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  • 1.
    Dietrich, Timo
    et al.
    Griffith University, Australia.
    Trischler, Jakob
    Southern Cross University, Australia.
    Schuster, Lisa
    Queensland University of Technology, Australia.
    Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn
    Griffith University, Australia.
    Co-designing services with vulnerable consumers2017In: Journal of service theory and practice, ISSN 2055-6225, E-ISSN 2055-6233, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 663-688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how vulnerable consumers can be involved in transformative service design and how this approach may enhance the design of such services. The study also analyzes how co-design with vulnerable consumers differs from existing user involvement processes with the purpose of developing a co-design framework.

    Design/methodology/approach

    A case study approach was employed, with six high schools in Australia identified as sites to conduct co-design sessions for a school-based alcohol education program. Adolescents were invited to review and (re)design an existing alcohol education program.

    Findings

    The study indicates that co-design with vulnerable consumers cannot be approached in the same way as conventional user involvement processes. Based on the insights generated from six co-design sessions as well as the examination of user involvement and co-design literature, the authors propose a six-step co-design framework. The six steps comprise resourcing, planning, recruiting, sensitizing, facilitation and evaluation.

    Research limitations/implications

    The co-design framework illustrates important differences to conventional user involvement processes. However, the generalizability of the research findings is limited to a specific study setting and a narrowly defined sample. Future research in a different setting is needed to further validate the presented findings.

    Practical implications

    For service design practice, this study provides guidelines on how co-design activities with vulnerable consumers can be effectively resourced, planned, recruited, sensitized, facilitated and evaluated. The framework outlines how co-design may be applied so that vulnerable consumers can become empowered participants during the design process.

    Originality/value

    This research contributes to the knowledge in transformative service research – a priority in service research – and service design by extending the boundaries of our understanding of processes and tools for the involvement of vulnerable consumers in transformative service design.

  • 2.
    Durl, James
    et al.
    Griffith University.
    Dietrich, Timo
    Griffith University.
    Trischler, Jakob
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Co‐design of virtual reality adolescent ‘Party’ simulation2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Durl, James
    et al.
    Griffith University, Australia.
    Trischler, Jakob
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Dietrich, Timo
    Griffith University, Australia.
    Co-designing with young consumers: Reflections, challenges and benefits2017In: Young Consumers, ISSN 1747-3616, E-ISSN 1758-7212, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 439-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This paper aims to explore co-design as a method for actively involving young consumers in the design of an alcohol education program that utilizes an interactive Virtual Reality (VR) component. Design/methodology/approach - Dietrich et al. (2017) six-step framework was applied to a co-design project involving four groups of 14- to 16-year-old Australian high school students. Data collection included observations by three facilitators, written feedback from members of each group and video presentations of the generated ideas. The data analysis focused on investigating the applicability of the six-step framework to young consumers and evaluating the quality and practicality of the generated ideas. Findings - Sensitization is key to enabling young consumers to become equal participants during the co-design process. Sensitization allowed the participants to engage in the design task in a playful manner, which fostered active participation and creative insights during the co-design session. A team approach based on interactivity and group autonomy enabled adolescents to contribute insights into their specific needs and wants. This was complemented by a trusting environment and the presence of immediately available yet "hands off" facilitators. Research limitations/implications - The findings are limited to one specific sample and design task. Future research is required that investigates co-design with young consumers in different contexts. Practical implications - This paper provides guidance for the application of co-design with young consumers by highlighting the importance of sensitization and facilitation. Originality/value - This study marks one of the first approaches to co-designing alcohol education programs, including VR components, with young consumers. The findings contribute to a better understanding of the consequences of involving young consumers through co-design.

  • 4.
    Gillett, Patrick
    et al.
    Southern Cross University.
    Trischler, Jakob
    Southern Cross University.
    Sinnewe, Elisabeth
    Southern Cross University.
    A service design framework for doctoral program management2011In: ANZAM, Wellington: Australia and New Zealand Academy of Management , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conventional approach to doctoral program management in Australia and New Zealand has been criticized for its failure to keep pace with changes to the educational context. Ongoing challenges associated with the system parameters of doctoral programs further support the need for an alternative perspective to this critical research training process. As a first step toward improved doctoral program outcomes, a management framework based on the concept of Service Design is proposed. This framework emphasises the value of incorporating students as co-designers of the doctoral program. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated by undertaking and reporting a student journey-mapping exercise. Future research activities that contribute toward the Service Design approach for doctoral program management are identified and discussed.

