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  • 1.
    Baks, Tim
    et al.
    Friesland Campina Research, The Netherlands.
    Boom, Remco
    Wageningen University & Research centre, The Netherlands.
    Devid, Edwin
    Leiden University, The Netherlands.
    Dresselhuis, Diane
    Friesland Campina Research, The Netherlands.
    Falco, Gianmaria
    University of Cologne, Germany .
    de Folter, Julius
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Leermakers, Frans
    Wageningen University & Research centre, The Netherlands.
    Li, Jianan
    VU University Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Muntean, Andrea
    Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Poortinga, Albert
    Friesland Campina Research, The Netherlands.
    Robijn, Gerard
    Friesland Campina Research, The Netherlands.
    Stoyanov, Simeon
    Unilever R&D, The Netherlands.
    Teapal, Juliane
    Wageningen University & Research centre, The Netherlands.
    van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees
    University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Schrödinger's capsule: a (micro) capsulate that is open and closed, almost, at the same time2010Ingår i: Proceedings of the Physics with Industry 2010, 11-15 October 2010, Leiden, The Netherlands / [ed] Lorentz Center Leiden, Lorentz Center Leiden , 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We exploit different routes for encapsulation of food additives, such as minerals or vitamins, in a polymeric capsule. The added active ingredients should remain inside the capsule for at least a year in an aqueous environment (e.g. a dairy product), since sensory properties or functionality of the ingredients may otherwise be affected. However, after intake the active compound should readily (within 1 h) be released due to the acidic environment in the stomach. First, we propose a phenomenological model in order to study how a polymeric matrix may limit the diffusion of incorporated active molecules. The relation between the release rate of the active compound and its molecular weight is elucidated. Second, the desired capsules may be obtained by specific binding between subunits within the capsule and the active ingredient. We show two examples that rely on this mechanism: amylose-lipid complexes and mixed metal hydroxides. Amylose is able to form inclusion complexes with various types of ligands, including iodine, monoglycerides, fatty acids and alcohols, where the hydrophobic parts of the ligands are entrapped in the hydrophobic helical cavity of amylose. Mixed metal hydroxides are a versatile class of inorganic solids that consist of sheets of metal cations that are octahedrally surrounded by hydroxide molecules. In between these layers anionic species compensate for charge neutrality. In this way, various metal cations (minerals) may be incorporated with a high loading, and negatively charged actives may be placed between the layers. Upon digestion the particles dissolve and the ingredients are digested. Finally, we show that nature has already developed many intriguing capsules.

  • 2.
    Blazinic, Vanja
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013).
    Ericsson, Leif
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013).
    Muntean, Stela Andrea
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013).
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013).
    Photo-degradation in air of spin-coated PC60BM and PC70BM films2018Ingår i: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 241, s. 26-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The fullerene derivatives PC60BM and PC70BM are widely used as electron accepting components in the active layer of polymer solar cells. Here we compare their photochemical stability by exposing thin films of PC60BM and PC70BM to simulated sunlight in ambient air for up to 47 h, and study changes in their UV–vis and FT-IR spectra. We quantify the photo-degradation by tracking the development of oxidation products in the transmission FT-IR spectra. Results indicate that PC60BM photodegrades faster than PC70BM. The rate of photo-oxidation of the thin films is dependent on the rate of oxygen diffusion in to the film and on the photo-oxidation rate of a single molecule. Both factors are dependent on the nature of the fullerene cage. The faster photo-oxidation of PC60BM than of PC70BM is in agreement with its slightly lower density and its higher reactivity. The use of PC70BM in solar cells is advantageous not only because of its absorption spectrum, but also because of its higher stability.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2020-04-07 11:29
  • 3.
    Cirillo, Emilio N.M.
    et al.
    Sapienza Universit`a di Roma, Italy.
    Colangeli, Matteo
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013).
    Muntean, Adrian
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).
    Muntean, Stela Andrea
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap och fysik (from 2013).
    van Stam, Jan
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper (from 2013).
