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  • 1.
    Bozakov, Zdravko
    et al.
    Dell EMC, Ireland.
    Mangiante, Simone
    Dell EMC, Ireland.
    Hernandez Benet, Cristian
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Santos, Ricardo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Buckley, Donagh
    Dell EMC, Ireland.
    A NEAT framework for enhanced end-host integration in SDN environments2017In: 2017 IEEE Conference on Network Function Virtualization and Software Defined Networks (NFV-SDN), IEEE, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SDN aims to facilitate the management of increasingly complex, dynamic network environments and optimize the use of the resources available therein with minimal operator intervention. To this end, SDN controllers maintain a global view of the network topology and its state. However, the extraction of information about network flows and other network metrics remains a non-trivial challenge. Network applications exhibit a wide range of properties, posing diverse, often conflicting, demands towards the network. As these requirements are typically not known, controllers must rely on error-prone heuristics to extract them. In this work, we develop a framework which allows applications deployed in an SDN environment to explicitly express their requirements to the network. Conversely, it allows network controllers to deploy policies on end-hosts and to supply applications with information about network paths, salient servers and other relevant metrics. The proposed approach opens the door for fine grained, application-aware resource optimization strategies in SDNs

  • 2.
    Grinnemo, Karl-Johan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Bozakov, Zdravko
    Dell EMC.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Isabel Bueno, María
    Damjanovic, Dragana
    Mozilla.
    Rikter Evensen, Kristian
    Celerway.
    Fairhurst, Gorry
    University of Aberdeen, UK..
    Hansen, Audun
    Celerway.
    Hayes, David
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Hurtig, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Khademi, Naeem
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Mangiante, Simone
    Dell EMC.
    Mohideen, Althaff
    University of Aberdeen, UK..
    Rajiullah, Mohammad
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Ros, David
    Simula.
    Rüngeler, Irene
    FH Münster, Germany.
    Santos, Ricardo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Secchi, Raffaello
    University of Aberdeen, UK..
    Christian Tangenes, Tor
    Tüxen, Micheal
    FH Münster, Germany.
    Weinrank, Felix
    FH Münster, Germany.
    Welzl, Michael
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Deliverable D3.1 - Initial Report on the Extended Transport System2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The NEAT System offers an enhanced API for applications that disentangles them from the actual transport protocol being used. The system also enables applications to communicate their service requirements to the transport system in a generic, transport-protocol independent way. Moreover, the architecture of the NEAT System promotes the evolution of new transport services. Work Package 3 (WP3) enhances and extends the core parts of the NEAT Transport. Efforts have been devoted to developing transport-protocol mechanisms that enable a wider spectrum of NEAT Transport Services, and that assist the NEAT System in facilitating several of the commercial use cases. Work has also started on the development of optimal transport-selection mechanisms; mechanisms that enable for the NEAT System to make optimal transport selections on the basis of application requirements and network measurements. Lastly, another research activity has been initiated on how to use SDN to signal application requirements to routers, switches, and similar network elements. This document provides an initial report on all these WP3 activities—both on completed and on near-termplanned work.

  • 3.
    Koslowski, Konstantin
    et al.
    Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Inst, Germany.
    Santos, Ricardo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Keusgen, Wilhelm
    Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Inst, Germany.
    Haustein, Thomas
    Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Inst, Germany.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Sakaguchi, Kei
    Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan.
    Ogawa, Hiroaki
    Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan.
    Nakamura, Makoto
    Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan.
    Tao, Yu
    Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan.
    SDN Orchestration to Optimize Meshed Millimeter-Wave Backhaul Networks for MEC-enhanced eMBB Use Cases2018In: 2018 13th IEEE International Symposium on Broadband Multimedia Systems and Broadcasting (BMSB), IEEE, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel concept for enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB) communication using millimeter-wave radio technologies enhanced by mobile edge computing to support a new class of applications requiring low latency and high data rates at the same time. The concept developed in the joint European/Japanese collaboration project 5G-MiEdge [1] builds on meshed backhaul topologies using millimeter wave links with beam forming capabilities and smart routing units for dynamic route, link and power management to be orchestrated by SDN. It is shown that dynamic changes in the topology at run time can be realized without experiencing losses in latency or throughput.