  • 5.
    Hurley, Erin
    et al.
    Griffith University.
    Dietrich, Timo
    Griffith University.
    Trischler, Jakob
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Co‐designing transformative services for sensitive topics2017In: / [ed] Linda Robinson, Linda Brennan, Mike Reid, Mel, 2017, p. 698-701Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transformative service design is dominated by expert-driven design solutions which, as is evidenced in the current context of alcohol education, might not successfully capture user needs. Responding to the call for exploring possible alternatives to conventional design approaches, this study investigates how users can be involved through co-design and what contributions they can make during this process. A six-step co-design process was used to collect and evaluate the qualitative data. Findings show that the recruitment and facilitation stages are key to the success of co-design sessions. Additionally, it was found that the user-designed programs differed from previously expert-designed programs, namely in terms of the delivery platforms used, duration of the program, and the level of adolescent involvement. Ultimately, the study shows that co-design, if fully utilised and users are empowered to contribute actively, can allow for the design of transformative services that are more aligned to the specific user needs.

  • 6.
    Hurley, Erin
    et al.
    Griffith University.
    Dietrich, Timo
    Griffith University.
    Trischler, Jakob
    Southern Cross University.
    Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn
    Griffith University.
    A co-design process to orient social marketing programs to the target audience: An alcohol case2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Hurley, Erin
    et al.
    Griffith University, Australia.
    Trischler, Jakob
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Dietrich, Timo
    Griffith University, Australia.
    Exploring the application of co-design to transformative service research2018In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 715-727Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate in a transformative service research (TSR) context how users can be involved through co-design and what contributions they can make during this process. Design/methodology/approach: A six-step co-design process was used to plan and facilitate two co-design sessions that involved a total of 24 participants. The collected data include field notes, transcripts from group discussions, recordings of idea presentations and the evaluation of ideas. Findings: A recruitment strategy that uses strong networks and sensitizes users through generating awareness of the underlying issue can prevent the waste of valuable resources. During the facilitation stage, experts need to find the fine line between close guidance and giving voice to the users. User-generated ideas set the starting point for new value propositions that more effectively support users in their value creation processes. Research limitations/implications: The findings are limited to one specific sample and design task. Future research is required that investigates the application of co-design to other TSR contexts. Practical implications: In TSR, organizations will need to follow a different co-design approach owing to the sensitive nature of the design task and/or users that are not driven by innovation-related motivations. Organizations should tap into their networks to raise awareness and recruit suitable participants. To capture users’ unique insights and foster the collective creativity, facilitation should focus on enabling participants through the use of design tools and team management. Originality/value: The study contributes new insights into requirements, challenges and benefits of applying co-design to TSR contexts. The study shows that ordinary users, if empowered, can give important insights into the design of new value propositions.

  • 8.
    Kelly, Stephen J
    et al.
    Southern Cross University.
    Scott, Jennifer
    Southern Cross University.
    Trischler, Jakob
    Southern Cross University.
    Wojtarowicz, Natalie
    Southern Cross University.
    Entrepreneurial development: Creating and implementing an effective innovation policy2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The managerial flow framework (MFF) was designed to facilitate improved implementation of public policies through proactive management of planning, governance, selection, partnership, and knowledge gaps (Vecchi & Brusoni, 2012). Within the MFF, this is achieved through managerial decisions and actions that generate managerial assets. For this research, the MFF was used as a lens to analyse the implementation of an innovation policy in a substantive Australian local government authority (LGA) as part of its broader economic development plan.

    Using a case study based on qualitative data, our investigation drew upon a review of the literature covering strategic management, public policy, network theory, and relationship marketing and our resultant research questions:

    RQ1: How does strategic orientation influence the implementation of innovation policy and affect the planning gap identified by the MFF?

    RQ2: How can networks and relationships foster or hinder innovation policy to minimise, close, or address the gaps identified by the MFF?

    Within the context of our research, the influence of strategic orientation and the management of networks and relationships for the development and implementation of innovation policy was notably significant in successfully addressing the gaps as characterised in the MFF. Additionally, we found the LGA collaboratively developed its new economic development strategy with key stakeholders at all stages, ensuring flexibility and responsiveness to State and Federal government initiatives. The LGA ensured the new strategy is outcome-oriented through the use of semi-annual assessments against specific key performance indicators.