    A lattice model approach to the morphology formation from ternary mixtures during the evaporation of one component2019Ingår i: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 228, nr 1, s. 55-68Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Stimulated by experimental evidence in the field of solution-born thin films, we study the morphology formation in a three state lattice system subjected to the evaporation of one component. The practical problem that we address is the understanding of the parameters that govern morphology formation from a ternary mixture upon evaporation, as is the case in the fabrication of thin films from solution for organic photovoltaics. We use, as a tool, a generalized version of the Potts and Blume-Capel models in 2D, with the Monte Carlo Kawasaki-Metropolis algorithm, to simulate the phase behaviour of a ternary mixture upon evaporation of one of its components. The components with spin 1, −1 and 0 in the Blume-Capel dynamics correspond to the electron-acceptor, electron-donor and solvent molecules, respectively, in a ternary mixture used in the preparation of the active layer films in an organic solar cell. Furthermore, we introduce parameters that account for the relative composition of the mixture, temperature, and interaction between the species in the system. We identify the parameter regions that are prone to facilitate the phase separation. Furthermore, we study qualitatively the types of formed configurations. We show that even a relatively simple model, as the present one, can generate key morphological features, similar to those observed in experiments, which proves the method valuable for the study of complex systems.

  • 4.
    Muntean, Stela Andrea
    Technische Universiteit Eindhoven.
    Molecular-dynamics simulations of polymeric surfaces for biomolecular applications2013Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In-vitro diagnostics plays a very important role in the present healthcare system. It consists of a large variety of medical devices designed to diagnose a medical condition by measuring a target molecule in a sample, such as blood or urine. In vitro is the latin term for in glass and refers here to the fact that the samples are investigated outside the living organism. The range of target molecules is very broad, spanning from salts to small molecules, proteins, nucleic acids and cells. An important segment in this range is the measurement of macromolecules, such as biomarker proteins or nucleic acids, in biological samples. Biosensors are compact systems for rapid detection of biological molecules. The first commercial biosensor was introduced in 1975 for glucose analysis by the Yellow Springs Instrument Company, based on the pioneering work of Clark and Lyons. Since that time, biosensors are becoming more integrated, more sensitive, smaller, faster and cheaper and are becoming available for more and more classes of biomarkers. The immunoassays can be performed nowadays in devices with very different formats, from the high-throughput parallel analysis on well-plates to integrated point-of-care biosensors using lab-on-a-chip technology. The solid phase in these devices is very often a polymeric glass. Polymeric glasses, such as polystyrene, are easy to process and can be produced at low costs, which makes them suitable for disposable cartridges in lab-on-a-chip devices. An important process in the immunoassays is the physisorption of the macromolecules to the polymeric solid phase, such as the non-specific binding of molecules from the biological sample onto the polymeric carrier. This process plays a very important role in the limit of detection, which is given by specific binding (signal) over non-specific binding (background). Therefore, the understanding of the non-specific binding of macromolecules to polymeric surfaces is crucial for the improvement of the sensitivity in these devices. The scope of this thesis is to gain fundamental knowledge on the physisorption of proteins onto polymeric surfaces and to understand how to model this process in atomistic details. The goal of this work is to model the interaction between myoglobin and polystyrene surfaces, within a clean buffer. Computer simulations provide detailed informations about the nature of the non-specific interactions between the biomolecule and the polymeric substrate, at molecular and atomic scales. The high level of detail obtained from simulations on a smaller scale is complementary to the experimental results obtained at a larger scale. The polymeric substrate is in our case modeled by an atactic amorphous polystyrene thin film. We would like to explore the possibility of changing the properties of the polymeric substrate, to prevent non-specific interaction, by chemical modification induced by oxidation. Pure polystyrene is a hydrophobic material. We tune the hydrophilicity of its surface by adding oxygen atoms to the phenyl rings of the polystyrene chain. This addition of oxygen is a way to mimic the oxidation of polystyrene surfaces that is performed in