switzerland; Utrecht University, the Netherlands.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Innovation challenges of utilities in informal settlements: Combining a capabilities and regime perspective2019In: Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, ISSN 2210-4224, E-ISSN 2210-4232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The provision of basic services is falling short in informal settlements of cities in the Global South. In particular, public utilities have had difficulties expanding their services to the urban poor. Why is this the case despite utilities having improved their capabilities substantially over the last years? This paper investigates how innovation strategies of utilities are aligned or misaligned with the broader contexts in informal settlements, which are populated by different socio-technical regimes. We propose a framework to identify new capabilities needed by utilities to deal with these different regimes. The paper reconstructs pro-poor initiatives of a water and sewerage utility in a large East-African city and explains why they tended to fail in terms of livelihood improvement. We show how the alignment between capability portfolios and specific regime structures have set limits to the success of pro-poor innovation strategies in informal settlement contexts.

  • 26.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013). Linköpings universitet.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    AWAG, Dubendorf, Switzerland.
    Jaakkola, Elina
    Univ Turku, Turku Sch Econ, Turku, Finland.
    Hammedi, Wafa
    Univ Namur, Namur, Belgium.
    Patricio, Lia
    Univ Porto, Fac Engn, Oporto, Portugal.
    Perks, Helen
    Univ Nottingham, Nottingham, England.
    A bricolage perspective on service innovation2017In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 79, p. 290-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service innovation is often viewed as a process of accessing the necessary resources, (re)combining them, and converting them into new services. The current knowledge on success factors for service innovation, such as formalized new service development (NSD) processes, predominantly comes from studying large firms with a relatively stable resource base. However, this neglect situations in which organizations face severe resource constraints. This paper argues that under such constraints, a formalized new service development process could be counter-productive and a bricolage perspective might better explain service innovation in resource constrained environments. In this conceptual paper, we propose that four critical bricolage capabilities (addressing resource scarcity actively, making do with what is available, improvising when recombining resources, and networking with external partners) influence service innovation outcomes. Empirical illustrations from five organizations substantiate our conceptual development. Our discussion leads to a framework and four testable propositions that can guide further service research. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved.

  • 27.
    Witell, Lars
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, The Service and Market Oriented Transport Research Group.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Service Research Center. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Business Administration.
    Fischer-Hübner, Simone
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Gebauer, Heiko
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Managerial recommendations for service innovations in different product-service systems2010In: Introduction to Product-Service Systems design / [ed] Sakao, T.; M. Lindahl, London: Springer , 2010, p. 237-259Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to meet the increasingly complex needs of customers and to respond to decreasing product margins, typical product manufacturers have developed a growing interest in extending their service business. The extension of the service business requires a systematic development of innovative services. Unfortunately, in business practice it has been observed historically that manufacturing companies often fail to develop services systematically. Some customers asked for services and these desires were often fulfilled. Thus, the extension of the service business reflects a rather unstructured service innovation approach, which has not been consciously pursued. Rather than developing more formal structures to elicit ideas for new services, it is mostly performed ad hoc. Only a limited number of firms use formal approaches to service innovation and have implemented necessary determinants to success. Furthermore, the innovation of services in manufacturing companies captures two specific idiosyncrasies. First, manufacturing companies have to balance product and service innovations. Second, services can be either developed during the product development process or during the product usage. The major challenge to success in innovating services is to combine specific product-service systems with the right service strategy and way to develop service innovations.

1 - 27 of 27
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