    Our contribution to the understanding of sustainable entrepreneurship in local and regional policy development is twofold. First, we demonstrate how a LGA can moderate the gaps identified in the MFF when implementing its innovation policy. Second, we identify how a LGA can develop outcome-oriented policies by employing a strategic orientation and focusing on networks and relationships.

  • 9.
    Kelly, Stephen
    et al.
    Southern Cross University.
    Scott, Jennifer
    Southern Cross University.
    Trischler, Jakob
    Southern Cross University.
    Wojtarowicz, Natalie
    Southern Cross University.
    Implementing Innovation Policy2015In: Managerial Flow, London: Routledge, 2015, p. 45-59Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Kistler, Beat
    et al.
    Griffith University, Australia..
    Trischler, Jakob
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Lohmann, Gui
    Griffith University, Australia..
    Passenger representation within the light-handed regulation - Insights from the Australian air transport market2018In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 71, p. 106-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article critically reviews the representation of passengers within the light-handed regulation (LHR) that has been in place in the Australian air transport market since 2002. The focus is the commercial negotiations between airlines and airports concerning investments that affect passengers as key stakeholders, end-users, and payers. The article draws on literature on consumer representation and willingness to pay, as well as data from 21 in-depth interviews. The findings suggest that within the current arrangement, passengers are dependent on airlines as their representatives, although their interests may differ concerning investments in airport infrastructure and services. This dependency is leveraged by the current airline duopoly in the Australian domestic air transport market because passengers have no transport alternatives among which to choose. Airports charging passengers their fees (and eventually negotiating prices for improved services) directly is not deemed a suitable option because it could increase the airports' market power and affect the passenger experience negatively. Recommendations, such as involving an independent representation body and diversifying service provision at the airport, are discussed as possibilities for increasing passengers' influence.

  • 11.
    Lohmann, Gui
    et al.
    Griffith University, Australia.
    Trischler, Jakob
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Licence to build, licence to charge? Market power, pricing and the financing of airport infrastructure development in Australia2017In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 59, p. 28-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2017, airport privatisation in Australia reached a 20-year milestone, with its regulatory framework been shifted to a light-handed regulation in 2002. The light-handed regulation (LHR), as in place at Australia's top four airports, has been suggested as the ‘frontier of international policy’, leading to increasing interest among transport policymakers and researchers. This article offers an in-depth examination of the LHR with focus on a) the market-power of the regulated airports, b) the commercial price negotiations between airports and airlines, and c) the airports' behaviour towards infrastructure investment. The article reports on data from 21 semi-structured interviews conducted with key stakeholder groups affected by, or with expertise in, the LHR. Findings suggest that despite airports possessing significant market power, particularly in the domestic market, the light-handed approach seems to balance the forces in a market where an airline duopoly prevails (Qantas and Virgin Australia groups). In addition, both airports and airlines perceive that commercial price negotiations are improving and refrain from a return to a stronger regulation environment. For airlines, value-for-money is the primary concern in new infrastructure investments. Interviewees also outlined specific recommendations for improving the LHR framework, including a more accessible arbitrator and improved methodologies to monitor prices and quality of service. The findings point towards the significance of vertical relationships, long-term arrangements, and transparency as key aspects of the LHR and the development of airport infrastructure.

  • 12.
    Lohmann, Gui
    et al.
    Southern Cross University.
    Trischler, Jakob
    Southern Cross University.
    The failure of fast ferry catamaran operations in New Zealand and Hawaii2012In: Journal of Transportation Technologies, ISSN 2160-0473, E-ISSN 2160-0481, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 102-112Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Lohmann, Gui
    et al.
    Southern Cross University.
    Trischler, Jakob
    Southern Cross University.
    Tourism transport issues in Brazil2012In: Tourism in Brazil: Environment, Management and Segments / [ed] Gui Lohmann,Dianne Dredge, London: Routledge, 2012, p. 44-58Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Trischler, Jakob
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Integrating Service Design as an Organizational Practice2017In: / [ed] Linda Robinson, Linda Brennan, Mike Reid, 2017, p. 357-360Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that design interventions can affect ongoing practices within an organization. Yet limited insights are available on what it actually takes to integrate service design as an organizational practice. The present research takes an early step in investigating two cases where one-off design projects were conducted with the aim to not only innovate new services but to embed service design as an ongoing practice. The findings reveal that external design professionals can raise awareness of the benefits of service design and impart designerly skills and methods. However, the actual transformation towards adopting service design requires firm-internal people who lead by example. Designers and other external stakeholders might not have the ability to change the existing institutional arrangements from the outside-in. Instead, changes from the inside-out are additionally required with focus on empowering employees, users, and other stakeholders to engage in design