experiments. We represent the buffer solution in simulations by explicit water molecules described at atomistic level, to which we add Na+ and Cl- ions to reproduce the salt concentration in the experimentally used buffer solution. We chose myoglobin as model biomolecule because it is a relatively small globular protein, well studied in the past and represents a good candidate for practical applications. The first question we intend to answer is to which extent the model used to represent the polystyrene chains is important for the macroscopic properties of the polystyrene films and in particular to their interaction with the water molecules. To tackle this issue, we chose two representations of the polystyrene chains: the united atoms representations on one hand, in which only the heavy atoms are modeled explicitly and the hydrogen atoms are collapsed on the carbon atoms to which they are covalently bonded, and the dummy-hydrogens atoms representation on the other hand, in which the hydrogen atoms are modeled as interaction sites with no mass and with a positive partial electrical charge. The results of these simulations are presented in Chapter 3. We begin our systematic study on the interacting species in a biomedical device by characterizing the atactic amorphous polystyrene substrate. In Chapter 4 we present the results of molecular-dynamics simulations of polystyrene surfaces with controlled degree of oxidation. The variations in degree of oxidation at the surface, ranging from 0% to 24%, correspond to different degrees of hydrophilicity of the polystyrene surface, from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. We study the influence of the oxidation on the roughness of the film, both in vacuum and in water environment. We compare our results with experimental results from AFM measurements obtained by our collaborators. We also analyze the ordering of the molecular segments in non-oxidized and oxidized polystyrene at the interface with vacuum and with water. The structure of the water interface near polystyrene surfaces with different hydrophilicity is analyzed as well. Since the interaction between proteins and polymeric surfaces is a water-mediated process, it is very important to know how water behaves near these surfaces. In Chapter 5 we discuss the dynamics of water near non-oxidized (hydrophobic) and oxidized (hydrophilic) polystyrene surfaces, both in united-atoms and dummy-hydrogen atoms representations. We discuss the orientational dynamics of water molecules and its dependence on the distance from the interface. Furthermore, the translational diffusion of water molecules is briefly discussed. In Chapter 6 we study the nature of non-specific adsorption of myoglobin, as model protein, to hydrophobic and hydrophilic polystyrene surfaces. We investigate the importance of the orientation of the protein in the process of adsorption. We also discuss the influence of the hydrophilicity of the surface on the strength of adsorption of the protein. We conclude this thesis by Chapter 7, in which our main results are summarized. In addition, we give there an outlook on further interesting questions.

  • 5.
    Muntean, Stela Andrea
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; Dutch Polymer Institute, Netherlands.
    Gerasimov, R. A.
    Cherepovets State University, Cherepovets, Russia.
    Lyulin, A. V.
    University of Technology, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Dynamics of water near oxidized polystyrene films2012Ingår i: Macromolecular Theory and Simulations, ISSN 1022-1344, E-ISSN 1521-3919, Vol. 21, nr 8, s. 544-552Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Atomistic MD simulations of water in the vicinity of oxidized amorphous atactic polystyrene are presented. The changes in the orientational and translational dynamics of water near polymer surfaces with different hydrophilicity are studied. Two main orientational relaxation processes of water molecules are distinguished: a process on a fs timescale, associated with the ballistic motion of water molecules, and a process on a ps timescale, associated with the self-diffusion of water. The fast process is not affected by the presence of the polymeric surface. The second relaxation process differs at the interface from that in the bulk in that the dynamics of water molecules is more heterogeneous in the first. The effect of the representation of polystyrene films on the water dynamics is discussed. MD simulations for the dynamics of water near hydrophilic and hydrophobic polystyrene surfaces are presented. The quantities that characterize the dynamic behavior of water in the first layers near the interface are compared with those in bulk. The influence of the polystyrene model on the dynamic properties of water is studied. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  • 6.
    Muntean, Stela Andrea
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; Dutch Polymer Institute, Netherlands.
    Kemper, Marijn
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; Dutch Polymer Institute, Netherlands.