  • 4.
    Mesodiakaki, Agapi
    et al.
    Department of Informatics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Zola, Enrica
    UPC-BarcelonaTECH, Barcelona, Spain.
    Santos, Ricardo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Optimal User Association, Backhaul Routing and Switching off in 5G Heterogeneous Networks with Mesh Millimeter Wave Backhaul Links2018In: Ad hoc networks, ISSN 1570-8705, E-ISSN 1570-8713, Vol. 78, p. 99-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Next generation, i.e., fifth generation (5G), cellular networks will provide a significant higher capacity per area to support the ever-increasing traffic demands. In order to achieve that, many small cells need to be deployed that are connected using a combination of optical fiber links and millimeter-wave (mmWave) backhaul architecture to forward heterogeneous traffic over mesh topologies. In this paper, we present a general optimization framework for the design of policies that optimally solve the problem of where to associate a user, over which links to route its traffic towards which mesh gateway, and which base stations and backhaul links to switch off in order to minimize the energy cost for the network operator and still satisfy the user demands. We develop an optimal policy based on mixed integer linear programming (MILP) which considers different user distribution and traffic demands over multiple time periods. We develop also a fast iterative two-phase solution heuristic, which associates users and calculates backhaul routes to maximize energy savings. Our strategies optimize the backhaul network configuration at each timeslot based on the current demands and user locations. We discuss the application of our policies to backhaul management of mmWave cellular networks in light of current trend of network softwarization (Software-Defined Networking, SDN). Finally, we present extensive numerical simulations of our proposed policies, which show how the algorithms can efficiently trade-off energy consumption with required capacity, while satisfying flow demand requirements.

  • 5.
    Santos, Ricardo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    5G Backhauling with Software-defined Wireless Mesh Networks2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Current technological advances have caused an exponential growth of the number of mobile Internet-connected devices, along with their respective traffic demands. To cope with this increase of traffic demands, fifth generation (5G) network architectures will need to provide multi-gigabit capacity at the access base stations (BSs), through the deployment of ultra-dense small cells (SCs) operating with millimeter-wave (mmWave) frequencies, e.g. 60 GHz. To connect the BSs to the core network, a robust and high capacity backhaul infrastructure is required. As it is unfeasible to connect all the SCs through optical fiber links, a solution for the future 5G backhaul relies on the usage of mmWave frequencies to interconnect the SCs, forming multi-hop wireless mesh topologies. In this thesis, we explore the application of the Software-defined Networking (SDN) paradigm for the management of a SC wireless backhaul. With SDN, the data and control planes are separated and the network management is done by a centralized controller entity that has a global network view. To that end, we provide multiple contributions. Firstly, we provide an SDN-based architecture to manage SC backhaul networks, which include an out-of-band Long Term Evolution (LTE) control channel and where we consider aspects such as energy efficiency, resiliency and flexible backhaul operation. Secondly, we demonstrate the benefit of the wireless backhaul configuration using the SDN controller, which can be used to improve the wireless resource allocation and provide resiliency mechanisms in the network. Finally, we investigate how a SC mesh backhaul can be optimally reconfigured between different topologies, focusing on minimizing the network disruption during the reconfiguration.

  • 6.
    Santos, Ricardo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Bozakov, Zdravko
    DELL EMC Research Europe, Ovens, Ireland.
    Mangiante, Simone
    DELL EMC Research Europe, Ovens, Ireland.
    Brunström, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    A NEAT framework for application-awareness in SDN environments2017In: 2017 IFIP Networking Conference (IFIP Networking) and Workshops, IEEE, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software-Defined Networking (SDN) has led to a paradigm shift in the way how networks are managed and operated. In SDN environments the data plane forwarding rules are managed by logically centralized controllers operating on global view of the network. Today, SDN controllers typically posses little insight about the requirements of the applications executed on the end-hosts. Consequently, they rely on heuristics to implement traffic engineering or QoS support. In this work, we propose a framework for application-awareness in SDN environments where the end-hosts provide a generic interface for the SDN controllers to interact with. As a result, SDN controllers may enhance the end-host’s view of the attached network and deploy policies into the edge of the network. Further, controllers may obtain information about the specific requirements of the deployed applications. Our demonstration extends the OpenDaylight SDN controller to enable it to interact with end-hosts running a novel networking stack called NEAT. We demonstrate a scenario in which the controller distributes policies and path information to manage bulk and low-latency flows. 