  • 15.
    Trischler, Jakob
    Southern Cross University.
    Service Design: Practical Access to Theme Parks2016In: Schriftenreihe Entrepreneurship & Tourismus / [ed] Siller, Hubert; Zehrer, Anita, Innsbruck: Studia Verlag , 2016, p. 4-19Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Trischler, Jakob
    Southern Cross University.
    User involvement in service design teams: Investigating the effect of involving users in ideation of library services2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis research tested active user involvement in service design teams and explored its impact on the design process and its outcomes. It was found that not only the form of user involvement matters in service design but that particularly the characteristics of the involved users can impact on team performance and the development of design ideas in terms of user value, feasibility, and originality. The findings lead to a closer understanding of how co-design affects service design outcomes and what variations can occur during the design process when users are involved.

  • 17.
    Trischler, Jakob
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Charles, Michael
    Southern Cross University, Coolangatta, Australia.
    The Application of a Service Ecosystems Lens to Public Policy Analysis and Design: Exploring the Frontiers2019In: Journal of Public Policy & Marketing JPP&M, ISSN 0743-9156, E-ISSN 1547-7207, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 19-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relevance of marketing for public policy has been questioned because its focus on dyadic exchanges does not consider the dynamism and complexity of public problems. Public service-dominant logic, as a new lens for public policy and management, does not address this limitation, because its focus remains on delivering services to the end user. Integrating recent developments in service-dominant logic and related research, this article proposes applying a service ecosystems lens to public policy. Five propositions guide the application of this lens to public policy analysis and design. Public policy is conceptualized as a means to enable service by coordinating multiple actors' value cocreation activities to address public problems. Inherent in this conceptualization is the multilevel nature of policy analysis, which includes the users' value creation process (micro level), the context (meso level), and the broader value constellation (macro level). Policy design, in turn, includes the identification and support of emergent solutions driven by different actors. Policy makers therefore need to consider problem-conditions-solution combinations across the value constellation and the effect of public interventions on these constellations. The article concludes by presenting policy makers with marketing and design practices that can assist in the analysis of service ecosystems and engage relevant stakeholders in change initiatives.