    Van Ijzendoorn, L. J.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Lyulin, A. V.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Roughness and ordering at the interface of oxidized polystyrene and water2011Ingår i: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 27, nr 14, s. 8678-8686Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For the first time, atomistically detailed molecular dynamics calculations revealed molecular ordering of the water-oxidized atactic polystyrene (aPS) interface. Both ordering of the water molecules and the phenyl rings occur. In addition, the natural roughness of the surface has been simulated and compared to experimental values. The composition of the simulated aPS films is based on spin-coated aPS films that have been oxidized and characterized experimentally. The aPS surfaces are oxidized with ultraviolet-ozone radiation and have been characterized by XPS, AFM, and water contact angle measurements. XPS measurements show that the oxygen content in the sample increases rapidly with exposure and reaches saturation near 24 at. % of oxygen. The molecular dynamics simulations show smoothening of an hydrophobic aPS surface upon transition from vacuum to water. The smoothening decreases with increasing hydrophilicity. The calculations reveal ordering of oxidized phenyl rings for aPS surfaces in water. The order increases with increasing hydrophilicity. Additionally, we investigated the water structure near the aPS-water interface as a function of the surface hydrophilicity. With increasing hydrophilicity, the density of water at the aPS-water interface increases. The water density profile is steeper in the presence of hydrophobic aPS. The water shows an ordered layer near both the hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces; the position of this layer shifts toward the interface with increasing hydrophilicity. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  • 7.
    Muntean, Stela Andrea
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Lyulin, Alexey V.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Molecular-dynamics simulations of oxidation effects on properties of polystyrene surfaces2010Ingår i: Fifth International Conference. MMM 2010, Multiscale Materials Modeling: Conference Proceedings: Biological & Soft Materials / [ed] Peter Gumbsch, Erik van der Giessen, 2010, s. 623-626Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effect of oxidation on the properties of atactic polystyrene surfaces by molecular dynamics simulations using GROMACS software package. The chemical modification of the polymeric surface changes its hydrophobic/hydrophilic character. We analyze the change in surface roughness upon oxidation and upon water presence. Additionally, we study the change in water structure near the surface as function of the hydrophilic character of the surface.

  • 8.
    Muntean, Stela Andrea
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; Dutch Polymer Institute, Netherlands.
    Michels, Matthias A. J.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Lyulin, Alexey V.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Myoglobin interactions with polystyrene surfaces of different hydrophobicity2014Ingår i: Macromolecular Theory and Simulations, ISSN 1022-1344, E-ISSN 1521-3919, Vol. 23, nr 2, s. 63-75Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The atomistic molecular-dynamics simulations of the initial stage of myoglobin adsorption on amorphous polystyrene surfaces with varying hydrophobicity are presented. The polystyrene surfaces as non-oxidized (hydrophobic) and oxidized (hydrophilic) films, both in united-atoms and dummy-hydrogen atoms representations are modeled. The protein is placed initially at different distances and orientations from the polymer. We monitor the interactions between the protein and the polystyrene surface for the same polystyrene surface in contact with the protein in different initial orientations and for one initial orientation of the protein in contact with different polystyrene surfaces. By comparing the stability and the number of myoglobin-polystyrene atomic contacts and the interaction energies, it is found that the initial contact of the protein with the hydrophobic polystyrene surfaces is stronger than with the hydrophilic ones. The orientations of the myoglobin in which the more rigid protein parts face the polymer exhibit stronger initial contact with the polymeric surface. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  • 9.
    Muntean, Stela Andrea
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; Dutch Polymer Institute, Netherlands.
    Wedershoven, Hubertus M. J. M.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Gerasimov, Roman A.
    Cherepovets State University, Russia.
    Lyulin, Alexey V.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Representation of hydrogen atoms in molecular dynamics simulations: The influence on the computed properties of thin polystyrene films2012Ingår i: Macromolecular Theory and Simulations, ISSN 1022-1344, E-ISSN 1521-3919, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 90-97Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The united atoms (UA) and dummy hydrogen atom (DHA) approaches for molecular dynamics simulations of the interface between oxidized atactic polystyrene (aPS) thin films and water are compared. For both oxidized and non-oxidized aPS films the polymer density profile decays steepest when using the UA model. The surface roughness of the aPS film and the ordering of the phenyl rings near the surface decrease upon changing from vacuum to water for the UA, but not for the DHA model. This also supports the fact that the non-oxidized aPS films modeled in DHA representation become less hydrophobic. The water structure close to the interface also suggests that the aPS films modeled using UA are more hydrophobic compared to the aPS films modeled with DHA in the phenyl rings. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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