  • 7.
    Santos, Ricardo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Curadoo, Marilia
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Multipathing In Software Defined Networking: Interaction between SDN and MPTCP2015In: Proceedings of SWE-CTW 2015, May 27th – 29th, Karlstad, Sweden., 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Santos, Ricardo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Ghazzai, Hakim
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). Stevens Institute of Technology, USA.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Optimal Steerable mmWave Mesh Backhaul Reconfiguration2018In: 2018 IEEE GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONS CONFERENCE (GLOBECOM), IEEE, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future 5G mobile networks will require increased backhaul (BH) capacity to connect a massive amount of high capacity small cells (SCs) to the network. Because having an optical connection to each SC might be infeasible, mmWave-based (e.g. 60 GHz) BH links are an interesting alternative due to their large available bandwidth. To cope with the increased path loss, mmWave links require directional antennas that should be able to direct their beams to different neighbors, to dynamically change the BH topology, in case new nodes are powered on/off or the traffic demand has changed. Such BH adaptation needs to be orchestrated to minimize the impact on existing traffic.This paper develops a Software-defined networking-based framework that guides the optimal reconfiguration of mesh BH networks composed by mmWave links, where antennas need to be mechanically aligned.By modelling the problem as a Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP), its solution returns the optimal ordering of events necessary to transition between two BH network configurations. The model creates backup paths whenever it is possible, while minimizing the packet loss of ongoing flows. A numerical evaluation with different topologies and traffic demands shows that increasing the number of BH interfaces per SC from 2 to 4 can decrease the total loss by more than 50%. Moreover, when increasing the total reconfiguration time, additional backup paths can be created, consequently reducing the reconfiguration impact on existing traffic.

  • 9.
    Santos, Ricardo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT. Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    A SDN Controller Architecture for Small Cell Wireless Backhaul using a LTE Control Channel2016In: Proceedings of the IEEE WoWMoM, IEEE, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Santos, Ricardo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Small Cell Wireless Backhaul Reconfiguration Using Software-Defined Networking2017In: Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), 2017 IEEE, IEEE, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to increase the capacity of next generation mobile networks, network densification is a key aspect to provide better coverage and increased data rates to end users. Network operators are thinking to deploy wireless backhaul solutions to cut down cabling costs for connecting the small cell nodes. Consequently, the next generation mobile network architecture may contain a massive amount of small cells that are connected through wireless backhaul links, forming mesh or tree structures towards the core network, under the umbrella coverage of eNodeB type macro cells. In this paper, we use a Software-Defined Networking (SDN) based architecture for the operation and management of such small cell backhaul networks. By extending OpenFlow, the SDN controller is able to reconfigure not only the routing, but also the wireless backhaul configuration, such as channel assignment to backhaul links. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by using testbed measurements and show that, when using our SDN-based reconfiguration, the network downtime for existing traffic due to channel re-assignment is significantly reduced, when comparing to a distributed routing based approach. Moreover, by using SDN based fast-failover techniques, we can instantaneously redirect traffic to other neighbors when links fail or neighbors are powered down, without the need for controller interaction.

  • 11.
    Santos, Ricardo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Koslowski, Konstantin
    Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute, Germany.
    Daube, Julian
    Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute, Germany.
    Ghazzai, Hakim
    Stevens Institute of Technology, New Jersey.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Sakaguchi, Kei
    Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan.
    Haustein, Thomas
    Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute, Germany.
    mmWave Backhaul Testbed Configurability Using Software-Defined Networking2019In: Wireless Communications & Mobile Computing, ISSN 1530-8669, E-ISSN 1530-8677, p. 1-24, article id 8342167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future mobile data traffic predictions expect a significant increase in user data traffic, requiring new forms of mobile network infrastructures. Fifth generation (5G) communication standards propose the densification of small cell access base stations (BSs) in order to provide multigigabit and low latency connectivity. This densification requires a high capacity backhaul network. Using optical links to connect all the small cells is economically not feasible for large scale radio access networks where multiple BSs are deployed. A wireless backhaul formed by a mesh of millimeter-wave (mmWave) links is an attractive mobile backhaul solution, as flexible wireless (multihop) paths can be formed to interconnect all the access BSs. Moreover, a wireless backhaul allows the dynamic reconfiguration of the backhaul topology to match varying traffic demands or adaptively power on/off small cells for green backhaul operation. However, conducting and precisely controlling reconfiguration experiments over real mmWave multihop networks is a challenging task. In this paper, we develop a Software-Defined Networking (SDN) based approach to enable such a dynamic backhaul reconfiguration and use real-world mmWave equipment to setup a SDN-enabled mmWave testbed to conduct various reconfiguration experiments. In our approach, the SDN control plane is not only responsible for configuring the forwarding plane but also for the link configuration, antenna alignment, and adaptive mesh node power on/off operations. We implement the SDN-based reconfiguration operations in a testbed with four nodes, each equipped with multiple mmWave interfaces that can be mechanically steered to connect to different neighbors. We evaluate the impact of various reconfiguration operations on existing user traffic using a set of extensive testbed measurements. Moreover, we measure the impact of the channel assignment on existing traffic, showing that a setup with an optimal channel assignment between the mesh links can result in a 44% throughput increase, when compared to a suboptimal configuration.