  • 18.
    Trischler, Jakob
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center.
    Dietrich, Timo
    Griffith University.
    Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn
    Griffith University.
    A conceptual co-design framework for transformative service research2017In: Proceedings of the QUIS15 International Research Symposium on Service Excellence in Management., Porto: FEUP - Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto, Portuga , 2017, p. 11-20Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Trischler, Jakob
    et al.
    Southern Cross University.
    Kelly, Kate
    Southern Cross University.
    User Involvement in the Design of New Library Services: Learning from the Application of Codesign on Library Service Design Projects2016In: Quality and the Academic Library - Reviewing, Assessing and Enhancing Service Provision / [ed] Jeremy Atkinson, London: Chandos Publishing, 2016, p. 111-120Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Trischler, Jakob
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Kristensson, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Psychology. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Scott, Don
    Southern Cross Business School, Southern Cross University, Lismore, Australia.
    Team diversity and its management in a co-design team2017In: Journal of Service Management, ISSN 1757-5818, E-ISSN 1757-5826, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 120-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the conditions under which a co-design team comprised of in-house professionals and leading-edge service users can generate innovative service design concepts. Design/methodology/approach: The investigation used a field-experimental design to conduct two studies. Observations and open-ended questionnaires were used to examine cross-comparison matrices with experts rating the generated outcomes and t-tests being used to compare the outcome ratings between teams of different compositions. Findings: The outcomes produced by a co-design team seem to be linked to the team diversity – process facilitation relationship. Bringing a variety of knowledge and skills into the team can lead to original outcomes, while a high disparity between members’ backgrounds can require extensive efforts to facilitate a collaborative process. Separation between users’ objectives can result in a user-driven process and outcomes that are too specific for the broader marketplace. Co-design teams that characterize minimum separation, maximum variety, and moderate disparity are likely to produce the most promising results. Research limitations/implications: The research was restricted to a narrowly defined study setting and samples. Future research should replicate the current study in other service contexts using different team compositions. Practical implications: Co-design requires the careful selection of users based on their background and motivations, as well as the facilitation of a process that enables the team to collaboratively transform relevant knowledge into innovative outcomes. Originality/value: The research contributes to a better understanding of the team composition – process facilitation relationship affecting innovation outcomes. Doing so provides a more fine-grained picture of the co-design team composition and the facilitation requirements for service design. © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 21.
    Trischler, Jakob
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Lohmann, Gui
    Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia.
    Monitoring quality of service at Australian airports: A critical analysis2018In: Journal of Air Transport Management, ISSN 0969-6997, E-ISSN 1873-2089, Vol. 67, p. 63-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality of service monitoring forms a key element of the current light-handed regulation at Australian airports. The ACCC (Australian Competition and Consumer Commission) evaluates and publicly reports the quality of service levels of the four largest airports on a yearly basis to pressure airports to maintain an acceptable service performance. This article aims to provide an in-depth analysis of the methodology used by the ACCC. This analysis includes a critical review of the methodology based on secondary information in combination with primary research (i.e., data from 21 semi-structured interviews) that considers the current perception of the methodology among key stakeholder groups. The research finds that the methodology used by the ACCC is underpinned by some limitations, putting in question its effectiveness, reliability and validity. Particularly, its weak design does not allow for a comprehensive interpretation of the reported results or a reliable comparison across monitored airports, thus reduces transparency. Stakeholders pointed out that it is not possible to evaluate whether an airport undertakes infrastructure investments that ensure both the efficiency of ongoing airport operations and appropriate levels of service quality. These limitations add to the perception that the ACCC in its current function is not a 'credible threat' to airports with market power. Recommendations and future research directions are provided to address the identified limitations.

  • 22.
    Trischler, Jakob
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Lohmann, Gui
    Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia.
    Monitoring quality of service at Australian airports: A critical analysis2018In: Journal of Air Transport Management, ISSN 0969-6997, E-ISSN 1873-2089, Vol. 67, p. 63-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality of service monitoring forms a key element of the current light-handed regulation at Australian airports. The ACCC (Australian Competition and Consumer Commission) evaluates and publicly reports the quality of service levels of the four largest airports on a yearly basis to pressure airports to maintain an acceptable service performance. This article aims to provide an in-depth analysis of the methodology used by the ACCC. This analysis includes a critical review of the methodology based on secondary information in combination with primary research (i.e., data from 21 semi-structured interviews) that considers the current perception of the methodology among key stakeholder groups. The research finds that the methodology used by the ACCC is underpinned by some limitations, putting in question its effectiveness, reliability and validity. Particularly, its weak design does not allow for a comprehensive interpretation of the reported results or a reliable comparison across monitored airports, thus reduces transparency. Stakeholders pointed out that it is not possible to evaluate whether an airport undertakes infrastructure investments that ensure both the efficiency of ongoing airport operations and appropriate levels of service quality. These limitations add to the perception that the ACCC in its current function is not a ‘credible threat’ to airports with market power. Recommendations and future research directions are provided to address the identified limitations.

  • 23.
    Trischler, Jakob
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Pervan, Simon J.
    Swinburne University of Technology.
    Kelly, Stephen J.
    Massey University.
    Scott, Don R.
    Southern Cross University.
    The value of codesign: The effect of customer involvement in service design teams2018In: Journal of Service Research, ISSN 1094-6705, E-ISSN 1552-7379, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 75-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Codesign allows a design team to combine two sets of knowledge that are key to service design: Customer insights into latent user needs and in-house professionals’ conversion of promising new ideas into viable concepts. While some studies highlight the potential of codesign, others are more skeptical pointing to a lack of clarity over how the involvement of customers affects the design process and outcomes. This article addresses this knowledge gap by reporting on a real-world comparison of design concepts generated by codesign teams with those generated by an in-house professional team and a team solely made up of users in the course of a library service ideation contest. The comparison indicates that codesign teams generate concepts that score significantly higher in user benefit and novelty but lower in feasibility. However, these outcomes are only possible in cohesive teams that develop design concepts collaboratively. In contrast, in teams where individuals dominate, conflict, less collaboration, and diminished innovation outcomes are more likely. The findings add to a better understanding of the value of codesign and shed light on the complex relationship between design team composition, intrateam factors, and innovation outcomes. Service designers obtain recommendations for selecting customers, assembling teams, and managing intrateam dynamics to enhance codesign success.

