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  • 1.
    Enander, Ann
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Hede, Susanne
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Lajksjo, Örjan
    Försvarshögskolan.
    One cristis after another: Municipal experiences of severe storm in the shadow of the tsunami2009In: Disaster Prevention and Management, ISSN 0965-3562, E-ISSN 1758-6100, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 137-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical understanding of experiences of crisis management among municipal leaders Design/methodology/approach - A total of 16 chief officers and three politicians from three different municipalities were Interviewed concerning experiences of dealing with it severe storm Data were analyzed by a grounded theory approach Findings - Data analysis generated model Central to the model is all evaluation sphere, which reflects tension between everyday circumstances and crisis needs, between assessments of legislation and practices its it support or hindrance. and assessments of human vulnerability versus coping resources Manager characteristics, the societal context within which the event occurred, and crisis characteristics all Influence this evaluation sphere Particular stressors include the fact that the leaders themselves were personally affected by the storm, the difficult decisions and assessments that had to be made, the uncertainty of the situation and the timing, soon after the tsunami Crisis management, decisions and actions can be seen its formed from the evaluation sphere and the Influencing factors Research limitations/implications - The paper has a small sample and limited representativeness Generalizability of the model should be tested in other crisis events Practical implication - The model call be used its a tool to design exercises and its it guideline for authorities, in providing preparedness and crisis support Originality/value - The paper provides, a theoretical model highlighting the complex evaluations underlying managers' decisions and actions lit real-life situations

  • 2.
    Enander, Ann
    et al.
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Hede, Susanne
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Lajksjo, Örjan
    Försvarshögskolan.
    Why Worry?: Motivation for Crisis Preparedness Work among Municipal Leaders in Sweden2015In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of the responsibility for societal safety and crisis preparedness rests with local municipal leaders. These tasks are demanding, and often insufficiently prioritized and supported. The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing motivation to work with these issues, and to explore relationships among such factors. Two datasets, formed the basis of the analysis. From the qualitative analysis, a model was developed describing three main categories of motivational factors: person-related, organizational and activity-related. Actual crisis experience was found to influence factors in all three categories. Differences regarding motivational forces could be identified among different roles among officials. Self-determination theory is applied to the model, illustrating possible ways to influence motivation for work with preparedness issues.

  • 3.
    Hede, Susanne
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013).
    Crisis management: Psychological challenges for leaders2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    “I have my daily duties and then there are the crisis and risk issues in a kind of sideline track /.../ this area tends to be postponed until the summer when we have more time to address it.”

    This quotation is from an interview with a Swedish municipal leader. It suggests that everyday work and crisis management are seen as separate tasks. Other leaders, however, see crisis management as part of their regular duties and as integrated with their personal values. It is of interest how municipal leaders perceive crisis management as they will react and act on their perception.

    This thesis aims to gain knowledge about how leaders at the municipal level, holding the role as crisis manager, perceive and experience crisis management in the preparedness, acute, and post-crisis phases.

    The thesis demonstrates that psychological theories and concepts, especially motivational factors, are of importance for understanding the municipal leaders’ perceptions of their role as crisis manager as well as their challenges, and provides knowledge of value to crisis management development. 

  • 4.
    Hede, Susanne
    Karlstad University. Swedish Natl Def Coll, Dept Leadership & Management, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karlstad Univ, Karlstad, Sweden..
    Lull after the storm?: Municipal leaders reflect on multiple crisis experience2011In: Disaster Prevention and Management, ISSN 0965-3562, E-ISSN 1758-6100, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 281-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This paper aims to develop a theoretical understanding of how multiple crisis experience affects preparedness issues, and how the learning potential of municipal crisis experience can be developed. The focus is on municipal decision-makers. Design/methodology/approach - Two group interviews were conducted with a total of 13 municipal Chief Officers and Politicians. Data were analysed by a grounded theory approach. Findings - A theoretical model is presented, which includes both managers' views on their experiences related to preparedness and how development/revision of crisis can be explained. Experiences are not entirely positive or negative. Managers have developed a good preparedness in some aspects but they are also conscious about shortcomings in their preparedness. The model includes: level one, primary assessments, including strengths and limitations; and level two, reflection, where difficult choices and dilemmas faced are recalled, and future concerns are expressed. Research limitations/implications - The sample is small and range of experience is limited, since both municipalities studied have been fairly successful in their crisis management. Practical implications - The findings can be used to develop evaluation and application of crisis experience by individuals and in the crisis management system, and to develop exercises. Originality/value - The empirical data resulting from this study show the complexity in crisis experience, the need for better evaluation and the value of group reflection in evaluation.

  • 5.
    Hede, Susanne
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies (from 2013). Department of Security, Strategy, and Leadership, Swedish Defence University, Sweden.
    Perceptions of crisis preparedness and motivation: A study among municipal leaders2017In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 95, p. 83-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for communities to be prepared for a wide variety of critical events places considerable responsibility on local municipal leaders. However, few studies have examined how these leaders themselves view crisis, preparedness issues. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that contribute to three aspects of preparedness among municipal leaders: perceived municipal preparedness, perceived individual preparedness and motivation for preparedness work. Six hypotheses were formulated. The research questions were investigated using data from a questionnaire sent out to all Swedish municipalities (N = 290) and four categories of municipal leaders respectively (N = 1101). The response rate was 67%. Data were analyzed by linear regression and logistic regression. Different factors predicted the three outcome variables, which indicates different mental concepts. The hypotheses were partly supported and the results are discussed using self-efficacy theory. The findings have implications for understanding perceived preparedness and motivation, and can be used to e.g. develop crisis management exercises.(C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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