  • 12.
    Santos, Ricardo
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Ogawa, Hiroaki
    Tokyo Institute of Technology.
    Khanh Tran, Gia
    Tokyo Institute of Technology.
    Sakaguchi, Kei
    Tokyo Institute of Technology.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Department of Computer Science. Karlstad University, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT, Centre for HumanIT.
    Turning the knobs on OpenFlow-based resiliency in mmWave small cell meshed networks2017In: Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps), 2017 IEEE: 5G Testbed, IEEE, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a solution to cope with the increase of wireless network traffic for future 5G networks, the IEEE 802.11ad standard enables multi-gigabit connectivity within the 60 GHz spectrum. Since these networks typically have low range, a vast number of small cells is required to form a wireless backhaul that can be easily affected by temporary failures due to blockage/interference. Software-defined Networking (SDN) is a paradigm that allows the centralization of the control plane management, which can be applied to mmWave wireless backhaul networks. Using SDN enables the possibility of having resilience mechanisms in the network, such as Fast-Failover (FF) group tables in the OpenFlow (OF) protocol. In this paper, we analyse resilient forwarding configurations upon temporary link failures. We perform our evaluation on a 4 small cell testbed with multiple IEEE 802.11ad interfaces, showing how OF-based resiliency can be applied, through FF and the Bidirectional-Forwarding Detection (BFD) protocol. Our results show how BFD can be tuned to improve the link state monitoring, and how a local reactive failover mechanism can benefit ongoing traffic in small cell meshed backhaul networks.

  • 13.
    Tran, Gia Khanh
    et al.
    Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan.
    Santos, Ricardo
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Ogawa, Hiroaki
    Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan.
    Nakamura, Makoto
    Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan.
    Sakaguchi, Kei
    Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan.
    Kassler, Andreas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (from 2013).
    Context-based dynamic meshed backhaul construction for 5G heterogeneous networks2018In: Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks, ISSN 2224-2708, Vol. 7, no 4, article id 43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Five-G heterogeneous network overlaid by millimeter-wave (mmWave) access employs mmWave meshed backhauling as a promising cost-efficient backhaul architecture. Due to the nature of mobile traffic distribution in practice which is both time-variant and spatially non-uniform, dynamic construction of mmWave meshed backhaul is a prerequisite to support the varying traffic distribution. Focusing on such scenario of outdoor dynamic crowd (ODC), this paper proposes a novel method to control mmWave meshed backhaul for efficient operation of mmWave overlay 5G HetNet through Software-Defined Network (SDN) technology. Our algorithm is featured by two functionalities, i.e., backhauling route multiplexing for overloaded mmWave small cell base stations (SC-BSS) and mmWave SC-BSS' ON/OFF status switching for underloaded spot. In this paper, the effectiveness of the proposed meshed network is confirmed by both numerical analyses and experimental results. Simulations are conducted over a practical user distribution modeled from measured data in realistic environments. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm can cope with the locally intensive traffic and reduce energy consumption. Furthermore, a WiGig (Wireless Gigabit Alliance certified) device based testbed is developed for Proof-of-Concept (PoC) and preliminary measurement results confirm the proposed dynamic formation of the meshed network's efficiency.

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