  • 24.
    Trischler, Jakob
    et al.
    Griffith University, Australia.
    Pervan, Simon J.
    Swinburne University of Technology, Australia.
    Scott, Donald Robert
    Southern Cross University, Australia.
    Exploring the ‘black box’ of customer co-creation processes2017In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 265-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Many firms use customer co-creation practices with the aim of benefiting from their customers' knowledge, skills and resources. This paper aims to explore co-creation processes which involve users with different background characteristics and motivational drivers.

    Design/methodology/approach -The study builds on an analysis of data from six teams in which users collaborated with in-house professionals for the development of new service concepts. Observations and open-ended questionnaires provided insights into the teams' development processes. Independent experts rated the generated concepts. The data were analysed using cross-comparison matrices.FindingsThe findings suggest that the co-creation process and outcomes can be influenced by numerous intra-team factors, including relationship and task conflicts, participation style, team bonding, team identity and cohesiveness and intra-team collaboration. Their occurrence and influence seem to be linked with a specific team composition. A conceptual co-creation process model and six propositions are used to describe the complex relationships between team composition, intra-team factors and key innovation outcomes.

    Research limitations/implications - Research that investigates user involvement in teams needs to consider the complexity of intra-team factors affecting the development process and outcomes. The findings are limited to a specific setting, design task and user sample. Future research should replicate this study in different sectors.

    Practical implications - Key to customer co-creation is the systematic recruitment of users based on their background characteristics and motivational drivers. For instance, the involvement of users with very specific innovation-related benefit expectations can cause conflict, leading to narrowly focused outcomes. This, however, can be mitigated by the form of facilitation and roles adopted by in-house professionals. Understanding intra-team dynamics can allow the firm to assemble and facilitate customer co-creation so that generated outcomes can align with set innovation targets.

    Originality/value -This paper provides original insights into the "black box" of the customer co-creation process and the complex relationship between team composition, intra-team factors and key innovation outcomes.

  • 25.
    Trischler, Jakob
    et al.
    Southern Cross University.
    Scott, Don R
    Southern Cross University.
    Kelly, Stephen J
    Southern Cross University.
    Service design.: The examination of its place in service science2013In: Proceedings of the 2013 Forum on Service, Naples, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Trischler, Jakob
    et al.
    Southern Cross University.
    Scott, Don R
    Southern Cross University .
    Kelly, Stephen J
    Southern Cross University.
    What impacts do different forms of customer involvement have on the development of services? the identification of team-and customer-related factors2012In: ANZMAC, Adelaide: Ehrenberg-Bass Institute for Marketing Science , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In service design and innovation research activecustomerinvolvement has been suggested asa critical factor for developing successfulservices. Hence, the approach to service design and innovation has been argued to be necessarily open, cross-disciplinary and collaborativerather than closed R&D processes.Drawing upon extensive team research literature,however,it seems that the effective development of a service isaffected by a number of factors and cannot be reduced to the composition of teamsonly. Additional impacting factors have been found to be taskdesign and interdependence, internal team processesincluding bonding, conflicts and communication,and numerous external players such as length of a project, team leadership, management support and context-related factors. Further, by emphasizing on the examination of different forms of customerinvolvement, it appears that not only the form of customer involvement but also specific customer characteristics matter. We conclude with recommendations for future research that sets out to study different forms of customer involvement in a controlled environment.

  • 27.
    Trischler, Jakob
    et al.
    Southern Cross University.
    Scott, Donald Robert
    Southern Cross University.
    Designing Public Services: The usefulness of three service design methods for identifying user experiences2016In: Public Management Review, ISSN 1471-9037, E-ISSN 1471-9045, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 718-739Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Trischler, Jakob
    et al.
    Southern Cross University.
    Scott, Donald Robert
    Southern Cross University.
    The identification of innovative customer groups for collaborative design activities2014In: ServDes.2014 Service Future; Proceedings of the fourth Service Design and Service Innovation Conference, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2014, p. 23-33Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Trischler, Jakob
    et al.
    Southern Cross University.
    Sinnewe, Elisabeth
    Southern Cross University.
    The concept of on-going interactions in co-design: Insights from three different disciplines2012In: ServDes.2012 Conference Proceedings Co-Creating Services; The 3rd Service Design and Service Innovation Conference; 8-10 February; Espoo; Finland, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2012, p. 277-286Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Co-design with the customer is identified as an effective opportunity for service design and service innovation. By reviewing the different streams of marketing, design and service innovation with emphasis on user involvement, this paper proposes a multi-disciplinary framework for mutual learning and co- design. It is suggested that the firm can use on-going interactions with customers during the value generating process to create a space for mutual learning and co-design in which the customer becomes an integrated part of the innovation and design process not only as an informant but also as a co-designer

  • 30.
    Trischler, Jakob
    et al.
    Southern Cross University.
    Wilde, Simon J
    Southern Cross University.
    Service design as collaborative activity. What is the role of the customer?2012In: ANZMAC 2012 Proceedings, Perth, WA, Australia: Ehrenberg-Bass Institute for Marketing Science , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service design is not yet a defined discipline and its approach is poorly captured and understood within the extant literature. This paper takes a first step and provides a closer understanding of how service design might be integrated in marketing theory and practices. By drawing upon recent developments in design, marketing and the service literature, it is argued that service design reordered its perspective towards a customer-centered and collaborative approach rather than being limited to closed R&D processes. This change of approach not only evolved from the developments in design theory towards a human-centered standpoint but particularly from relationship marketing and the related service literature which declared the customer as an active value-creator within the service system. Building on the assumption that the customer becomes an active participant during the value co-creation process, service design is suggested as a co-design platform with customers rather than a firm-internal design activity. Co-design can be described as the collective creativity of designers and participants not trained in design, working together throughout the whole span of a design process (Sanders and Stappers 2008). Further, it is proposed that customers in particular may account for the role of co-designers because through ongoing interactions with the firm, customers can become active and more knowledgeable relationship partners. Hence, interactions can act as both in service design, as a designable area and a design resource. This, however, demands a mind shift in marketing from managing relationships and defining the customer as passive recipients towards interacting in relationships and the notion that value-generating processes overlap through interactions with customers. Also, for future research it becomes necessary to examine what are the advantages and restrictions of co-design, specifically when customers participate as active co-designers.

  • 31.
    Trischler, Jakob
    et al.
    Southern Cross University.
    Zehrer, Anita
    Management Center Innsbruck.
    Service design: Suggesting a qualitative multistep approach for analyzing and examining theme park experiences2012In: Journal of Vacation Marketing, ISSN 1356-7667, E-ISSN 1479-1870, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 57-71Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Trischler, Jakob
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Karlstad Business School (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Service Research Center (from 2013).
    Zehrer, Anita
    Management Center Innsbruck, Austria..
    Westman, Jessica
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    A designerly way of analyzing the customer experience2018In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 777-788Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the usability of different design methods in understanding the customer experience from a contextual and systemic standpoint.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Three design methods (i.e. personas, observations and collaborative service mapping) were applied to analyze customer experiences in two service settings. These methods’ usability was compared across the two settings.

    Findings

    Personas, as informed by phenomenological interviews, provide insights into the customer’s broader lifeworld context. These insights assist in connecting with and understanding the customer experience from a dyadic customer-firm perspective. The involvement of the customer in service mapping activities supports the validation of findings and gives access to experience dimensions beyond the immediate service setting.

    Research limitations/implications

    The analysis is limited to three design methods and is based on small samples. Future research should systematically review design methods to provide a basis for a more comprehensive

    evaluation.

    Practical implications

    To successfully capture the contextual and systemic nature of the customer experience, managers should apply interpretive approaches and actively involve selected customers as “experts of their experiences”. The study provides guidelines on how design methods can be combined and applied to a more holistic customer experience analysis.

    Originality/value

    The paper shows that design methods, when applied in a combined form, can support an analysis that captures both in-depth insights into the customer’s lifeworld and the complexity of value constellations.

1 - 32 of 32
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